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Disease
Disease, P. 399.) The Tests For Albumin In The Urine Have Been Mentioned On The Preceding Page. Polyuria (diabetes Insipidus) Is A Disease Characterized By The Passage Of Large Quantities Of Urine Of Low Specific Gravity (1001 To 1010), And Without The Presence Of Albumin Or Other Unhealthy Constituent. It ...

Diseases Of Muscle
Diseases Of Muscle. Wasting (atrophy, Greek A, Not, And Tre Pho, I Nourish) May Arise In Muscle From Changes In The Nourishment Of The Part, From Want Of Exercise, Or From A Nervous Disease. Thus An Arm That Has Been Kept Up For Sonic Weeks In Splints Because Of Fracture ...

Diseases Of Tendons And
Diseases Of Tendons And Bursae. Simple Inflammation Is Liable To Attack Tendons As The Result Of A Sprain, Or Owing To Gout Or Rheumatism, Their Synovial Sheaths Being Also Attacked. The Disease May Be Manifested Only By Wearing Rheumatic Pains, Accompanied, In Some Cases, By A Creaking Feeling When The ...

Diseases Of Veins And
Diseases Of Veins And Capillaries. Inflammation Of Veins (phlebitis, Greek, Phleps, A Vein).—veins May Be Inflamed Owing To Injury, Or In Consequence Of Dilatation (vari Cose Veins), Or Some Unhealthy Condition Of Blood, Or Because Of The Formation Of A Clot (thrombus, See Above) Within Them. Even If A Clot ...

Diseases Of The Abdominal
Diseases Of The Abdominal Cavity And Walls. Peritonitis.---there Has Been Mentioned On P. 189 The Delicate Membrane Which Lines The Wall Of The Belly Within, And Clothes The Intes Tines. It Is Called The Peritoneum, And It Is Subject To Inflammation, Which Is Called Peri Tonitis. It Is Caused By ...

Diseases Of The Bladder
Diseases Of The Bladder. Inflammation Of The Bladder (cystitis) Is Of The Nature Of Catarrh (p. 214), In Which The Lining Membrane Of The Bladder Becomes Congested And Swollen And Pours Out Mucus. Breaches In The Mucous Membrane May Occur, Leading To Ulceration, Blood May Escape From Con Gested Vessels, ...

Diseases Of The Blood
Diseases Of The Blood. In The Immediately Preceding Section An Effort Has Been Made To Emphasize The Fact That The Condition Of The Blood Is Affected In Two Ways: (1) By What Is Added To It, And (2) By What Is Taken From It. It Has Been Pointed Out That ...

Diseases Of The Eyeball
Diseases Of The Eyeball. The Cornea Or Transparent Window Of The Eyeball Is Most Liable To Disease, To Inflamma Tion, &c. It Is Plain How Serious Such Affections May Be. For, If They Involve The Cornea To Any Extent, Seeing Is At Once Interfered With, And Sight May Be Practically ...

Diseases Of The Eyelids
Diseases Of The Eyelids. Skin Affections Of The Eyelids.—like The Rest Of The Covering Of The Body The Eyelids Are Liable To Various Skin Affections. These Are Sufficiently Discussed In Section Xxi. One Only Need Be Mentioned Here. It Consists Of An Eruption Of Blebs, Filled With Clear Fluid At ...

Diseases Of The Liver
Diseases Of The Liver. Congestion Of The Liver.—the Structure•of The Liver Has Been Described At Page 200, And The Way In Which It Is Permeated With Blood Vessels Has Been Noted. Normally The Liver Contains About One-fourth Part Of The Total Amount Of Blood In The Body. It Can Be ...

Diseases Of The Lungs
Diseases Of The Lungs. Inflammation Of The Lungs (pneumonia). —this Form Of Inflammation Of The Respiratory Organs Attacks Specially The Air-cells Of The Lungs, The Lung Substance Itself. A Description Of The Regular Form Will Enable One To Under Stand The Nature Of The Disease. The Blood-vessels Of The Affected ...

Diseases Of The Newly Born
Diseases Of The Newly-born. Ulceration Or Bleeding At The Navel.— If The Bleeding Be From The Attached Piece Of Cord It Should Be Tied A Second Time, Nearer The Belly. This May Occur Some Hours After Birth Because The Cord Has Been Improperly Tied. The Clothing Should Be Immediately Undone ...

Diseases Of The Ovaries
Diseases Of The Ovaries. Inflammation Of The Ovaries And Ovarian Pain (neuralgia).—inflammatory Diseases Of The Ovaries Are Not Easily Separated From Similar Affections Of Neighbouring Parts. Moreover, The Ovaries Share In Disorders Of The Womb And In Diseases Of Parts In Their Neighbourhood, The Removal Of Which Will Usually Be ...

Diseases Of The Rectum
Diseases Of The Rectum And Anus. Fissure Of The Anus Is An Extremely Painful Affection Caused By A Small Crack Or Ulcer. The Pain On Passing The Motions Is Intense, And Lasts For A Considerable Time Afterwards. The Crack Or Fissure May Be Very Trifling, But Is Just Within The ...

Diseases Of The Spinal
Diseases Of The Spinal Cord. Has Been Pointed Out (p. 137) That The Spinal Cord Consists, Like The Brain, Of White And Gray Nervous Matter, Arranged In A Particular Way, And Enveloped In Membranes. It Too Has Its Supply Of Blood For Its Growth And Vigour. The Cord, Consequently, Will ...

Diseases Of The Stomach
Diseases Of The Stomach. In No Department Of Medicine Has Greater Progress Been Made In Recent Years Than In That Dealing With The Stomach And Bowels And Their Disorders. One Result Of This Has Been The Production Of Huge Volumes Dealing With The Subject At Greater Length Than Was Formerly ...

Diseases Of The Tear
Diseases Of The Tear Apparatus. Obstruction Of The Tear P. 447 The Nature Of The Apparatus For Carry Ing Off The Tears Has Been Described. The Canals In The Inner Portions Of The Lids Are Narrow, And The Opening On The Edge Of The Lid Small. They Are, Therefore, Very ...

Diseases Of The Vaginal
Diseases Of The Vaginal Passage. Inflammation Extending, That Is, Beyond The Mere Entrance, Up Into The Canal, Is Called Properly Vagi N Itis. Its Cause May Be Very Various—want Of Cleanliness, Irritation Of Worms Which Have Passed Up The Canal From The Bowel, The Pre Sence Of Foreign Bodies, Such ...

Disinfection
Disinfection. It Has Been Shown That Infectious Diseases Are Communicated From A Sick Person To A Healthy Person By Material Thrown Off From The Body Of The Sick Person, The Active Part Of The Material Being Probably Some Form Of Living Organism. It Has Been Seen That The Poisonous Material ...

Dislocation Of The Lower
Dislocation Of The Lower Jaw. The Movements Of The Lower Jaw In Chewing, Yawning, And Laughing Cause Its Articulating Processes To Move Forwards In The Socket Of The Joint, And It Is By Spasm Of Certain Muscles During These Movements That The Bone May Be Jerked So Far Forwards As ...

Dislocation Of The Spine
Dislocation Of The Spine. The Displacement Of One Vertebra From It Position On Another Is Seldom Effected Withou Fracture, Except In The Region Of The Neck. I The Neck Dislocation May Occur Between The Axi And The Atlas (p.61). It Has Been Pointed Out (se P. 61) That The Odontoid ...

Dislocations At The Ankle Joint
Dislocations At The Ankle-joint. The Lower End Of The Shin And Clasp Bones To Gether Form A Sort Of Arch Which Embraces The Surface Of The Bone Of The Foot Called Astragalus Or Ankle-bone (fig. 27, P. 64). The Tibia On The Inside And The Fibula On The Outside Have ...

Dislocations At The Elbow Joint
Dislocations At The Elbow-joint. 'the Two Bones Radius And Ulna May Be Dislocated Together, Or One Of Them Separately. When Both Are Together The Dislocation May Be Backwards, Or Forwards, Or To One Side Or Other. The Ulna May Be Displaced Backwards Alone And The Radius Forwards Alone. Some Of ...

Dislocations At The Knee Joint
Dislocations At The Knee-joint. The Bones That Form The Knee-joint Have Been Noted On P. 63. It Is To Be Remembered That The Joint Is Formed By The Lower Articulating Processes, Or Condyles, Of The Hip-bone, And The Surface Of The Head Of The Tibia, That Between These Two There ...

Dislocations Of The
Dislocations Of The (femur). Considering The Depth Of The Socket In Which The Head Of The Thigh-bone Moves, And The Powerful Muscles By Which It Is Surrounded, This Bone Is Dislocated With Great Frequency. This Is, Doubtless, Because Of The Great Range Of Movement Permitted By The Joint And The ...

Dislocations Of The Bones
Dislocations Of The Bones Of The Foot. Dislocation Of A Tarsal The For Mer Dislocation The Astragalus Was Separated From The Bones Of The Leg, But It May Retain Its Connection With The Leg-bones And Be Separated From The Other Bones Of, The Foot, From The Heel Bone With Which ...

Dislocations Of The Head
Dislocations Of The Head Of The Arm-bone (humerus). The Head Of The Humerus In Its Natural Posi Tion Rests In The Glenoid Cavity (p. 62) Of The Scapula Immediately Under The Acromion Pro Cess (see Fig. 20, P. 61). It May Be Dislocated In Three Directions; (i) Downwards, Below The ...

Dislocations Of The Thumb
Dislocations Of The Thumb And Fingers. Dislocations Of The Thumb Are Not Infre Quent, Because Of The Liability Of The Thumb To Injury From Falls. The Common Form Is Back Wards, But Dislocation Forwards May Occur. The Thumb Consists Of Three Bones—the Metacarpal, Connected With The Bones Of The Wrist, ...

Disorders Of The Monthly
Disorders Of The Monthly Illness (menstruation). Absence Of' The Monthly Illness (a M E N Or R Hcea). —strictly Speaking, The Term Amen Orrhcea, Meaning Want Of The Monthly Discharge, Is Only Applied To Those Cases Where The Monthly Illness Has Never Appeared At Any Time. It Is, However, Also ...

Displacements Of The Womb
Displacements Of The Womb. Displacements Of The Womb Are Exceedingly Common, Commoner Than Is Generally Supposed, Frequently Existing Without Giving Rise To Any Marked Symptoms. At The Same Time The Dis Placement May Give Rise To Many And Pro Nounced Symptoms, Which No Treatment Does Anything To Relieve Except That ...

Disturbances Due To Pressure
Disturbances Due To Pressure. Bladder Troubles.—such Disturbances Are Frequent In The Course Of The Child-carrying Period, And Specially, As Might Be Expected, Towards The End Of The Period. The Bladder Is Peculiarly Apt To Be Pressed Upon, And Fre Quent Passing Of Water, Pain In The Act, Or Difficulty In ...

Dropsy
Dropsy In The Discussion Of The Features Of Inflam Mation, Continual Reference Has Been Made To The Cells That Escape From The Blood-vessels Of The Inflamed Region And To The Fluid Which Exudes From The Over-full Vessels. To These Cir Cumstances, It Has Been Pointed Out, Is Due In Large ...

Enlargement Of
Enlargement Of Burs/e. It Has Been Pointed Out (p. 119) That Synovial Sacs Occur Between Bony Prominences And The Skin To Prevent Undue Pressure. In The Case Of The Knee-pan There Is A Sac Both Hetween It And The Skin And Between It And The Knee-joint. The Bursa In Front ...

Epithelium
Epithelium. Cells Are Associated And Combined In Various Ways To Form Simple Tissues. Such A Simple Tissue Is Called An Epithelium, And The Cells Are Called Epithelial Cells. The Cells Are United Together By A Very Small Amount Of A Cement Substance. The Cells Forming An Epithelium May Be Globular, ...

Face Muscles Of The
Muscles Of The Head, Face, And Neck. Various Thin Muscles Are Disposed In The Fore Part Of The Head And Scalp (p1. X., Fig. 1), By Which The Brows Can Be "knitted," And The Scalp Moved To A Small Extent. Several Small Muscles Are Attached To The Back Of The ...

Fever After Childbirth
Fever After Childbirth Milk The Third Day After De Livery The Rush Of Milk To The Breasts Becomes Usually Very Marked, And Is Frequently At Tended By Considerable Disturbance, Feverish Ness, Quick Pulse, And Headache. The Breasts Are Very Full, And May Be Hard, And Markedly Knotted And Painful. This ...

Flooding
Flooding. This Is The Ordinary Term Applied To Profuse Loss Of Blood From The Pregnant Womb. It May Occur Either Before The Period Of Confine Ment Or Afterwards. Of Course Loss Of Blood Occurs In Abortion, But It Is Attended Usually By The Pains, Which Indicate What Is Going On. ...

Fracture
Fracture. General Considerations.— A Fracture Is A Break In A Hone. Its Causes Are Of Two Kinds—predisposing And Exciting. Predisposing Causes Include The Age And Sex Of The Patient. In Youth The Animal Matter Abounds, So That Bending Is More Likely To Occur Than Breaking. In Old Age The Mineral ...

Fractures Of Bones Of
Fractures Of Bones Of The Face. Fracture Of The Nasal Bones Is Frequently Produced By Blows Or Falls. The Swelling And Discoloration Are Likely To Be Great, And Depres Sion Of The Tones Will Usually Indicate The Frac Ture, The Bridge Of The Nose Being Broken Down. There May Be ...

Fractures Of The Bones
Fractures Of The Bones Of The Upper Extremity. Fracture Of The Collar-bone (clavicle). This Is A Very Common Fracture, The Most Common, Indeed, With One Exception—that Of The Radius, And Is Most Frequently Due To Indirect Violence, Such As A Fall On The Shoulder. It May Be Caused By Direct ...

Fractures Of The Ribs
Fractures Of The Ribs And Bone. Fracture Of The Ribs.—the Ribs May Be Broken Directly By A Blow, Which Is Apt To Drive The Fragments Inwards To The Injury Of The Lungs. Pressure On The Body, As, For Instance, That Caused By A Man Being Caught And Crushed, Say Between ...

Fractures Of The Skull
Fractures Of The Skull. Fractures Of The Bones Of The Skull Are, As A Rule, So Difficult Of Detection And Require Such Skilful Treatment That A Surgeon's Advice And Attention Are Always Necessary. A Brief Refer Ence, Therefore, Is All That Is Required Here. The Usual Places For Fractures Of ...

Fractures Of The Spine
Fractures Of The Spine. The Spinal Column May Be Broken By Indirect Or Direct Violence. A Heavy Weight, Such As A Sack Of Flour, Falling On A Man's Neck And Shoulders May Break The Back Some Distance Down. Again, A Man Has Been Known To Be Sitting On The Branch ...

Functions Of Nerve Cells
Functions Of Nerve Cells And Fibres. The Functions Of Nerve Cells And Fibres Are Different. The Cell Is A Highly Active Mass Of Living Material; And It Draws Nourishment From The Blood, Supplied To It In Abundance. That Nourishment Not Only Keeps The Cell Living, But Is To Be Considered ...

Functions Of The Spinal
Functions Of The Spinal Cord And Spinal Nerves. From What Has Been Already Said, We Under Stand That The Spinal Cord Consists Of (1) A Series Of Ganglionic Masses Of Nerve-cells, Each Regn Biting, By Reflex Action Through Their Related Afferent Or Sensory And Efferent Or Motor Nerve Fibres, The ...

Functions Of The Various
Functions Of The Various Parts Of The Brain. The Functions Of The Cerebral Hemi Spheres Have Been Already Indicated. They Are Associated With Mental Phenomena—feeling, Thinking, And Willing, And With All Conscious States. They Are The Seat Of Intelligence. An Animal Deprived Of The Cerebral Hemispheres Is Only A Very ...

General Signs Of Disease
General Signs Of Disease In Children Much May Be Learned As To The State Of Health Of A Person By Examining The Face, Eyes, Month, And Various Parts Of The Body ; But In Dealing With Children, Who Cannot Express Their Feelings, This Examination Becomes Of Very Great Impor Tance. ...

General Symptoms Of Insanity
General Symptoms Of Insanity. Probably The First Thing Noticed About A Per Son Whose Mind Is Becoming Affected Is Some Change In The State Of Feeling, Some Depression Or Elevation. Under This Change The Person Becomes Restless, Morose, Sad, Mirthless, In Different, Irritable, Or Reckless And Extrava Gantly Joyous And ...

General Treatment Of Children
General Treatment Of Children In Disease. When A Child Is Suspected Or Seen To Be Unwell There Are Certain Steps That Ought To Be Taken At Once, No Matter What May Be The Nature Of The Illness, Steps Which, If Taken Immediately, Will, In Many Cases, Be Able To Convert ...

Glanders And Farcy
Glanders And Farcy. Glanders And Farey Are Diseases Of The Horse And Of Animals Of The Same Species. They May Be Communicated To Man By The Discharge From The Nostrils Of The Diseased Animals. It Is, However, Rare In Man. The Organism Causing It Has Been Discovered ; And From ...

Gravel Or Stone Renal
Gravel Or Stone: Renal Colic: Dropsy Of The Kidney. Gravel Or Stone (renal Calculus, Latin, Ren, A Kidney, Calx, Chalk). The Urine Contains Certain Substances In Solution, Whose Natural Condition Is That Of A Solid, And Which, Under Certain Circumstances, Tend To Separate Out And, Assuming The Solid Form, Appear ...

Hair The Care Of
The Care Of The Skin, Hair, And Nails, The Chief Aid To A Healthy Skin Is Cleanliness. The Surface Cells Of The Scarf-skin Are Continu Ally Being Shed Or Rubbed Off In Minute Masses, Which Are Held Together By The Oily Fluid Exud Ing From The Sebaceous And Sweat Glands ...

Hair The Skin
The Skin, Hair, And Nails. The Diseases Of The Skin Are Numerous, And Many Of Them Are Troublesome. The Structure Of The Skin, As Indicated In Section Xx, Is Comparatively Complicated. The True Skin Itself Is Supplied With Blood-vessels And Nerves, And Is Therefore Liable To Various Forms Of Inflamma ...

Headache And Giddiness
Headache And Giddiness. Headache (cephalalgia) Is Extremely Com Mon, And Is Of So Many Different Kinds And Arising From So Many Different Causes That One Treatment For All Is Impossible. It May Be A Symptom Of A Disease, Rather Than A Disease In Itself. For Example, It Is One Of ...