A. Engelman hi. Engelmann's Spruce. Rocky moun taine. 'Phis species is found on higher parte of the Rocky mountains, from New Mexico to the headwaters of the Columbia and Missouri rivers. Iu Colorado, it t.ccu pies a belt between 8,000 and 12,000 feet, reaching its development between 9,000 and 10,000 feet. On the high est summits, it becomes a prostrate shrub. Mr. Ward, writing of the tree in Utah. says : Between 9,000 and 10,000 feet altitude it becomes a large and noble tree, and is of the greatest value for lumber, taking the place in that region of the White Pine of the Eastern States, and is alone known by that name among lumbermen. The wood ie white, very light, and easily worked, and at the seine time durahle Botanically. it is difficult to distinguish it from some forms of A. dienziesii.
A. a. Balsam. New England to Wisconsin. This species grows in cold, damp woods and swamps, from New England to Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and northward. It is also a native of Canada and Nova Scotia. It gene rally grows about twenty to forty feet high. It is a very popular ornamental tree. A very aromatic liquid resin is obtained from this tree by incisions made in the bark, and is called Canada Balsam.
A. sub Sub-alpine Baleam. Rocky Mountains. This is one of the tallest and bands firs of the It mountains, ufteu attaining a height of eighty or ninety feet; perfectly straight, and without limbs for a great distance. The wood le white, soft, and of little value for lumber. It is known among the lumbermen of the Wa satch mouutaine as White Balsam, or Pumpkin-tree. Ito nearest affinity is to A. bal•amea of the Eastern states. It reaches to great altitudes, being sometimes found near the timber-line. It has often bet u collected, and generally referred to A. grandis, the incorrectness of which has been but lately pointed out by Dr. Engelmann, who has proposed for it the name given above.
A. grandis. White Silver Fir. California and Oregon. This name is here applied to the tree of the Pacific coast. ln Oregon, Sir. Dufur says, it grows on the low, moist land, along the small streams emptying into the Columbia river. la seldom found at an elevation of more than 50u feet, and never on sandy or gravelly ridges. It attains a size of from two to four feet in diameter, and 200 feet in height. It hae a light-colored, thin, smooth bark. It is a rapid grower, and the timber decays correepoudingly fast w hen exposed to the wet. The wood is white, free and soft, but
too light and brittle for general building purposes. It is used for clapboards, boxes, and cooperage.
A. con, olor. White Silver Fir. Rocky Mountains. In, the Wasatch mountains in Utah this tree is very valuable for lumher, and is called Black Balsam It is them e a large tree, sometimes three or four feet in diameter and forty to fifty feet high. The wood is tough and coarse-grained, adapting it for building purposes and all substantial uses. It ranges from 8,000 to 9,000 feet in altitude. ( Ward.) • In southern Utah it is sometimes called Black Gum.
A. amabilis. Red Silver Fir. California and Oregon. Mr. Lemmon states, On the Sierra Nevada mountains, it forms dense, scattered groves, at altitudes of 7,000 to 10,000 feet. The largest trees are 250 feet high and six to ten feet in diameter. A truly beautiful and magnificent tree, sometimes called the Queen of the Forest. Mr. altar says it is found extensively along the western slope of the Cascade mountains, on sandy, gravelly, rocky, and dry elevations. Its usual size is from 150 to 200 feet in height, and from o e to four feet in diameter. The wood is rather coarse, hut elastic, st•ong, and bard. It is used extensively for cnarse building purposes, and also for masts and spare fur ship building. The wood has a pecn li r, d c for, amid spikes, nails, and bolts hold firm and never corrode in the timber.
A. Prageri. Frazer's Balsam. Alleghany Mountains. This species inhabits the highest parts of the Atte_ hanies in North Carolina. It is said u be a small twenty to fifty feet in height. The cones resemble those of A. notalis in miniature.
A. Nabitis. The Noble Fir. Oregon. This is one of the magnificent conifers of our country. It is a majestic tree, forming vast forests on tire mountains of Northern California and Oregon. The Indians give it the name of Big Tree. The timber is said to he of excellent quality. It is nearly related to A. Frazeri, but has cones five times a, large.
A. bracteata. Bracted-coned Spruce. Oregon. This spe cies grows on the higher mountains of Oregon. It was also found by Dr. Coulter in Southern California. It is Lttle known. The cones are very curious and remarkable, being handsomely fringed by long leaf-like bracts, entirely different from those of airy other species.