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Denmark

islands, jutland, east, land, west, north and coast

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DENMARK (Danish, Danmark), northern kingdom of Europe, between lat. 54° 40' and 57° 45' N., and long. 8° 4' and 12° 45' E. It is composed of a peninsular portion and an extensive archipelago, lying east of it, with a few scattered islands on its west side; and is bounded north by the Skager Rack, which sep arates it from Norway; northeast and east by the Cattegat and Sound, which separates it from Sweden; east and south by the Baltic; south by the duchy of Schleswig, and west by the German Ocean or North Sea. The penin sular portion is composed of Jutland and meas ures, north to south, 185 miles with a breadth from 40 to 108 miles— its broadest part being from Formes Point, lat. 56° 26' 42" N., on the east coast, to Nissum Fiord on the west coast. The numerous islands lying east of Jutland are mainly comprised in two groups: first, that of Sjalland, Seeland or Zealand, in cluding, besides the large island of that name, the small adjoining islands east of the Great Belt, the principal of which are Amager, Lang8e, Tarde, Masnedoe, Agersoe, Lolland or Laaland, Falster and Moen, and second, the Fiinen or Fyen group, comprising, besides the large island of that name, the neighboring is lands west of the Great Belt, including Lange land, Acroe, Fanoe, Taasinge and others. Be sides these, there are the outlying islands of Lessee and Anholt, in the Cattegat, and Born holm in the Baltic.

Besides these territories, Denmark possesses the Faroe Islands and Iceland, in the north Atlantic Ocean; Greenland, in the Arctic re gions.

Copenhagen is the capital, and among the towns of importance are Aarhuus, Odensee and Aalborg.

The following table gives the main of the country, with their area and population, as well as the total area and population of the whole monarchy, according to the latest enumeration: Previous to 1864 the duchies of Schleswig Holstein and Lauenburg belonged to Denmaric, so that the area of the kingdom was then greater by about 7,360 square miles, the cor-' responding population being more than a! million.

Geology and General Denmark is a very low-lying country, there being no eleva tion of any consequence throughout the whole kingdom. The greatest height is attained on the

eastern side of the peninsula, though even there it never exceeds 550 feet. In respect of geo logical structure all the rocks belong to the upper series of the Secondary, and to the Ter tiary formation, and have been deposited from water in regular strata. The rock most fully developed is the chalk, of which several dis tinct species have been recognized. The whole west coast is rendered almost uninhabitable by the drift-sand, which has formed an almost' uninterrupted line of sterile downs, Klittes, extending from Cape Skagen to Blaavands Hook, a distance of nearly 200 miles. Along parts of the coast of Jutland are exten sive flats or plains, which have been wrested from the sea, and which are protected from its encroachments by huge dykes, as in Holland.

Rivers, Lakes, Ports, etc.— Denmark has no large rivers; the principal is the Guden Aa, which is navigable for part of its course. Less important streams are the Holm Aa, the Ltinborg Aa and the Stor Aa. All the others are insignificant streams. There are no rivers in any of the islands, but brooks and streamlets abound. There are, a number of lakes, particularly in Jutland, and several in the' larger islands; but they are all small. The most remarkable of the physical features of Den mark are its lagoons or fiords, winding inlets of the sea, that penetrate far into the land. The largest of these is the Lymfiord or Liim Fiord, in Jutland, which entering the land in Cattegat, winds its way quite through the peninsula and is separated from the North Sea merely by a narrow strip of land which storms have ruptured in one or two places. Most of the streams, lakes and coasts of the kingdom are well stocked with fish. Besides these in land seas, the Great Belt separates the large ' islands of Seeland and Fiinen and the Little' Belt flows between the latter and the coast of Jutland and Schleswig. Denmark is well sup plied with excellent seaports, the most im portant being Copenhagen, Aalborg, Aarthuus and Randers.

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