Home >> Encyclopedia-britannica-volume-01-a-anno >> Agricultural Machinery And to Airship Sheds

Encyclopedia Britannica

Loading


Agricultural Machinery And
Agricultural Machinery And At The Dawn Of History We Find Man Practising The Most Elementary Method Of Modifying Soil Conditions. He Broke Up The Surface And Prepared A Seed Bed, Using For This Purpose The Most Primitive Of All Cultivating Devices, A Digging Implement In Nature Like A Hoe. The ...

Agricultural Organization
Agricultural Organization. In Most Coun Tries A Growing Realization Of The Weakness Of The Isolated Farmer As A Marketing Unit And, Again, Of The Dominance Of Industrial And Commercial Interests In Modern Legislation Has Prompted The Formation Of Farmers' Organizations, In Order To Secure More Adequate Consideration Of The Position ...

Agricultural Prices
Agricultural Prices. In The Early Stages Of English Agriculture The Mass Of Producers Were Content To Satisfy Their Own Wants And Were Practically Indifferent To Outside Trade. Later, However, The Need Arose For Some Machinery F Or Bringing Buyers And Sellers Into Touch, And This Was Met By The Institution ...

Agricultural Research
Agricultural Research. In Its Modern Aspects Agricultural Research Began With The Series Of Field Experiments Started By Jean Baptiste Joseph Dieudonne Boussingault About 1834 On His Farm At Bechelbronn, In Alsace. He Had Already Made A Name As An Adventurous Traveller In South America, But At The Age Of 32 ...

Agricultural Revolution The
Agricultural Revolution The, A Cating That Period In History Which Witnessed The Transition Of English Methods Of Farming From Mediaeval To Modern Conditions. During The R8th Century Increasing Knowledge And New Inventions Revolutionized Both Agriculture And Stockbreeding. At The Same Time The Rapid Growth Of Enclosures Vastly Improved The Conditions ...

Agricultural Societies And Shows
Agricultural Societies And Shows. In British Agricultural History There Is No Parallel To The Enthusiasm Which Spread Through The Country During The Last Quarter Of The 18th Century. It Spread Downwards From George Iii., "farmer George," Who Himself Contributed To Young's Monthly Publication, Annals Of Agriculture, Started In 1784. The ...

Agricultural Societies And Shows_2
Agricultural Societies And Shows - In The United States Agricultural Societies.—educationaladvancement In Agri Culture Has Been Marked By Undertakings Common To Many Localities. Agricultural Societies Came Into Being In The Late I8th And Early 19th Centuries. The New York Society For The Promotion Of Useful Arts, Though Not Confined To ...

Agricultural Statistics
Agricultural Statistics. Agricultural Statistics Have A Vital, Basic Significance In A Nation's Social And Economic Welfare. The Practical Use Of Statistics Of Production, Supplies, And Movements Of The . Products Of Agriculture Has Been Highly Developed By Business And Governments. The World-wide De Pression, And The Ensuing Increased Activity Of ...

Agricultural Wages
Agricultural Wages. The Payment Of Wages For Agricultural Labour In England Began With The Disappearance Of Serfdom. The Corning Of The Black Death Or Plague In The Middle Of The I4th Century Hastened The Growth Of The Wage System And Stimylated A Rise In Wages. The Statute Of Labourers Was ...

Agriculture A General Survey
Agriculture: A General Survey. Agri Culture Is So Primitive And Fundamental An Art, The Beginnings Of Which So Far Precede Any Documents, That Any Attempt To Write Its Earliest History Becomes A Matter Of Surmise And Un Verifiable Conclusions From General Principles. It Is Reasonable To Suppose That Prehistoric Hunter ...

Agriculture British Farmingsystems
Agriculture - British Farming Systems British Farming Is Characteristically An Affair Of Small Capitalist Businesses Employing Paid Labour. The Following Table (table Iv.) Of The Holdings In England And Wales Shows The Apportion Ment Of Such Holdings With Respect To Their Size. Characteristically, Too, The Farms Are Tenancies Held Under ...

Agriculture Experiment Stations
Agriculture - Experiment Stations In The United States Experiments Were Early Conducted By The Agricultural Colleges, But Not Until 1875 Was The First American Experiment Station With State Support Established. This Was Situated At Middletown, Conn., Under Dr. W. O. At Water, And Later Removed To New Haven With Dr. ...

Agriculture In Theunited
Agriculture - In The United States Canada And The United States Are One Agricultural Unit. They Produce More Than One-fourth Of The World's Wheat Supply, Nearly Three-fourths Of The Corn And More Than One-third Of The Oats. They Produce Nearly One-third Of The Total Grain Supply, Including Rice. The United ...

Agriculture The Post Wardepression
Agriculture - The Post-war Depression The Course Of Agriculture After The War Will Be Best Appreciated By A Study Of Prices. The Following Table Shows The Average Prices Of Some Of The Chief Items Of Agricultural Produce For The Cereal Years (sept.–aug.) 1913-14 To 1926-27. Ancies In Case Of Persistent ...

Agriculture The Warperiod
Agriculture - The War Period The War Struck Across All These Projects Of Quiet Development, And Its First Effect Was To Sweep The Agricultural Colleges And Re Search Institutes Of All Their Students And Younger Staff For Service In The New Troops. For The First Two Years Of The War ...

Agrigentum
Agrigentum (gr. 'akpayas, Mod. Agrigento), An Cient City, South Coast Of Sicily, 21m. From The Sea. Founded By Greek Colonists From Gela As Late As 582 B.c., Its Favourable Site For Cultivation And Trade With Carthage Made It Second Only To Syracuse. Pindar Calls It (3poreav Iroxicov (fairest Of Mortal ...

Agrimony
Agrimony, A Slender Perennial Herb (botanical Name, Agrimonia Eupatoria, Family Rosaceae), I Z To 3ft. High Growing In Hedge-banks, Copses And Borders Of Fields. The Leafy Stem Ends In Spikes Of Small Yellow Flowers. The Flower-stalk Becomes Re Curved In The Fruiting Stage, And The Fruit Bears A Number Of ...

Agriology
Agriology Is The Science Of The Prehistoric Human Prac Tices And Ways Of Living, Especially Those Pertaining To The Key Factors Of Existence, Food, Shelter And Clothing. ...

Agrionia
Agrionia, An Ancient Greek Festival, Celebrated Annually At Orchomenus In Boeotia And Elsewhere, In Honour Of Dionysus Agrionius ("the Wild") By Women And Priests At Night. The Tra Dition Is That The Daughters Of Minyas, King Of Orchomenus, Having Despised The Rites Of The God, Were Seized With Frenzy And ...

Agrippa
Agrippa, A Sceptical Philosopher, Whose Date Cannot Be Accurately Determined. He Must Have Lived Later Than Aenesi Demus. To Him Are Ascribed The Five Tropes (rivr€ Rporoc) Which, According To Sextus Empiricus, Summarize The Attitude Of The Later Ancient Sceptics. ( ) Since Some Thinkers Hold That Nothing Is Known ...

Agrippina
Agrippina, The "elder," Daughter Of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (q.v.) By His Third Wife Julia, Was The Granddaughter Of Augustus And The Wife Of Germanicus. She Accompanied Her Hus Band To Germany, When The Legions On The Rhine Revolted After The Death Of Augustus (a.d. 14). Three Years Later She Was ...

Agrippina_2
Agrippina, The "younger" (a.d. 16–s9), Daughter Of Ger Manicus And Agrippina The Elder, Sister Of Caligula And Mother Of Nero, Was Born At Oppidum Ubiorum On The Rhine, Afterwards Named In Her Honour Colonia Agrippinae (mod. Cologne). By Her First Husband, Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, She Was The Mother Of The ...

Agronomy
Agronomy, The Theory And Practice Of Land Management And Husbandry; In The United States More Specifically Used Of The Production Of Farm Crops And Plant Culture, E.g., The Agronomy Department Attached To The Agricultural Experiment Stations. ...

Agroteras Thusia
Agroteras Thusia, An Annual Festival Held At Agrae, Near Athens, In Honour Of Artemis Agrotera, In Fulfilment Of A Vow Made By The City, Before The Battle Of Marathon, To Offer In Sacrifice A Number Of Goats Equal To That Of The Persians Slain In The Conflict. The Number Being ...

Aguadilla
Aguadilla, The Largest And Most Important Town In The North-western Section Of Porto Rico. The Population By The 192o Census Of The Town Itself Was While The Population Of The Municipal District In 193o Was 28,319. Aguadilla Is Situated On The West Coast Of Porto Rico, On The Mona Channel ...

Ague
Ague, The Common Name Given To A Form Or Stage Of Malarial Disease ; The Ague Fit Is The Cold, Shivering Stage, And Hence The Word Is Also Loosely Used-for Any Such Paroxysm. (see Malaria.) For "brow-ague" See Neuralgia. ...

Aguilas
Aguilas, Seaport And Railway Terminus, South-east Spain, Province Of Murcia. Pop. Aguilas Is Built On The Landward Side Of A Small Peninsula, Between Two Bays And Has A Good Harbour. It Is The Chief Outlet For The Spanish Trade In Esparto Grass, And Exports Also Iron Ore And Other Mineral ...

Aha
Aha, Of Shabha, An 8th-century Talmudist. He Was Author Of Quaestiones (sheiltoth), A Collection Of Homilies (at Once Learned And Popular) On Jewish Law And Ethics. This Is Recorded As The First Work Written By A Jewish Scholar After The Completion Of The Talmud. ...

Ahab
Ahab, Son Of Omri, King Of Israel From C. 875 To C. 852 B.c. (i Kings Xvi. 29–xxii. 4o). The More Important Aspects Of His Reign, Which In Some Respects Marks The High Water Mark Of The Success Of The Northern Kingdom, May Be Summarized As Follows : (i) Foreign ...

Ahasuerus
Ahasuerus, A Royal Persian Name Occurring In Ezra Iv. 6, Dan. Ix. 1, And Throughout The Book Of Esther, But Its Occur Rence In Tobit Xiv. 15, In Some Greek Mss., Is Due To A Copyist's Blunder. It Is The Latinized Form Of The Hebrew Ahasweros (lxx. 'a Ro Ouripos). ...

Ahaz
Ahaz, King Of Judah. After The Death Of Menahem, Pekah, King Of Israel, And Rezin (rather Rasun), King Of Syria, Allied Against Assyria And Invaded Judah. At The Same Time The Edom Ites Recovered Elath On The Gulf Of Akabah And Judah Was Isolated. Notwithstanding The Counsel Of Isaiah, Ahaz ...

Ahaziah
Ahaziah, The Name Of Two Kings In The Bible. (i) Ahaziah, 8th King Of Israel, Was The Son And Successor Of Ahab, And Reigned For Less Than Two Years. On His Accession The Moabites Refused Any Longer To Pay Tribute. Ahaziah Lost His Life Through A Fall From The Lattice ...

Ahenobarbus
Ahenobarbus [lat. "brazen-bearded"] , The Name Of A Very Extensive Plebeian Roman Family Of The Gens Domitia. The Name Was Derived From The Red Beard And Hair By Which Many Of The Family Were Distinguished. Amongst Its Members The Following May Be Mentioned : ...

Ahithophel
Ahithophel, One Of David's Most Trusted Advisers, Whose Counsel Was "as Though One Inquired Of The Word Of God." He Took A Leading Part In Absalom's Revolt, And His Defection Was A Severe Blow To The King, Who Prayed That God Would Bring His Counsel To "foolishness." At Ahithophers Advice ...

Ahlen
Ahlen, A Town In The South-east Of The District Of Miinster, In The Prussian Province Of Westphalia. Pop. (1933) 25,153. It Produces Metal-work. Enamelling, Die-stamping, Galvanizing, Etc. ...

Ahmad Shah
Ahmad Shah (1724-73), Founder Of The Durani Dynasty In Afghanistan, Was The Son Of Sammaun-khan, Hereditary Chief Of The Abdali Tribe. While Still A Boy, Ahmad Fell Into The Hands Of The Hostile Tribe Of Ghilzais, By Whom He Was Kept Prisoner At Kandahar. In March 1738 He Was Rescued ...

Ahmadabad
Ahmadabad, A City And District Of British India In The Northern Division Of Bombay. The City Was Once The Handsomest And Most Flourishing In Western India, And It Still Ranks Next To Agra And Delhi For The Beauty And Extent Of Its Architectural Remains. It Was Founded By Ahmad Shah ...

Ahmadnagar
Ahmadnagar, A City And District Of British India In The Central Division Of Bombay On The Left Bank Of The River Sina. Pop. (1931) 41,890. The Town Was Founded In 1494 On The Site Of A More Ancient City, Bhingar, By Ahmad Nizam Shah, Who Es Tablished A New Monarchy, ...

Ahmed I
Ahmed I. (1589-1617), Sultan Of Turkey, Was The Son Of Mohammed Iii., Whom He Succeeded In 1603, Being The First Ottoman Sultan Who Reached The Throne Before Attaining His Majority. He Was Of Kindly And Humane Disposition, As He Showed By Refusing To Put To Death His Brother Mustafa, Who ...

Ahmed Ii
Ahmed Ii. , Sultan Of Turkey, Son Of Sultan Ibra Him, Succeeded His Brother Suleiman Ii. In 169r. His Chief Merit Was To Confirm Mustafa Kuprili As Grand Vizier. But A Few Weeks After His Accession Turkey Sustained A Crushing Defeat At Slanka Men (1691) From The Austrians Under Prince ...

Ahmed Iii
Ahmed Iii. (16 7 Sultan Of Turkey, Son Of Moham Med Iv., Succeeded To The Throne In 1703 On The Abdication Of His Brother Mustafa Ii. He Cultivated Good Relations With England, And He Afforded A Refuge In Turkey To Charles Xii. Of Sweden, After His Defeat At Poltava 0709). ...

Ahom
Ahom, The Branch Of The Tai Race Settled In And Giving Its Name To Assam (q.v.). This People Came Into Assam In The 13th Century Under A Leader Named Sukupha And Gradually Extended Their Rule Westward Down The Brahmaputra Valley, Which They Dominated Till Its Invasion By The Burmese Early ...

Ahriman
Ahriman, The Name Of The Principle Of Evil In The Dualistic Doctrine Of Zoroaster (gr.'apeiµavlos In Aristotle, Or 'apecyavns In Agathias; In The Avesta, Angro Mainyush)—"the Destructive Spirit") . In The Avesta He Is Called The Twin-brother Of The Holy Spirits, And Contrasted Either With The Holy Spirit Of Ormazd ...

Ahrweiler
Ahrweiler, A Town In Rhenish Prussia, Germany, On The River Ahr. Pop. (1933) 7,002. The Town Is Surrounded By Medi Aeval Walls And Gates. The Gothic Church Dates From There Is Trade In The Red Wine Of The District. ...

Aht
Aht, A Confederacy Of 22 Tribes Of North American Indians Of The Wakashan Stock. They Are Settled On The West Coast Of Vancouver, British Columbia. The Chief Tribes Included Are The Nitinaht, Tlaasaht Or Makah, Tlaokiwaht Or Clahoquaht, Ahan Saht And Ehatishaht. In The Year 1928 The Confederacy Numbered Some ...

Ahtena
Ahtena ("ice People"), The Name Of An Athapascan Tribe Of North American Indians, In The Basin Of Copper River, Alaska. See Handbook Of American Indians, Ed. F. W. Hodge (washington, 2907). ...

Ahura Mazda
Ahura Mazda, The Good Spirit In The Dual System Of Zoroaster, Opposed To Ahriman, Angra Mainyu Or Druj, The Spir Itual Enemy. The Name Is Sometimes Translated As The "wise Lord" And It Is The Origin Of The Modern Persian Ormazd Or Ormuzd. ...

Ahwaz
Ahwaz, A Town Of South-west Persia, In The Province Of Khuzistan, On The Left Bank Of The River Karun, 85m. By Road And Io5m. By River From Mohammerah 20' N., 48° 48' E. It Has Been Identified With The Aginis Of Nearchus, And Occupies The Site Of What Was Once ...

Aidan
Aidan (or Aedan ), A Monk Of Iona, And First Bishop Of Lin Disfarne (a.d. 635-651). In 635 Oswald, Who Had Succeeded To The Kingdom Of Bernicia In The Previous Year, Re-united The Whole Of Northumbria Under Himself. Northumbria Had Been Converted To Christianity By Paulinus (625-633), But Had Relapsed ...

Aidan_2
Aidan (d. 6o6), King Of The Scottish Kingdom Of Dalriada, Was The Son Of Gabran, King Of Dalriada, And Became King After The Death Of His Kinsman, King Conall, When He Was Crowned At Iona By St. Columba. He Refused To Allow His Kingdom To Remain In Dependence On The ...

Aide De Camp
Aide-de-camp (fr. For Camp-assistant Or, Perhaps, Field Assistant), An Officer Of The Personal Staff Of A General, Who Acts As His Confidential Secretary In Routine Matters. On Napoleon's Staff Such Officers Were Frequently Of High Military Qualifications, And Acted Both As His "eyes" And As The Interpreters Of His Mind ...

Aidin
Aidin. (1) A Vilayet In The South-west Of Asia Minor In Cluding The Lower Part Of The Maeander Valley. (2) The Prin Cipal Town Of The Vilayet About Tom. E.s.e. Of Smyrna. It Was Taken By The Seljuks, Aidin And Mentesh, Late In The 13th Century, And About 139o, When ...

Aidone
Aidone, A Town Of Sicily, In The Province Of Enna, About 22m. E.s.e. Of The Town Of Caltanissetta. Pop. 7,974 There Are Ruins Of An Ancient City On Mte. Serra Orlando Near By. Aidone Has Some Interesting I4th-century Churches. (see E. Mauceri In L'arte, 1906-17.) ...

Aids
Aids, A Term Of Mediaeval Finance, Were Part Of The Service Due To A Lord From His Men, And Appear To Have Been Based Upon The Principle That They Ought To Assist Him In Special Emergency Or Need. The Occasions For Demanding Them And The Amount To Be Demanded Would ...

Aigrette
Aigrette, The Long Back Plumes Which The Egret (q.v.) Assumes In The Breeding Season, The Use Of Which As Ornaments In Women's Headdresses Has Become Rare, Owing To The Protests Of Humanitarians On Account Of The Cruelty Involved In Slaughtering The Birds And Leaving Their Young To Starve. The Name ...

Aigues Mortes
Aigues-mortes, A Town Of South-east France, Department Of Gard, 25m. S.s.w. Of Nimes On A Branch Line Of The P.l.m. Railway. Population (1931) 3,629. It Occupies An Isolated Position In The Marshy Plain At The Western Extremity Of The Rhone Delta, 21-m. From The Gulf Of Lions. Louis Ix. Embarked ...

Aiguille
Aiguille (fr. For Needle), The Sharp Jagged Point Above The Snow-line Formed By A Part Of A Mountain Which Has Been Split By Frost Action Along Joints Or Planes Of Cleavage With Sides Too Steep For Snow To Rest Upon Them. Aiguilles Are Thus The Forms Left From The Splitting ...

Aigun
Aigun (49° 58' N. 127° 35' E.) A Treaty Port On The South Bank Of The Amur In Northern Manchuria On The Extreme North Eastern Frontier Of China. It Lies On The Opposite Bank To, But About 20 Miles Below, The Russian City Of Blagovyeshchensk, For Which It Serves As ...

Aiken
Aiken, A City Of South Carolina, U.s.a., 17 M. E.n.e. Of Augusta, Ga., On The Highest Point Between Augusta And Charles Ton, 565 Ft. Above Sea-level; The County Seat Of Aiken County. It Is On Federal Highways I And 78 And The Southern Railway, And Is Connected With Augusta By ...

Ailanthus Moth
Ailanthus Moth (philosamia Cynthia), A Large Silk Spinning Moth Inhabiting China. The Larvae Feed On The Leaves Of The Ailanthus Tree And Yield A Silk More Durable And Cheaper Than Mulberry Silk, But Inferior To It In Fineness And Gloss. The Moth Measures About Sin. Across, And Is Olive-brown In ...

Ailanthus
Ailanthus (more Correctly Ailantus, From Ailanto, An Amboyna Word Probably Meaning "tree Of The Gods," Or "tree Of Heaven"), A Genus Of Trees Belonging To The Family Simaruba Ceae. The Best Known Species, A. Glandulosa, Chinese Sumach Or Tree Of Heaven, Is A Handsome, Quick-growing Tree With Spread Ing Branches, ...

Aileron
Aileron, A Movable Part Of The Wing Of An Aeroplane (q.v.) Situated At Or Near The Wing Tips As Shown In Fig. 1. They Are So Connected To The Control Column That A Movement Of It, E.g., To The Right (or A Corresponding Rotation Of The Control Wheel), Raises The ...

Ailsa Craig
Ailsa Craig, An Island Rock At The Mouth Of The Firth Of Clyde, 1 Om. W. Of Girvan, Ayrshire, Scotland. It Is Of Conoidal Form, With An Irregular Elliptic Base, And Rises Abruptly To A Height Of I ,09 7f T. The Only Side From Which The Rock Can Be ...

Aimak
Aimak, The Name Of Nomadic Or Semi-nomadic Mongolian Tribes Inhabiting The North And North-west Afghan Highlands North Of Herat. Aimak Is A Mongolian Word Meaning "clan" Or "section Of A Tribe." They Were Originally Known As "chahar (the Four) Eimaks," Because There Were Four Principal Tribes : The Taimani, The ...

Aimar Adhemar Ademar
Adhemar (ademar, Aimar, Aelarz) De Monteil (died 1098), Crusader, Was Bishop Of Puy En Velay From Before 1087, And Accompanied Raymond Iv., Count Of Toulouse, To The East As Apostolic Legate. He Negotiated With Alexis Comnenus At Constantinople, Re-established At Nicaea Some Discipline Among The Crusaders, Caused The Siege Of ...

Aimoin
Aimoin (c. 96o—c.ioio), French Chronicler, Spent The Greater Part Of His Life In The Monastery Of Fleury. His Chief Works Are : Historia Francorum Or Libri V. De Gestis Francorum, A History Of The Franks From The Earliest Times To 633, Which Was Continued By Other Writers And Brought Down ...

Ain
Ain, A Department Of Eastern France, Formed From Bresse, The Pays De Dombes On The Lowland And The Pays De Gex, Val Romey And Bugey Among The High Parallel Scarps Of The Jura Reaching South To The Rhone Between Geneva And Lyons. Area 2,248 Sq.m. Pop. (1931) 322,918. The Name ...

Aino Ackte Jalander
Ackte-jalander, Aino (1876– ), Finnish Opera Singer, Studied Singing In Paris, And Later Was For A Number Of Years (1897-1904) One Of The Leading Sopranos At The Grand Opera, Where Her Exceptional Powers Won General Recognition. In 1904 She Went To New York, Where She Was No Less Successful At ...

Aintab
Aintab (anc. Doliche), A City Of Anatolia Just Outside French Mandated Territory, Pop. About 6o,000 (two-thirds Are Muslim, Mainly Of Turkoman Origin And There Are 15,000 Arme Nians). In Ancient Times (2nd Mil. B.c.) Aintab Was In The Hittite Area And Is Probably Of Hittite Origin. Duluk, The Site Of ...

Ainu
Ainu, Who Are Racially Closely Akin To, If Not Identical With, The Neolithic Inhabitants Of Japan (see Japan, Section, History) Are Now Very Reduced In Numbers And Live In Hokkaido, The Northern Island Of Japan, In Part Of Saghalien, And Have Kinsfolk In The Ryukyu Islands (q.v.). They Are Dwindling ...

Air As Envisagedin
Air As Envisaged In The Year 1928 Their First Aeroplane With Machine Guns Capable Of Firing Through The Propeller. (b) Many Of The Pilots, While Carrying Out Reconnaissances Found Roads Packed With German Troops And Transport. Small Bombs Were Taken Up And Dropped Over The Side Of The Aeroplanes, With ...

Air Bladder
Air-bladder, The Name Given To A Structure Present In All Bony Fishes (teleosts) And Homologous With The Lungs Of Land Vertebrates. The Functions Of This Organ, Which Contains Gas Having A High Percentage Of Oxygen, Are Obscure ; Hydrostatic Uses Have Been Attributed To It With Doubtful Validity. In Some ...

Air Co Operation Future Development
Air Co-operation Future Development Experience Gained In The War Of 1914-18 And Since, Under Active Service Conditions, Is Limited. Thus The Functions Of Aircraft In Naval Warfare Are Largely Conjectural. They Would Appear, How Ever, To Depend On Two Factors, Namely : The Degree In Ease Of Operation Of Carrier-borne ...

Air Co Operation Modern Developments
Air Co-operation Modern Developments Since The War 1914-18, Rapid Developments Have Been Made, And Aircraft Now Form An Integral Part Of A Modern Fleet. Their Em Ployment May Conveniently Be Discussed Under The Headings Of Carrier-borne Aircraft And Shore-based Aircraft. ...

Air Co Operation Positionat
Air Co-operation - Position At The End Of The War By The End Of The War, The Force, Which By Then Had Become The Royal Air Force, Was Organized In Brigades, Wings And Squad In A War Of Any Magnitude It Is Reasonable To Assume That Very Large Air Forces ...

Air Co Operation With A
Air Co-operation With A Navy The Object Of Aircraft Co-operation Is To Assist A Navy In The Destruction Or Neutralization Of A Hostile Battle Fleet, And In The Control Of Sea Communications. Aircraft Can Afford Indirect As Sistance In Battle By Providing Information Of Enemy Naval Forces Obtained From Long-distance ...

Air Co Operation With An
Air Co-operation With An Army To Gain Information About One's Enemy Has Always Been One Of The First Preoccupations Of A Military Commander, For, Until He Has Accurate Knowledge Concerning The Strength And Dispositions Of His Opponent, It Is Difficult For Him To Evolve An Effective Plan To Bring About ...

Air Co Operation
Air Co-operation. A Result Of The Growth Of Aerial Navigation In The First Quarter Of The 2oth Century Has Been To Accent The Importance Of Co-operation Between The Air Forces And The Armies And Navies Of The Countries Of The World. The Prob Lems To Be Solved In The Military ...

Air Combat
Air Combat. Combat Between Aircraft Is A New Develop Ment Of War. It Is One That Will Probably Become Increasingly Important, Since Aircraft Have, So Far At Any Rate, Proved In War To Be The Best Antidote To Aircraft. The Most Effective Way In Fact Of Preventing Enemy Aircraft From ...

Air Conditioning
Air Conditioning. The Term Is Derived From The Word "conditioning" Which Was Applied To The Determination Of The Moisture Content Of Textiles, And Covers The Treating Of Air In An Enclosure To Regulate Its Moisture Content, Temperature, Purity And Usually Its Circulation. For Increasing Human Comfort And For The Manufacturing ...

Air Forces Unitedstates
Air Forces - United States When In April 1917 The United States Entered The World War, But Little Had Been Done By The Country Toward The Creation Of An Air Component For Either The Army Or The Navy. The Aviation Personnel Consisted Of 65 Officers And 1,120 Men In The ...

Air Forces
Air Forces. The World War Provided A Powerful Stimulus To War Flying, And Great Advances Were Made In Technical Equip Ment And Experience. This Intensive Development Led To Constant Changes In The Practice And Application Of Flying, So That When Peace Came It Was Expected That Progress Would Be As ...

Air Lock
Air-lock, A Steel-plated Chamber Provided In A Tunnelling Shield Or A Caisson (q.v.), To Prevent The Escape Of Compressed Air During The Passage Of Workers. The Pressure In The Caisson May Be 25 To 3o Lb. Per Sq.in., Though Higher Pressures Have Been Used. A Steel Door At Each Exit ...

Air Log Or Air
Air Log Or Air Dis Tance Recorder, An In Strwnent Which Measures The Dis Tance Flown By An Aeroplane Rela Tive To The Air. It Consists Of Two Units : A Transmitter Which Is In Stalled On A Wing Strut Or In Some Other Position On The Aircraft Where It ...

Air Or Asben
Air Or Asben, A Country Of West Africa, Lying Between 15° And 19° N. And 6° And Io° E. It Is Within The Sahara, Of Which It Forms One Of The Most Fertile Regions. The Northern Portion Of The Country Is Mountainous, Some Of The Peaks Rising To A Height ...

Air Port Or Air
Aerodrome, Air Port Or Air Station. An Aircraft Can Land And Take Off Safely In Any Large Open Space, But An Organized And Equipped Aerodrome Is Required For Regular Flying. Just As Railways Must Have Depots And Stations Of Vary Ing Kinds And Ocean-going Liners Must Have Harbours And Docks, ...

Air Raids
Air Raids. Directly Great Britain Came Into The World War, The German High Command Began To Encourage Their Public With Prophecies Of The Havoc The Zeppelins Were About To Work In England, But It Soon Became Evident That For Airships To Fly In Daylight Over Enemy Territory Was To Invite ...

Air Routes
Air Routes. Due To The Advance In Navigational Facilities And Equipment, A Route Between Any Two Airports Is Now Usually Flown In A Straight Line, Barring Severely Inclement Weather. Be Fore Aircraft Had The Flying Range Which They Have Today, Air Routes As Much As Possible Followed Level Or Good ...

Air Warfare
Air Warfare. This Article Deals With The General Prin Ciples Governing The Employment Of Air Forces In War, And With The Effect Of The Advent Of Air Power Upon Problems Of The Defence Of The British Empire. It Does Not Enter Into Any Details Either Of Air Fighting (for Which ...

Air
Air, The Atmosphere That Surrounds The Earth. With The Development Of Analytical And Especially Of Pneumatic Chemistry, The Air Was Recognized Not To Be One Homogeneous Substance, As Was Long Supposed, And Different "airs," Or Gases, Came To Be Distinguished. At The End Of The I8th Century Oxygen Gas Was ...

Airbrush
Airbrush, A Machine Used For Applying Liquid Colouring Powders, Flock, Latex, And Glazes To A Surface By Means Of Com Pressed Air. The Use Of Compressed Air For The Atomization Of Liquids Has Been Known For Many Years, But It Is Only In The Last 35 Years That The Principle ...

Aircraft Carrier Washingtonconference
Aircraft Carrier - Washington Conference Restrictions Restrictions On Aircraft Carriers Formed Part Of The Washington Treaty (q.v.). These Restrictions Implied That The Aircraft Carrier Is Now Recognized As A Definite And Essential Unit In A Modern Fleet. The Other Naval Powers Followed The British Lead In Building This Type Of ...

Aircraft Carrier
Aircraft Carrier. The Advent Of The Aeroplane Has Provided Navies With A New Means Of Reconnoitring For An Enemy; Of Observing His Movements; And Correcting Gunfire. In Fact, Aircraft Have Joined The .cruiser Of To-day, The Frigate Of Old, As The "eyes" Of The Fleet. Moreover, They Have Extended The ...

Aircraft In War
Aircraft In War. Airships And Aeroplanes, As Distinct From Captive Balloons, Were First Used In Warfare By The Italian Army During The Campaign Against The Turkish Forces In Tripoli In 1911 And 1912. With The Exception Of Aerial Combat, There Being No Enemy Aircraft To Encounter, Most Of The Features ...

Airdrie
Airdrie, Burgh Of Barony, Municipal And Police Burgh, Lanarkshire, Scotland. Pop. It Is Um. E. Of Glasgow By The L.n.e. Railway, And Connects With Glasgow By The Monkland Canal, As Well As By The L.m.s. Railway Via Coat Bridge And Whifflet. The Canal (constructed 1761—go) Connects With The Forth And ...

Aire
Aire, A Town Of North France, On The Lys, In The Department Of Pas-de-calais, I 2m. S.s.e. Of St. Omer By Rail. Pop. (1931) 7,538. The Town Lies In A Low And Marshy Situation At The Junction Of Three Canals. In The Middle Ages Aire Belonged To The Counts Of ...

Aire_2
Aire, A Town Of South-west France, In The Department Of Landes, On The Adour, 2 2m. S.e. Of Mont-de-marsan On The Railway Between Morcenx And Tarbes. Pop. , 1 ,949 Aire (atura, Vices Julii) Was The Residence Of The Kings Of The Visigoths, And There Alaric Ii. (q.v.), Drew Up ...

Airplane Or Aeroplane Minimum
Airplane Or Aeroplane - Minimum Speed Of Flight It Is The Impossibility Of Steady Flight Below The Stalling Speed That Constitutes The Chief Danger Of Air Travel. Many Attempts Have Been Made To Avoid This Source Of Danger By Devising An Aeroplane Which Would Be Capable, As A Whole, Of ...

Airscrew
Airscrew, The Designation Of All Those Devices Which, When Rotated, Tend To Screw Their Way Forward, Sucking The Air From In Front And Throwing It Away Behind, Or Which, When Placed In A, Moving Stream Of Air, Are Themselves Rotated. The Term Covers (i) Fans Of A Certain Type, (2) ...

Airship Sheds
Airship Sheds. Airship Sheds Or Hangars Are Used To Accommodate Airships During Construction, Repair Or Docking. The Increase In The Cubic Capacity Of Airships Has Necessitated A Corre Sponding Increase In Their Housing Accommodation Until The Mod Ern Hangar Ranks Amongst The Biggest Buildings Of The World. When The Dirigible ...