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A L D R
Aldringer (altringer, A L D R I N G E N), Johann, Count Von (i Austrian Soldier, Was Born At Diedenhofen (thionville) In Lorraine. He Had Behind Him 25 Years' Service In The Spanish Army When He Returned To Germany In 1631. He Served After Breitenfeld As Tilly's Artillery Com ...

Aabenraa
Aabenraa, A Town Of Denmark, In Slesvig, At The Head Of A Bay Of That Name, Being An Arm Of The Little Belt. It Has A Good Harbour And A Large Carrying Trade. Pop. (193o) 8,817. Until 1919 It Was In The German Province Of Schleswig. ...

Aachen
Aachen (fr. Aix-la-chapelle; Dutch Aken), Ancient City And Spa, Rhenish Prussia, Germany, Under The Northern Slopes Of The Ardennes, On The Cologne-brussels Main Line, 44m. W. By S. Of Cologne. Pop. (1933) 162,99o. Its Municipal Boundaries Co Incide On The West With The Frontiers Of Belgium And Holland. In General ...

Aal
Aal, Also Known As Al, Ach, Or Aich, The Hindustani Names For The Morinda Tinctoria And Morinda Citrifolia, Plants Exten Sively Cultivated In India On Account Of The Reddish Dye-stuff Which Their Roots Contain. The Name Is Also Applied To The Dye, But The Common Trade Name Is Suranji. Its ...

Aalborg
Aalborg, Seaport On The South Bank Of The Limfjord, North Jutland, Denmark, Capital Of Aalborg Amt, And One Of Den Mark's Oldest Towns. Pop. (1930), It Is The Seat Of A Bishop And Has Some Old Buildings, Jens Bangs Stenhus, The Castle Called Aalborghus, The Holy Ghost Monastery And The ...

Aalen
Aalen, A Town In Wurttemberg, Germany, Situated On The Kocher, A Tributary Of The Neckar, At The Foot Of The Swabian Alps, About Som. E. Of Stuttgart. Pop. (1933) 12,703. Woollen And Linen Goods And Ribbons Are Manufactured, And There Are Tanneries And Large Iron Works. Aalen Was A Free ...

Aalesund
Aalesund, Seaport Of Norway, In More Fylke (county), 16om. N. By E. Of Bergen By Sea. Pop. (1930) 18,373. It Is Built On Three Islands, Norv0, Asp0 And Hissen, Enclosing The Harbour. Founded In 1824, Aalesund Is One Of The Most Important Export Towns Of Norway For Fish And Fish ...

Aalsmeer
Aalsmeer, A Town In The Province Of North Holland, Holland, Situated In Low Country About Tom. S.w. Of Amsterdam. Pop. (1930) 8,567. It Has Railway Communication With Haarlem And Utrecht. The Flat Country With Its Fertile Sandy Soil, Which Can Be Easily Watered, Provides Ideal Conditions For Horticulture, And The ...

Aar Or Aare
Aar Or Aare, The Largest River Entirely Within Switzerland. It Rises In The Great Aar Glaciers, In The Canton Of Berne, West Of The Grimsel Pass. Beyond The Handegg Waterfall The River Traverses The Hasli Thal And Expands Into The Lake Of Brienz, Where It Becomes Navigable. It Then Crosses ...

Aarau
Aarau, The Capital Of The Swiss Canton Of Aargau. Pop. (1930), 11,666, Mostly German-speaking Protestants. It Is On The Right Bank Of The Aar At The Southern Foot Of The Jura, About 5om. By Rail North-east Of Berne, And 31m. North-west Of Zurich. An Ancient Fortress, It Was Taken By ...

Aard Vark
Aard-vark (ard' Vark), "earth-pig," The Dutch Name For Ant-eating Mammals Of The Genus Orycteropus, Confined To Africa (see Edentata). The Typical Form Is 0. Capensis, Or Cape-ant Bear From South Africa ; The Northern Aard-vark (0. Aethio Picus) Of North-eastern Africa, Extends Into Egypt. The Body Is Stout, With Arched ...

Aard Wolf
Aard-wolf (earth-wolf ), A South And East African Car Nivorous Mammal (proteles Cristatus), Like A Small Striped Hyena, But With A More Pointed Muzzle, Sharper Ears, And A Long Erectile Mane. It Is Burrowing In Habit, And Sometimes Attacks Lambs. ...

Aargau
Aargau, A Canton Of North Switzerland, Comprising The Lower Course Of The River Aar (q.v.), Whence Its Name. Its Total Area Is 548sq.m. It Forms The North-eastern Section Of The Great Swiss Plateau Which Occupies The Trough Between The Alps And The Jura. Its Fertile Valleys Alternate With Pleasantly-wooded Hills. ...

Aarhus
Aarhus, Seaport And Second City Of Denmark, Capital Of Aarhus Amt, East Coast Of Jutland, On Aarhus Bay. Pop. (1930) 81,279. It Was A District Of Prehistoric Settlement And Has Five Runic Stones Of The Loth-11th Century A.d. It Is First Mentioned As A Town In The 12th Century, Since ...

Aaron
Aaron, The Traditional Founder And Head Of The Jewish Priesthood, Who, In Company With Moses, Led The Israelites Out Of Egypt (see Exodus, The; Moses). His Association With Moses In This Matter Goes Back To An Ancient Tradition, Current In North Ern Israel, Though The Records Derived From The South ...

Aarons Rod
Aaron's Rod, The Popular Name Given To Various Tall Flowering Plants Such As Garden Orpine, Or Live-for-ever, Great Mullein And Goldenrod. In Architecture The Term Is Given To An Ornamental Rod With Sprouting Leaves, Or Sometimes With A Serpent Entwined Round It (from The Biblical References In Exodus Vii. 10 ...

Aasvogel
Aasvogel, The Name By Which The South African Species Of Vultures Are Known. Literally It Means "carrion-bird." "a" Battery, A Battery Which Provides Heating Current For The Filament Of A Vacuum Tube (see Thermionic Valve). ...

Ababda
Ababda, A Nomad Tribe Of Arabs Who Reach Northward To The Kena-kusayr Road, In The Country East Of Luxor Diran, Aswan And The Northern Atbai. They Call Themselves "sons Of The Jinns," And They Are The Gebadei Of Pliny And Probably The Troglodytes Of Classical Writers. From Time Immemorial They ...

Abaca Or Abaka
Abaca Or Abaka, A Native Name For The Plant Musa Textilis, Which Produces The Fibre Called Manila Hemp (q.v.). ...

Abacus
Abacus, An Early Device For Tracing Numerals On A Dust Covered Board. There Have Been Three Standard Types : A Board Covered With Dust, Whence The De Rivation, Or, At A Later Period, With Wax, And Serving The Same Purpose As A Slate In The 19th Century Or As The ...

Abacus_2
Abacus, In Architecture, The Upper Member Of A Column Capital Whose Function Is To Provide A Supporting Surface For The Structure Above. In Egyptian Capitals It Is Smaller Than The Parts Below And In The Late Work It Has Great Height. In The Greek Doric Order It Is A Plain ...

Abadan
Abadan (persia), An Island Situated In The Delta Of The Shatt Al 'arab (q.v.), 4o Miles In Length, From 2 To 12 Miles In Breadth, Bounded On The North And East By The Karun River (q.v.) And Its Tributary, The Bahmishir, On The West By The Shatt Al 'arab, And ...

Abaddon
Abaddon, A Hebrew Word Meaning "destruction." In Poetry It Comes To Mean "place Of Destruction," And So The Under World Or Sheol (cf. Job Xxvi. 6). In Rev. Ix. Ii Abaddon Is Used Of Hell Personified, The Prince Of The Underworld. The Term Is Here Explained As Apollyon (q.v.), The ...

Abadeh
Abadeh, A Small Walled Town Of Persia, Lying Over 6,000ft. Above Sea-level In A Fertile Tract On The Road Between Isfahan And Shiraz. It Has Telegraph And Post Offices, And Is Famed For Its Carved Wood-work, Small Boxes, Trays, Etc., Made Of Pear And Box Wood. ...

Abae
Abae, A Town, Greece, In The Northeastern Corner Of Phocis, Famous In Early Times For Its Oracle Of Apollo, One Of Those Con Sulted By Croesus (herod. I. 46). Its Rich Treasures (herod. Viii. 33) Were Sacked By The Persians, And The Temple Remained Ruin Ous. The Oracle Was, However, ...

Abakansk
Abakansk, A Town In The Abakansk Section Of Minusinsk Province (siberia) Of The R.s.f.s.r. Pop. Of Section (1926) 37,281, Mainly Russians And Tatars. It Is Situated In 54 26' N. And 91 15' E., North Of The Junction Of The Abadan River With The Yenisei River ; It Is A ...

Abalone
Abalone (a Spanish Word Of Unknown Derivation), The Name Given In California To Various Species Of Molluscs Of The Widely Distributed Genus Haliotis ("ear Shells," Ormers). The Shell Of These Animals Yields Mother-of-pearl And Is Used In Button-making And Inlaying. The Abalone Was A Favourite Article Of Food Among The ...

Abana
Abana (or, As Indicated To Be Read In The Hebrew Text, Arnana, Classical Chrysorrhoas) And Pharpar (heb. Parpar) The "rivers Of Damascus" (ii. Ki. V. 12). They Are Commonly Identi Fied With The Two Most Important Rivers Of The District, The Barada, Flowing Through Damascus From Its Source In The ...

Abandonment In Marine Insurance
Abandonment In Marine Insurance Is The Surrender Of The Ship Or Goods Insured To The Insurers, In The Case Of A Constructive Total Loss Of The Thing Insured. For The Requisites And Effects Of Abandonment In This Sense See Marine Insurance. ...

Abandonment Of An Action
Abandonment Of An Action Is The Discontinuance Of Pro Ceedings Commenced In The High Court Of Justice Either Because The Plaintiff Is Convinced That He Will Not Succeed In His Action Or For Other Reasons. Previous To The Judicature Act Of 1875, Con Siderable Latitude Was Allowed As To The ...

Abandonment Of An Easement
Abandonment Of An Easement Is The Relinquishment Of Some Accommodation Or Right In Another's Land, Such As Right Of Way, Free Access Of Light And Air, Etc. (see Easement.) ...

Abandonment Of Domicile
Abandonment Of Domicile Is The Ceasing To Reside Permanently In A Former Domicile Coupled With The Intention Of Choosing A New Domicile. The Presumptions Which Will Guide The Court In Deciding Whether A Former Domicile Has Been Abandoned Or Not Must Be Inferred From The Facts Of Each Individual Case. ...

Abandonment Of Wife And
Abandonment Of Wife And Children Is Dealt With Under Desertion. For The Abandonment Of A Child Of Any Age, See The Articles, Child, Children, Protective Laws And Divorce. ...

Abandonment
Abandonment, In Law, The Relinquishment Of An In Terest, Claim, Privilege Or Possession. Its Signification Varies According To The Branch Of The Law In Which It Is Employed, But The More Important Uses Of The Word Are Summarized Below. ...

Abano Terme
Abano Terme, A Town In The Province Of Padua, Italy, On The Eastern Slope Of Monti Euganei, 6m. S.w. By Rail Of Padua. Pop. (1931) 3,022 (town), 6,739 (commune). Its Popular Hot Springs And Mud Baths Were Known To The Romans As Aponi Fons Or Aquae Patavinae. Ancient Remains Have ...

Abantes
Abantes, The Traditional Name Of The Ancient Inhabitants Of Euboea, To Whom Was Also Ascribed The Building Of The Town Of Abae In Phocis. ...

Abated
Abated, An Obsolescent Technical Term Applied In Masonry And Metal Work To Portions Sunk Beneath The General Surface, As In Panels Where The Background Is Sunk So As To Leave Letters Or Ornament In Relief. ...

Abatement
Abatement, A Beating Down Or Diminishing, A Term Used Especially In Various Legal Phrases. ...

Abati
Abati (ah-bah'te), Niccolo Or Dell' Abbato (1512 1571), A Celebrated Fresco-painter Of Modena, Whose' Best Works Are There And At Bologna. He Accompanied Primaticcio To France, And Assisted In Decorating The Palace At Fontainebleau (1552-71). A Fine Example Of His Work, Representing The Martyrdom Of St. Peter And St. Paul, ...

Abattis Or Abbattis Abatis
Abatis, Abattis Or Abbattis (a French Word Meaning A Heap Of Material Thrown), A Term In Field Fortification For An Obstacle Formed Of The Branches Of Trees Laid In A Row, With The Tops Directed Towards The Enemy And Interlaced Or Tied With Wire. The Abatis Is Used Alone Or ...

Abattoir
Abattoir, A Place In Which The Slaughter Of Animals For Human Food Is Concentrated, And In Which Subsidiary Activities Associated Therewith Are Carried On. The Term Is Not Quite Synony Mous With The Equivalent English Word Slaughter-house, Which Is Applied Indiscriminately To Small Private Establishments In Indi Vidual Occupation, And ...

Abba Mari
Abba Mari (in Full, Abba Mari Ben Moses Ben Joseph), French Rabbi, Was Born At Lunel, Near Montpellier, Towards The End Of The 13th Century. He Is Also Known As Yarhi From His Birth Place (heb. Y Erah; I.e., Moon, Lune), And He Further Took The Name Astruc, Don Astruc ...

Abbas I
Abbas I. (1813-1854), Pasha Of Egypt, Was A Son Of Tusun Pasha And Grandson Of Mohammed Ali. As A Young Man He Fought In Syria Under Ibrahim Pasha (q.v.), His Real Or Supposed Uncle. The Death Of Ibrahim In Nov. 1848 Made Abbas Regent Of Egypt, And In Aug. 1849 ...

Abbas Ii
Abbas Ii. (1874 ), Khedive Of Egypt. Abbas Hilmi Pasha, Great-great-grandson Of Mohammed Ali, Born On July 14, 1874, Succeeded His Father, Tewfik Pasha, As Khedive Of Egypt On Jan. 8, 1892. He Was Still Studying In Vienna When The Sudden Death Of His Father Raised Him To The Khedivate; ...

Abbas Tuman
Abbas-tuman, A Spa In The Georgian S.s.r. (41 44' N., 46' E.). Its Hot Sulphur Springs (931-1181 F.) And Astro Nomical Observatory (4,24oft.) Are Noted. Pop. (1926) ...

Abbasids
Abbasids, The Name Generally Given To The Second Of The Two Great Dynasties Of The Mohammedan Empire. The Abbasid Caliphs Based Their Claim On Their Descent From Abbas (a.d. 566 652), The Eldest Uncle Of Mohammed, And Regarded Themselves As The True Heirs Of The Prophet As Opposed To The ...

Abbaye
Abbaye, The Name Given To A Group Of French Writers, Painters And Musicians Who, In 1906, Formed A Community At Creteil, Where They Set Up A Printing Press And Published Their Works. Their Number Included Roger Allard, Rene Arcos, Henri Barzun, Albert Doyen, Georges Duhamel, Jules Romains, Charles Vildrac, Etc. ...

Abbazia
Abbazia, Province Of Fiume, Italy, 56m. S.e. Of Trieste By Rail. Pop. (1931), 3,666 (town), 6,233 (commune, Which Is Called Volosca-abbazia). It Is On The Gulf Of Quarnero At The Foot Of The Monte Maggiore (4,58oft.), Sheltered And Surrounded By Laurel Woods. The Average Temperature Is 5of. (winter), And 77f. ...

Abbess
Abbess, The Superior Of A Community Of Nuns. The Mode Of Election, Position, Rights And Authority Of An Abbess Correspond Generally With Those Of An Abbot (q.v.) ; But She Cannot Exercise Priestly Functions. An Abbess Is Elected By The Secret Votes Of The Sisters, Installed Solemnly By Episcopal Benediction, ...

Abbeville
Abbeville, A City In The Western Part Of South Carolina, U.s.a., Tom. From The Savannah River; The County Seat Of Abbe Ville County. It Is Served By The Seaboard Air Line And The South Ern Railways. The Population Was 4,570 In 1920 (39% Negroes), And Was 4,414 By The Federal ...

Abbeville_2
Abbeville, A Town Of Northern France, The Capital Of An Arrondissement, Department Of Somme, On The Somme, From The English Channel, And 28m. N.w. Of Amiens On The Northern Railway. Pop. (1931) 18,84o. It Is Built Partly On An Island And Partly On Both Sides Of The River, Which Is ...

Abbey
Abbey, A Monastery, Or Conventual Establishment, Under The Government Of An Abbot Or An Abbess (lat. Abbatia; From Syr. Abba, Father). The Earliest Christian Monastic Communities (see Monasti Cism) With Which We Are Acquainted Consisted Of Groups Of Cells Or Huts Collected About A Common Centre, Which Was Usually The ...

Abbon Of Fleury Or
Abbon Of Fleury Or Abbo Floriacensis (c. 945 1004), French Scholar. He Spent Two Years In England, And Was Abbot Of Romsey. After His Return To France He Was Made Abbot Of Fleury On The Loire (988). He Was Twice Sent To Rome By King Robert The Pious And On ...

Abbot
Abbot, The Head And Chief Governor Of A Community Of Monks, Called Also In The East Hegumenos Or Archimandrite. The Title Abbot Is Derived Ultimately From The Hebrew Ab, "father," Through The Syriac Abbas, And Had Its Origin In The Monasteries Of Syria, Whence It Spread Through The East, And ...

Abbotsford
Abbotsford, Former Residence Of Sir Walter Scott, On South Bank Of The Tweed, About 3m. W. Of Melrose, Roxburgh Shire, Scotland, And Nearly 'me From Abbotsford Ferry Station, L.n.e.r. Branch Line. Cartleyhole, Nicknamed Clarty (muddy) Hole, A Farm Of 1 Ooac., Was Bought By Scott (1811 ) When His Lease ...

Abbottabad
Abbottabad, A Town Of British India, 4,i2oft. Above Sea-level, 63m. From Rawalpindi, The Headquarters Of The Hazara District In The North West Frontier Province, Called After Its Founder, Sir James Abbott, Who Settled This Wild District After The Annexation Of The Punjab. It Is An Important Military Canton Ment And ...

Abbreviation
Abbreviation, Strictly A Shortening; More Particularly, An "abbreviation" Is A Letter Or Group Of Letters, Taken From A Word Or Words, And Employed To Represent It Or Them For The Sake Of Brevity. Abbreviations, Both Of Single Words And Of Phrases, Having A Meaning More Or Less Fixed And Recognized, ...

Abbreviators
Abbreviators, Officials In The Papal Chancery, Whose Business Was To Draft The Pope's Bulls, Briefs And Consistorial De Crees Before These Were Written Out In Extenso By The Scriptores. They Are First Mentioned In Extravagantes Of John Xxii. Pius Ii. Fixed Their Number At 70, And Formed Them Into A ...

Abd Ar Rahman I
Abd-ar-rahman I. (756-788) Founded The Branch Of The Family Which Ruled For Nearly Three Centuries In Mohammedan Spain. When The Omayyads Were Overthrown In The East By The Abbasids, 'abd-ar-rahman Ibn Moawya, Grandson Of The Caliph Histfam, Was A Young Man Of About 20 Years Of Age. Together With His ...

Abd El Kader
Abd-el-kader (18o7?-1883), Amir Of Mascara, The Great Opponent Of The Conquest Of Algeria By France, Was -born Near Mascara In 1807 Or I8o8. His Family Were Sherifs Or Descendants Of Mohammed, And His Father, Mahi-ed-din, Was Celebrated Throughout North Africa For His Piety And Charity. Abd-el-kader Received An Excellent Education ...

Abdallatif Or Abd Ul Latif
Abdallatif Or Abd-ul-latif (1 162i 231) , Physician And Traveller, Was Born And Died In Baghdad. A Memoir Of Abdallatif, Written By Himself, Has Been Preserved With Additions By Ibn-abu-osaiba (ibn Abi Usaibia), A Contemporary. He Visited Mosul, Damascus And Egypt And Then Joined The Circle Of Learned Men Whom ...

Abdel Krim
Abdel Krim ), Mohammed Ben Abdel Krim El-khatabe, A Moroccan Chieftain, Son Of A Caid Of The Beni Uriaghel Tribe In The Mountainous Country That Extends Inland From Alhucemas Bay On The Rif Coast Of Morocco. His Father Was A Person Of No Particular Importance Or Family, But, Being A ...

Abdera
Abdera, An Ancient Seaport On The South Coast Of Spain, Between Malaga And New Carthage, In The District Inhabited By The Bastuli. Founded By The Carthaginians, It Became An Impor Tant Town In The Roman Province Of Hispania Baetica. It Was On A Hill Above The Modern Adra (q.v.). Its ...

Abdication
Abdication, The Act Whereby A Person In Office Renounces The Same Before The Expiry Of The Time For Which It Is Held. (lat. Abdicatio, From Ab, From, And Dicare, To Proclaim As Not Belonging To One.) In Roman Law, The Term Is Especially Applied To The Disowning Of A Member ...

Abdomen
Abdomen, The Belly, The Region Of The Body Containing Most Of The Digestive Organs. (see Anatomy And Alimentary ...

Abduction
Abduction, A Law Term Denoting The Forcible Or Unlawful Removal Of A Person. The Offences Against The Person Act 1861, By S. 53, Makes It Felony For Any One From Motives Of Lucre To Take Away Or Detain Against Her Will, With Intent To Marry Or Carnally Know Her, Etc., ...

Abdul Aziz
Abdul Aziz Ah-zez) (1830-1876), Sultan Of Turkey, Second Son Of Sultan Mahmud Ii., Was Born Feb. 9, 183o, And Succeeded His Brother Abdul Mejid As Sultan 1861. He Took Advantage Of The Constant Issue Of State Loans To Ac Quire Wealth Which Was Squandered Extravagantly, And Received Large Sums From ...

Abdul Hamid I
Abdul-hamid I. (1725-1789), Sultan Of Turkey, Son Of Ahmed Iii., Succeeded His Brother Mustafa Iii. In 1773, And Died On April 7, 1789. For The Disastrous Wars With Russia Which Marked His Reign See Turkey. ...

Abdul Hamid Ii
Abdul-hamid Ii. (1842-1918), Sultan Of Turkey, Son Of Sultan Abdul-mejid, Was Born On Sept. 21, 1842, And Succeeded To The Throne On The Deposition Of His Brother Murad V., On Aug. 31, 1876. He Accompanied His Uncle Sultan Abdul-aziz On His Visit To England And France In 1867. At The ...

Abdul Mejid
Abdul Mejid Me-jed') (1823-1861), Sultan Of Turkey, Was Born April 23, 1823, And Succeeded His Father, Mahmud Ii., On July 2, 1839. Mahmud Appears To Have Been Unable To Effect The Reforms He Desired In The Mode Of Edu Cating His Children, So That His Son Received No Better Education ...

Abdulino
Abdulino, Town In Samara Province Of R.s.f.s.r. Pop. (1926), 13,690. It Is Situated On The Boundary Between Samara And Bashkiria On The Uk River, North Of The Railway From Samara To Ufa And Is A Market For Local Products. ...

Abdur Rahman Khan
Abdur Rahman Khan (c. 1844-1901), Amir Of Afghanistan, Was The Son Of Afzul Khan, Who Was The Eldest Son Of Dost Mohammed Khan, The Famous Amir, By Whose Success In War The Barakzai Family Established Their Dynasty In The Ruler Ship Of Afghanistan. Before His Death At Herat, June 9, ...

Abecedarians
Abecedarians, A Nickname Given To Certain Extreme Anabaptists (q.v.), Who Regarded The Teaching Of The Holy Spirit As All That Was Necessary, And So Despised All Human Learning And Even The Power Of Reading The Written Word (from "a, B, C, D"). A Beckett, Gilbert Abbott English Humorous Writer, Was ...

Abednego
Abednego, The Name Given In Babylon To Azariah, One Of The Companions Of Daniel (dan. I. 7, Etc.). Probably A Corruption Of Abednebo, "servant Of Nebo," Or Perhaps Of Abednergo For Abednergal, "servant Of The God Nergal." ...

Abel Test
Abel Test, The Close-test Process Of Determining The Flash Point Of Petroleum, Invented By Sir Frederick Abel And Embodied In The British Petroleum Act Of 1879. The Test Is Employed To Ascertain Whether A Sample Of Petroleum May Be Safely Used At A Given Temperature. The Abel Apparatus Simply Raises ...

Abel
Abel, A City In Maacah, One Of The Genuinely "israelite" Cities (see 2 Sam. Xx. 18). The Question Of The Aramaean And Edomite Composition Of Israel Involves A Consideration Of The Territories Occupied In Early Times By The Tribes And Their Progenitor (deut. Xxvi. 5). Abel And Dan Were Considered ...

Abel_2
Abel (hebrew Hebel, Breath), Second Son Of Adam, Slain By Cain, His Elder Brother (gen. Iv. 5). The Narrative In Gene Sis Is Supplemented In The New Testament ("by Faith Abel Offered Unto God A More Excellent Sacrifice Than Cain," Heb. Xi. 4 ; Cain Slew Abel "because His Own ...

Abencerrages
Abencerrages, A Family Or Faction That Is Said To Have Held A Prominent Position In The Moorish Kingdom Of Granada In The 15th Century. The Name Appears To Have Been Derived From Yussuf-ben-serragh, The Head Of The Tribe In The Time Of Moham Med Vii. It Is Familiar From The ...

Abendana
Abendana, The Name Of Two Jewish Theologians. (i) Jacob (163o-95), Rabbi (hakham) Of The Spanish Jews In London From 1680. (2) Isaac (c. 1650-171o), His Brother, Teacher Of Hebrew At Cambridge And Afterwards At Oxford. He Compiled A Jewish Calendar And Wrote Discourses On The Ecclesiastical And Civil Policy Of ...

Abenezra
Abenezra (ibn Ezra), Whose Full Name Was Abraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra (1092 Or 1o93-1167), Jewish Poet And Scholar, Was A Native Of Toledo. He Had Already Gained A Reputa Tion As A Thinker And Poet Before He Left Spain, Some Time Before I 14o, And Began The Travels In ...

Abensberg
Abensberg, A Town And Spa Of Germany, In Bavaria, On The Abens, A Tributary Of The Danube, 18m. S.w. Of Regensburg. Pop. (1933) 2,392. Some Roman Remains Exist In The Neighbour Hood Of The Town, Which Was Known To The Romans As Castra Abusina. Here Napoleon Defeated The Austrians Under ...

Abeokuta
Abeokuta, A Town Of British West Africa, The Capital Of The Egba Division Of The Yoruba People And Of The Province Of Abeokuta, Southern Nigeria. It Is Situated In 7 8' N., 3 25' E., On The Ogun River, 64m. North Of Lagos By Railway, Or 81m. By Water. Population ...

Abercarn
Abercarn, Urban District, Monmouthshire, England. Pop. (1931) 20,554. It Is Situated In The Middle Portion Of The Ebbw Valley And Like The Other Towns Of The North And East Of The Coalfield Had An Early Association With Iron Smelting, And Then Relied More And More On The Export Of Coal, ...

Aberdare
Aberdare, Industrial Town Of North Glamorganshire, Wales, Situated, As Its Name Implies, At The Confluence Of The Dar And Cynon (the Latter Being A Tributary Of The Taff). Population (1931) 48,751. The Neighbouring Moorlands Show Evidences Of Occupation In Pre-roman Times, And A Site About 4m. To The North West ...

Aberdeen
Aberdeen, A Royal Burgh, City And County Of A City, The Capital Of Aberdeenshire And Chief Seaport In The North Of Scot Land. Population (1931) 154,836. It Is The Fourth Scottish Town In Population, Industry And Wealth, And Stands On A Bay Of The North Sea Between The Mouths Of ...

Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire, A North-eastern County Of Scotland, Bounded North And East By The North Sea, South By Kincardine, Angus And Perth, And West By Inverness And Banff. It Has A Coast-line Of 65m., And Is The Sixth Scottish County In Area, Occupying 1,261,521ac. Or 1,970 Square Miles. The County Is Generally ...

Aberdeen_2
Aberdeen, A City Of North-eastern Mississippi, U.s.a., At The Head Of Navigation On The Tombigbee River; The County Seat Of Monroe County. It Is South-east Of Memphis, Tennessee (about 137 Miles Away). It Is On Federal Highway 45, And Is Served By The Frisco, The Illinois Central And The Mobile ...

Aberdeen_3
Aberdeen, The Second Largest City Of South Dakota, U.s.a., The County-seat Of Brown County. It Is In The North Eastern Part Of The State, On The Yellowstone Trail, About 270m. W. By N. Of Minneapolis, And Is Served By Nine Lines Altogether Of The Chicago, Milwaukee And St. Paul, The ...

Aberdeen_4
Aberdeen, A Port Of Entry, The Largest City Of Grays Harbor County, Washington, U.s.a., On The North Shore Of Grays Harbor, About 5o M. W. Of Olympia. It Has An Area Of 10.5 Sq.m. ; Is Built On Both Sides Of The Chehalis And The Wishkah Rivers; And Adjoins The ...

Aberdour
Aberdour, Village And Parish, Fifeshire, Scotland. Pop. (1931), 2,055. On The Shore Of The Firth Of Forth, I72m. N.w. Of Edinburgh By The L.n.e.r., 7m. N.w. Of Leith By Steamer, It Is A Favoured Bathing Resort. There Are Ruins Of A Castle And A Church With Fine Norman Work. About ...

Aberdovey
Aberdovey (ab-ur-dilv1) (aberdyfi), A Village On The North Side Of The Dyfi Estuary, Merionethshire, Wales. Popula Tion (1931) 1,203. Its Site Has Associations In Welsh Folk-lore With Coastal Submergence (see Cardiganshire). During The 17th, 18th And 19th Centuries It Had A Considerable Coasting And Fishing Trade, The Export Of Slates ...

Aberfoyle
Aberfoyle, Village And Parish, Perthshire, Scotland, 341m. N. By W. Of Glasgow By The L.n.e.r. Population Of Parish (1931) 1,014. The Village Is At The Base Of Craigmore (1,271 Ft. High) And On The Laggan, A Headwater Of The Forth. In 1885 The Duke Of Montrose Built A Road Over ...

Abergavenny
Abergavenny (ab-ur-gen'i Or 5.13-ur-ga-ven'i), Municipal Borough, Monmouthshire, England, At The Converge Of Roads From Crickhowell, Ross, Hereford, Newport And Merthyr, At The Con Fluence Of The Gavenny With The Usk. Population (1931) 8.6o8. There Are Evidences Of The Early Occupation Of The Area On The Hills Around And The Focus ...

Aberration Of Light
Aberration Of Light. This Is An Astronomical Phe Nomenon Depending On The Fact That Light Is Not Propagated Instan Taneously. Our Observations Of The Heavenly Bodies Are Taken From The Earth, A Planet Whose Speed Of Motion Is Not Incomparably Smaller Than That Of The Light ; The Result Is ...

Abersychan
Abersychan (5.b-ur-ziieh'an), An Urban District, Mon Mouthshire, England. The Population In 1931 Was 25,627. It Lies In The Narrow Valley Of Af On Lwyd Between Pontypool And Blaenavon. Its Situation On The Iron Field Accounts For Its Early Development, And When Coal-mining Became More Important Than Iron Smelting, Abersychan's Prosperity ...

Abertillery
Abertillery, Urban District, Monmouthshire, England, 16m. N.w. Of Newport, On The G.w.r. Pop. (1891) 10,846; (193') 31,799. It Lies In The Mountainous Mining District Of Mon Mouthshire And Glamorganshire, In The Valley Of The Ebbw Fach, And The Large Industrial Population Is Mainly Employed In The Numerous Coal-mines, Iron-works And ...

Aberystwyth
Aberystwyth (ab-ur-iist'with), Watering-place And Uni Versity Town On The Shores Of Cardigan Bay, Wales, At The Mouth Of The Artificially United Rheidol And Ystwyth Rivers. Population (1931) 9,474 But In The Summer Months These Figures Are Aug Mented By The Presence Of Visitors. There Appears To Be A Long Tradition ...

Abettor
Abettor, A Law Term Implying One Who Is Present, Actually Or Constructively, And Aids And Abets Another To Commit An Offence. An Abettor Differs From An Accessory (q.v.) In That He Must Be Present At The Commission Of The Crime ; All Abettors (with Certain Exceptions) Are Principals In The ...

Abeyance
Abeyance, A State Of Expectancy In Respect Of Property, Titles Or Office, When The Right To Them Is Not Vested In Any Ascertained One Person, But Awaits The Appearance Or Determina Tion Of The True Owner. In Law, The Term Abeyance Can Only Be Applied To Such Future Estates As ...

Abgar
Abgar, A Name Borne By A Line Of Mesopotamian Kings, 29 In Number, Who Reigned In Osrhoene And Had Their Capital At Edessa In The Last Century Before And The First Century After The Birth Of Christ. According To An Old Tradition, One Of These Princes, Perhaps Abgar V. (ukkama ...