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Amen Hotep
Amen Hotep, I.–iv.: See Egypt, The New Empire. Amenorrhoea Is The Absence Of Menstruation Between The Age Of Puberty And The Menopause. In Those Who Have Never Menstruated The Cause Of Amenorrhoea Is Usually Poor General Health Or Anaemia. Occasionally It Is Found To Be An Abnormality In The Development ...

Amen
Amen. This Old Hebrew Expression Has Become "perhaps The Most Widely Known Word In Human Speech," Being Used To Day In Worship Not Only By Jews But By Christians And, In A Minor Degree, By Mohammedans. (a) As A Religious Term Expressing Affirmation And Desire It Signifies (as In The ...

Amendment
Amendment, An Improvement, Correction Or Alteration (nominally At Least) For The Better. The Word Is Used Either Of Moral Character Or, More Especially, In Connection With "amend Ing" A Bill Or Motion In Parliament Or Resolution At A Meeting; And In Law It Signifies The Correction Of Any Defect In ...

Amenemhet I
Amenemhet I., The Ruler Of Egypt Who Began The 12th Dynasty (c. 2212 B.c. ?) . His Personal Name, Was Sehetepibre, Which Shows That He Was Especially Devoted To Amon (q.v.), The God Of Epet. (see Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. I. 2nd Ed., 1924.) ...

Amentaceae Or Amentiferae
Amentaceae Or Amentiferae. This Name Was Formerly Used To Include The Families Of Plants Which Bear Their Flowers In Catkins (amenta) . It Comprised The Families Salicaceae, Willows And Poplars, Juglandaceae, Walnut And Hickory, Betulaceae, Birch And Alder, Fagaceae, Oak, Beech And Chestnut. It Is Not Used In The Most ...

Amercement Or Amerciament
Amercement Or Amerciament, In English Law, An Arbitrary Pecuniary Penalty, Inflicted In Old Days On An Offender By The Peers Or Equals Of The Party Amerced. The Word Has In Modern Times Become Practically A Poetical Synonym For Fine Or Deprivation. But An Amercement Differed From A Fixed Fine, Prescribed ...

Ameria
Ameria (mod. Amelia), Umbria, About 65m. N. Of Rome On The Via Amerina (which Diverged From The Via Cassia, Passing Through Castellum Amerinum, Probably Mod. Orte, Where It Crossed The Tiber). It Has A Fine Position, 1,332ft. Above Sea-level, And Still Retains Considerable Remains Of The City Wall With Jointed ...

America General Historicalsketch
America - General Historical Sketch The Name America Was Derived From That Of Amerigo Vespucci (q.v.). In Waldseemueller's Map Of 1507 The Name Is Given To A Body Of Land Roughly Corresponding To The Continent Of South America. As Discovery Revealed The Existence Of Another Vast Do Main To The ...

America Islands
America Islands, A Name Said To Have Been Given To Christmas, Fanning, Palmyra And Attendant Islets; They Have Also Been Called The Line Islands. ...

America Pre Columbian Discoveries
America - Pre-columbian Discoveries Alleged Discoveries Of The Continent Or Islands Of America By Europeans Before Columbus Lack Foundation, With The Exception Of Those Made By The Norsemen. Because Of The Geographical Conditions It Was Natural That They Should Be The First To Discover Territory In The Western Hemisphere. They ...

America
America, The General Name By Which The Huge Continent Called The Western Hemisphere Is Now Known. It Is Commonly Agreed That The Name Is Derived From That Of The Navigator, Amerigo Ves Pucci (q.v.). America Is Divided Geographically And Ethnologically Into Three Parts : North America (canada And The United ...

American Association For The
American Association For The Advance Ment Of Science, Founded In 1848 And Incorporated In 1874, Is An Organization Which "aims To Advance Science In The New World In Every Feasible Way." Its Membership Was Approxi Mately 15,000 In 1927, The Majority Of The Members Residing In The United States And ...

American Association Of Advertising
American Association Of Advertising Agencies, An Organization Comprised Of Approximately 140 Of The Leading Advertising Agencies In The United States And Can Ada. For Convenience The Association Is Divided Into Five Councils, One For Each Active Business Section Of The Country. The Purposes Of The Association Centre Around The Improvement ...

American Car And Foundry
American Car And Foundry Company, A Leading Manufacturer In The United States Of Railway Equipment And Various Allied Products. Its Incorporation In 1899 Effected The Union Of 13 Important Manufacturing Concerns, Situated In Eight Different States From New York To Missouri, With The Avowed Purpose Of Engaging In The Manufacture ...

American Civil War
American Civil War, A Conflict Lasting Four Years In The United States Of America Between Eleven States Of The South, Which Asserted Their Right To Leave The Union, And The States And Territories Of The North, Which Were Determined To Maintain The Union. The Southern States Contained Slightly Over Half ...

American College Of Physicians
American College Of Physicians, An Asso Ciation Of Physicians Engaged In The Study And Practice Of Internal Medicine In Its Various Branches. It Was Legally Chartered On May Ii, 1915, Under The Laws Of The State Of Delaware As A Corpora Tion "not For Profit." The Objects Of The College ...

American College Of Surgeons
American College Of Surgeons, An American College Or Guild (not A Teaching Institution), Whose Fellowship Em Braced In 1939 Approximately 12,50o Qualified Surgeons And Surgi Cal Specialists, Principally In North And South America. The College Was Organized In 1913 By Some Soo Surgeons Of North America, Leaders In Every Branch ...

American Farm Bureau Federation
American Farm Bureau Federation, An Agricultural Organization Founded In 1919 As An Outgrowth Of The County Farm Bureau Movement, Which Was Organized To Provide A Constructive Organization To Work With The County Agricultural Agents, To Assist More Effectively In Carrying Forward The Extension Program. County Bureaus, Voluntary Societies Of Farmers, ...

American Federation Of Labor
American Federation Of Labor. The Ameri Can Federation Of Labor Was Organized In Pittsburgh, Pennsyl Vania, November 15, 1881 By A Group Of Trade Unionists Represent Ing 50,00o Members. Today It Represents Ro4 National And Inter National Unions Which Comprise 33,744 Local Unions, 4 Depart Ments, 1,563 Directly Affiliated Local ...

American Institute Of
American Institute Of An Educational Institution Incorporated In 1925 In The District Of Columbia And Holding A Session For A Month Each Summer. The Idea Originated In 1923 In The National Co-operative Milk Pro Ducers' Federation And Readily Gained The Support Of Other Agri Cultural Organizations. The Purpose Of The ...

American Law Publiclaw
American Law - Public Law The Public Law Of The United States Largely Revolves Around (i) The Federal System; (2) The Written Constitution; And (3 ) The Judicial Construction Of Written Constitutions. These Three Elements Are Closely Related, For The United States Supreme Court Has From An Early Day Been ...

American Legion
American Legion, An Organization Of World War Veterans Who Served Honourably In The Armed Forces Of The United States Or Who, As American Citizens, Entered The Armed Forces Of A Government Associated With The United States In The War. Organ Ization Was Effected And A National Charter Was Granted By ...

American Literature Colonialamerica
American Literature - Colonial America: 1607-1765 Before 1800, It Must Be Remembered, America Was Still Only A Strip Of Seacoast Lying Between The Appalachian Mountains And The Ocean, Rugged And Infertile In The North, With Abundant Har Bours And Streams Of Vast Potential Horsepower; And Widening Into Broad Alluvial Plains ...

American Literature Thechange
American Literature - The Change To Realism: 1870-1900 In The Two Decades Following The Civil War, Which Have Come To Be Called The Gilded Age, The Intellectual Outlook Was Greatly Changed. The Traditional Cosmos Of The Theologians Was Disinte Grating And A New Scientific And Sceptical Attitude Was Spreading. Of ...

American Literature Thenew
American Literature - The New Nation: Into The Provincial Quiet Of Colonial Life With Its Sober Colonial Psychology Came The Discords Of The Revolutionary Disputes, Fol Lowed By Six Years Of Civil War And A Harsh Dismemberment Of The Dignified Colonial Society. With The Expulsion Of The Loyalists —often The ...

American Literature Thenineteenth
American Literature - The Nineteenth Century The 19th Century In America, Disregarding Formal Chronology, Was, So Far As Literature Is Concerned, The Period From The Close Of The Second War With England (1815) To The War With Spain (1898), A Period Cut Sharply Across By The Civil War (1861-65). In ...

American Literature Theromantic
American Literature - The Romantic Revolution: With The Conclusion Of The War Of Began Dynamic Changes In American Life And Modes Of Thought That Created A Native Ro Manticism Of Temper. Few Periods In American Experience Have Been So Revolutionary. The Rise Of Jack Sonian Democracy, The Beginnings Of Indus ...

American Literature Thetwentieth
American Literature - The Twentieth Century A Survey Of American Literature From 1900 On Must Deal Chiefly With Movements And Tendencies Rather Than With Master Pieces, Schools And Types. There Are Two Reasons For This. We Are Still Too Close To Our Contemporaries To Discriminate With Even That Reasonable Probability ...

American Literature Transition
American Literature - Transition Change In Literary Values Was, In America, Sharp Est In Poetry. The So-called Renaissance In American Poetry Might Better Be Called A Revolution. It Was A Result Of New Interests, New Ideas Acting Upon The Sensitive Minds Of The Poets, And Resulting Both In A New ...

American Literature Warand
American Literature - War And Post-war The World War Had A Dominant Effect Upon American Ideas, But Much Less Upon American Imagination. In The First Three Years Of The Conflict, When The United States Was A Noncombatant, A Flood Of European Writing Was Discharged Upon The Country, And This Was ...

American Literature
American Literature. The History Of American Literature Is The History Of The Slow Differentiation From The Parent Stock Of A Transplanted Language And Culture. Beginning As An Off Shoot From English Literature It Gradually Differentiated In Manner And Matter As Diverse Experience Thrust The Two Peoples Apart, Un Til It ...

American Locomotive Company
American Locomotive Company, A Large Manufacturer In The United States Of Steam. Electric And Diesel Locomotives And Locomotive Accessories; Springs, Tires And Wheels For Locomotives And Railway Cars; Diesel Engines For Marine, Sta Tionary And Rail Transportation Purposes; Complete Oil Refinery Equipment Including Distilling, Fractionating And Treating Plants; Heat Exchange ...

American Medical Association
American Medical Association, A Federacy Of 54 Constituent State And Territorial Medical Associations, Was Organized In 1847. In 1939, There Were 114,00o Members. The Objects Of The Association Are To Promote The Science And Art Of Medicine And The Betterment Of Public Health. All Policies Of The Association Are Established ...

American Newspaper Publishers Asso
American Newspaper Publishers' Asso Ciation, An Organization Of Newspaper Publishers Of The United States And Canada. It Comprises About ;oo Of The Leading News Papers. The Purpose Of The Organization Is To Standardize And Stabilize The Newspaper Publishing Business. Its Activities Are Divided Into Three Different Divisions: (a) Traffic; (b) ...

American Practice
American Practice With Regard To Accident And Health Insurance In The United States, American Practice Differs In Various Details From That Of Great Britain, Though The General Principles Are The Same. In America The Proposer Is Called The Applicant And The Proposal Becomes The Application, While The Capital Sum Is ...

American Radiator Standardsani
American Radiator & Standard Sani Tary Corporation, A Corporation Directly And Through A Group Of Subsidiary Companies Manufacturing And Supplying Mechanical Equipment For Buildings, Was Organized In 1929 As A Delaware Corporation Through A Merger Of The Interests Of The American Radiator Company And The Standard Sanitary Manu Facturing Company. ...

American Rails
American Rails, A Term Used On The London Stock Exchange To Describe The Stock And Bonds Of The United States Railways, Which Are Dealt In By A Distinct Market. The Shares And Bonds Of American Railroads Are Issued In A Way Which Almost Constitutes Them Bearer Securities, For They Bear ...

American Society Of Naturalists
American Society Of Naturalists Is An "as Sociation Of Working Naturalists For The Discussion Of Methods Of Investigation And Instruction, Laboratory Technique And Museum Administration, And Other Topics Of Interest To Investigators And Teachers Of Natural History; And For The Adoption Of Such Measures As Shall Tend To The Advancement ...

American War Of
American War Of 1812: See War Of 1812. American Woolen Company, Incorporated In 1899, Is The Largest Manufacturer Of Men's And Women's Woollen And Worsted Fabrics In The United States. At The End Of The Year The Company Owned And Operated Twenty-seven Mills, Most Of Which Are Located In New ...

Americanism
Americanism, A Term First Used By John Witherspoon, President Of Princeton University, In 1 781, Designates (a) Any Word Or Combination Of Words Which, Taken Into The English Language In The United States, Has Not Gained Acceptance In Eng Land, Or, If Accepted, Has Retained Its Sense Of Foreignness; And ...

Americanization
Americanization. The Popular Use Of The Word Americanization, And The General Acceptance In The United States Of The Idea It Stands For, Date From The Early Months Of The World War. Long Before The United States Became An Actual Belligerent, American Reactions To European Hostilities Had Revealed The Fact, Long ...

Americas Cup
America's Cup, An International Yacht-racing Trophy First Won By The Schooner "america" Of The New York Yacht Club In 1851. In 185o An English Merchant Suggested To Friends In The United States That One Of The Fast New York Pilot Boats Be Sent To England In The Ensuing Year To ...

Americus
Americus, A City Of Georgia, U.s.a., About 71 M. S.s.w. Of Macon, On The Dixie Highway, The Central Of Georgia Railway, And The Seaboard Air Line; The County Seat Of Sumter County. The Population In 192o Was 9,01o, And In 193o It Was 8,76o. Americus Is The Trading Centre Of ...

Amerind Folklore
Amerind Folklore Offers An Exceptional Field To The Student, Since Its Psychological Factors Are Racially Homogeneous And Practically Untouched By Intrusive Influences. Its Cultural Complexes Exhibit Subtle Intergradings All The Way From Simple Hunting Societies To Town-building Agricultural Co-operative Corn Munities. The Continuity Of Aboriginal Cultures In Mexico With Those ...

Amerind Or Amerindian
Amerind Or Amerindian, A Word Coined By Major J. W. Powell, Director Of The Bureau Of American Ethnology, To Designate The Aboriginal Inhabitants Of The American Continent. The Term "american Indian" Being Too Cumbersome For General Use, Was Frequently Abbreviated To "indian," Thereby Leading To Confusion With The Inhabitants Of ...

Amersfoort
Amersfoort, Town In The Province Of Utrecht, Holland, On The Navigable Eem, And A Junction Station 14m. By Rail N.e. By E. Of Utrecht. Pop. (1900) 19,089, (1930) 38,549. It Is Situ Ated Among Sandy Heaths And Woods. The Koppelpoort, An Old Gateway, Ends An Avenue Bordering The Canal. The ...

Amersham
Amersham, Market Town Of South Buckinghamshire, Eng Land, Placed In The Narrow Valley Of The Misbourne Stream, Giving Access To Wendover And Aylesbury Via The Chiltern Hills. Popu Lation Of Rural District At The Time Of The Domesday Survey Amersham Was Divided Into Six Holdings. The Manor Was Held By ...

Amesbury
Amesbury, A Market Town, Wiltshire, England, Lying In The Rich And Well-wooded Valley Of The Avon, Amid The Chalk Downs Of Salisbury Plain, 8 M. N. Of Salisbury; Population Of Rural Dis Trict (1931) 16,883. The Neighbourhood Is Very Rich In Remains Of Prehistoric Man, Among Which Stonehenge (q.v.), 12 ...

Amesbury_2
Amesbury, A Town Of Essex County, In North-east Massa Chusetts, U.s.a., On The Merrimac River, Between The City Of Newburyport And The New Hampshire Border, 43 M. N. Of Boston. It Is Served By The Boston And Maine Railroad, And Is Connected By Electric Line With Haverhill And Newburyport And ...

Amethyst
Amethyst, A Violet Or Purple Variety Of Quartz Used As An Ornamental Stone. The Name Is Generally Said To Be Derived From The Gr. A, "not" And Ue7varcerv, "to Intoxicate," Expressing The Old Belief That The Stone Protected Its Owner From Strong Drink. It Was Held That Wine Drunk Out ...

Ametropia
Ametropia. The Normal Refractive Condition Of The Eye Is Known As Emmetropia. Any Departure From This Condition Is Called Ametropia. Like A Camera, The Eye Is Provided With A Lens And A Light-sensitive Membrane, The Retina. Cornea And The Transparent Substances Which Fill The Eyeball Aid The Refractive Power Of ...

Amhara
Amhara, The Central Province Of Abyssinia. The Chief Town, Gondar (q.v.), By Which Name The Province Is Also Known, Was The Residence Of The Negus Negust, Or Emperor, Of Abyssinia From The Middle Ages Up To ...

Amharic
Amharic. The Most Important Language Spoken In Abys Sinia (q.v.) Is Amharic, Which Belongs To The Semitic Family (q.v.), But Has Been Greatly Modified By Hamitic Influences. The Order Of The Words Is That Usual In Hamitic Speech, The Verb Corn Ing Last And Subordinate Words Preceding Those With Which ...

Amherst College
Amherst College, One Of The Best Known Of The So Called Small New England Colleges, Is Situated In A Beautiful Am Phitheatre Of Hills In The Town Of Amherst (q.v.), Massachusetts. It Was Founded In 1821 But Did Not Receive Its Charter Until I 8 2 5. Like Most Early ...

Amherst
Amherst, A Village And District In The Tenasserim Division Of Lower Burma. The Village Is About 3om. S. Of Moulmein. It Was Founded By The British In 1826 On The Restoration Of The Town Of Martaban To The Burmese, And Named In Compliment To The Governor-general Of India Of That ...

Amherst_2
Amherst, County Town, Cumberland County, Port Of Entry In Nova Scotia, Canada, At The Head Of Chignecto Bay And On Tin. Canadian National Railway, 138m. From Halifax. Pop. (1931) It Is In A Rich Agricultural And Mining District, Contains Numerous Factories, And Has An Especially Large Trade In Lumber And ...

Amherst_3
Amherst, A Town Of Hampshire County, Mass., U.s.a., In The Central Part Of The State, With A Population In 193o Of 5,888 (federal Census). The Village Of Amherst, About Loom. W. Of Boston, Is Situated On A Plateau Within A Rampart Of Hills On The East Side Of The Connecticut ...

Amianthus
Amianthus, A Name Applied To The Finer Kinds Of Asbestos (q.v.), In Consequence, It Is Said Of The Mineral Being Unaffected By Fire (gr. A/lavtos, Undefiled). Some Of The Finest Amianthus, With Long Silky Flexible Fibres, Occurs In The District Of The Taren Taise In Savoy. According To Dr. J. ...

Amice
Amice (lat. Amictus, From Amicire, To Wrap Round), Some Times Called Humerale (from Humerus, Shoulder), A Liturgical Vest Ment Of The Western Church. It Is A Rectangular Linen Cloth, With A Small Cross Sewn Or Embroidered In The Middle, Which Is Wrapped Round The Neck, Shoulders And Breast. It Is ...

Amicus Curiae
Amicus Curiae, A Term Used Primarily In Law, Signifying A Person (usually A Member Of The Bar) Who, Having Special Knowl Edge But Not Being Engaged In The Action, Intervenes During Its Hearing To Give Information For The Assistance Of The Court, Either Upon Some Fact Relevant To The Issue ...

Amides
Amides (acid-amides), Chemical Compounds Which May Be Considered As Derived From Ammonia By Replacement Of Its Hydro Gen With Acyl Residues, Which Are The Characteristic Groups Of Organic Acids, Derivable From These By Removal Of The Acidic Hy Droxyl Group Or Groups; The Substances Produced Are Known As Primary, Secondary ...

Amidines
Amidines, The Name Given To Compounds Of General Formula R•c : (nh) Which May Be Considered As Derived From The Acid-amides, R•co•nh2 (see Amides) By Replace Ment Of Oxygen By The Divalent Imino (=nh) Group. They May Be Prepared By The Action Of Ammonia Or Amines On Imide Chorides Or ...

Amiens
Amiens, North France, Capital Of The Department Of Somme, On The Left Bank Of The Somme, 81m. N. Of Paris On The North Ern Railway To Calais. Pop. (1931) 83,377. Though Involved In The World War And Severely Bombarded, The City Retains Its Pre War Aspect. The Old Town Occupies ...

Amines
Amines, In Chemistry, Derivatives Of Ammonia (q.v.) In Which One Or More Of The Three Hydrogen Atoms Are Replaced By Alkyl Or Aryl Groups. The Replacement Of One Hydrogen Atom By One Alkyl Or Aryl Group Gives Rise To Primary Amines; Of Two Hydrogen Atoms By Two Groups To Secondary ...

Aminosis
Aminosis, The Abnormal Presence Of Amino-acids In The Organism. Proteins Are Made Up Of Long Chains Of Amino-acids. In The Process Of Metabolism The Proteins Are Split Up Into Their Constituent Amino-acids. Some Of These Acids Are Used In The Synthesis Of New Body Proteins, But The Majority Are Further ...

Amir Or Ameer
Amir Or Ameer, A Title Common In The Mohammedan East (from An Arabic Word Meaning "commander," From The Root Amr, "commanding") . The Form Emir Is Also Employed In English. The Word Originally Signified A Naval Or Military Commander, But Very Early Came To Be Applied To Any High Office-bearer, ...

Amis Et Amiles
Amis Et Amiles, The Title Of An Old French Romance. In Its Earlier And Simpler Form It Is The Story Of Two Friends, One Of Whom, Amis, Was Smitten With Leprosy Because He Had Com Mitted Perjury To Save His Friend. A Vision Informed Him That He Could Only Be ...

Amiterndm
Amiterndm, An Ancient Town Of The Sabines, About 5m. N. Of Aquila, In The Broad Aternus Valley From Which, Says Varro, It Took Its Name. Stormed By The Romans In 293 B.c. It Suffered In The Wars Of The Republic, But Its Fertility Made It Prosperous Under The Empire. It ...

Amitosis
Amitosis, A Term Used In Biology To Denote The Processes Of Cell Division When The Nucleus Does Not Pass Through The Com Plicated Series Of Changes Normally Associated With That Phenome Non (see Mitosis). Amitosis Occurs In Some Of The Lower Forms Of Life And Also In Malignant Growths (cancers) ...

Amlwch
Amlwch (am'looch), Market Town Of Anglesey, North Wales, Situated On Slightly Rising Ground On The North-east Coast Of The Island, 15 M. N.w. Of Beaumaris. Rather More Than Three Miles Distant On The Coast Are The Remains Of A Romano-british Earthwork, While Near At Hand A Mediaeval Settlement Is Repre ...

Ammanford
Ammanford, Urban District, Carmarthenshire, Wales. Pop. (1931) 7,160. Situated Near The Junction Of The River Am Man With The Loughor 17 Miles E. Of Carmarthen Town. This Region Has Associations With Welsh Folk-lore, Particularly The Hunting Of Twrch Trwth (mabinogion), And With The Physicians Of Myddfai (a Village In East ...

Ammendorf
Ammendorf, A Town Lying On The River Elster Between Halle And Merseburg, Prussian Saxony. Pop. (1933) 13,787. It Is A Centre For Lignite And Briquette Industries, Also Producing Machines, Chemicals, Paper And Cardboard. ...

Ammianus Marcellinus
Ammianus Marcellinus, Roman Historian, Was Born About A.d. 325-330 At Antioch; The Date Of His Death Is Unknown But He Must Have Lived Till 391, As He Mentions Aurelius Victor As The City Prefect For That Year. He Was A Greek Of Noble Birth. He Entered The Army At An ...

Ammines
Ammines, In Chemistry, Compounds Resulting From The Addi Tion Of Ammonia, To Metallic Salts Or Other Binary Chemical Compounds. (see Chemistry: Inorganic; Co-ordination ; Val Ency.) The Ammine Formed From Copper Sulphate Is The Essential Constituent In Schweitzer's Reagent Which Is Used As A Solvent For Cellulose In The Preparation ...

Ammonia
Ammonia And Its Salts Have Been Known From Very Early Times, Sal-ammoniac Being Mentioned By Pliny. By The Action Of Alkalis On This, Basil Valentine Obtained Free Ammonia In The 15th Century; Later, Ammonia Was Obtained By Distilling The Hoofs And Horns Of Oxen, And Was Therefore Called "spirits Of ...

Ammoniacum Or Gum Ammoniac
Ammoniacum Or Gum Ammoniac, A Exuded From The Stem Of A Perennial Herb (dorema Ammoniacum), Family Umbelliferae. The Plant Grows To The Height Of 8 Or 9ft., And Its Whole Stem Is Pervaded With A Milky Juice, Which Oozes Out On An Incision Being Made At Any Part. This Juice ...

Ammonite
Ammonite, A Group Of Extinct Mollusca, Belonging To The Class Cephalopoda (q.v.), Which Also Includes The Octopus And Cuttlefish. They Possessed An External Shell, Coiled In A Flat Spiral And Divided Into Chambers Very Similar To That Of The Modern Nautilus (q.v.). Many Reached A Great Size, The Largest, Pachydiscus ...

Ammonites
Ammonites, A People Of Ancient Transjordania, Believed To Be Allied To Israel, But Still More Closely To Moab. Their Home Was To The North And North-east Of Moab, And Their Chief City, Rabbath-ammon (later Philadelphia, The Modern Amman) Stood On The Banks Of A Tributary Of The Jabbok. Like The ...

Ammonium
Ammonium Exists Only In Combination As A Monovalent Basic Radicle, (see Aaiaio Ia.) ...

Ammonius Saccas
Ammonius Saccas (c. 16o-242), The Founder Of Neo Platonism, Was Originally An Alexandrian Porter, And, According To Porphyry As Quoted By Eusebius, A Christian. His Self-instruc Tion In Philosophy Was Thorough Enough To Attract Disciples Of Such Calibre As Longinus, The Grammarian, Origen, And Plotinus. Since He Designedly Left No ...

Ammontus
Ammontus Tielzmiae (5th Century A.d.) Greek Philos Opher, The Son Of Hermeias. He Taught At Alexandria And Had Among His Scholars Asclepius, John Philoponus, Damascius, And Simplicius. His Commentaries On Plato And Ptolemy Are Lost. Of His Commentaries On Aristotle We Have—(i) One On The Isagoge Of Porphyry (venice, 1,5oo ...

Ammunition Aeroplane Bombs
Ammunition - Aeroplane Bombs Types Of Bombs.—bombs Are Of Two Main Types, Explosive And Chemical Bombs. The Explosive Bombs Are Further Subdivided Into Demolition And Fragmentation Bombs. The Demolition Bombs Are Intended For Destruction Of Enemy Works And Depend Pri Marily Upon Blast Or Shock Effect For The Destruction Of ...

Ammunition For Other Weapons
Ammunition For Other Weapons Small Arm Ammunition Is Used With Rifles, Machine-guns, Re Volvers And Pistols. Its Early His Tory Is Closely Allied To That Of Ammunition For Ordnance, But As Early As 1586 A Composite Car Tridge Was Used By Musketeers, Consisting Of A Bullet And Powder Charge Wrapped ...

Ammunition Technical
Ammunition - Technical A Round Of Small Arm Ammunition, Commonly Called A Cart Ridge, Consists Of (a) A Cartridge Case, (b) Percussion Cap, (c) Propellent Charge And (d) A Bullet. For All S.a.a. Certain Stand Ards Of Accuracy And Range Are Necessary, And Erosion, Wear, Metallic Fouling, And Hang Fires ...

Ammunition The Unitedstates
Ammunition - The United States A Round Of Ammunition For A Gun, In The United States, Con Sists Of A Cannon Primer, A Propelling Charge With Its Container, A Projectile And A Fuse. ...

Ammunition
Ammunition, A Military Term Which Includes Projectiles Used With Ordnance, Rifles And Similar Weapons, Together With The Requisite Propellents, Fuses, Cartridges And Means Of Ignition. Ammunition For Ordnance Berthold Schwartz, A German Monk, Is Credited With The In Vention Of Cannon In Europe In 1313. The First Projectiles Used With ...

Amnesia
Amnesia, A Term Used In Psychopathology For Functional Disturbances Of Memory (gr. Aj.wsp La, Forgetfulness). An Am Nesia May Be General, In Which Case All Functions Of Memory Are Involved, Or Partial, In Which Case Only Certain Groups Of Ideas, Proper Names, The Meanings Of Words, Special Events And Their ...

Amnesty
Amnesty, An Act Of Grace By Which The Supreme Power In A State Restores Those Who May Have Been Guilty Of Any Offence Against It To The Position Of Innocent Persons. It Includes More Than Pardon, Inasmuch As It Obliterates All Legal Remembrance Of The Offence. Amnesties, Which May Be ...

Amniota
Amniota, A Term Sometimes Used In Zoology To Denote Col Lectively The Reptiles, Birds And Mammals. The Word Refers To The Presence In All Three Groups Of A Membrane, The Amnion, Round The Developing Young And Enclosing A Fluid-filled Space. (see Vertebrate Embryology.) ...

Amoeba
Amoeba, The Name Given To Certain Microscopic Animals (see Protozoa) Which Creep Along And Engulf Their Prey By Out Thrust And Retraction Of Pseudo Podia, Or Lobose Processes Of The Naked Undivided Protoplasmic Mass Of Which Their Bodies Are Composed (see Pseudopodium). These Animalcules Are Found In Fresh Water And ...

Amon
Amon, The Human-headed God Of Thebes, Was Probably A Local Variety Of The Ancient God Min Of Coptos. The Temple Of Karnak Was His Home; It Was Called "the Thrones Of The Two Lands" (nesut-toui). He Had Also A Temple Of Later Foundation In Southern Epet (luxor) . ...

Amontillado
Amontillado, One Of The Two Chief Types Of Sherry Wine Exported. It Is Sweet And Full-bodied, And Derives Its Name From The Town Of Montilla In Southern Spain (see Sherry). ...

Amoretti
Amoretti, Little Loves, Cupids. The Title Of A Sequence Of Sonnets (published 1595), Written By Edmund Spenser (q.v.) And Dedicated To Elizabeth, Probably The Daughter Of James Boyle, Whom He Married In 1594. The Verses Record The Course Of His Wooing And Close With The Beautiful Ode Or Epithalamion Celebrating ...

Amorites
Amorites. The Amorites Are Known From The Bible (to Gether With The Jebusites, Hivites, Etc.), As A Pre-israelite People In Canaan, And Also As The Inhabitants Of Two Trans-jordan King Doms (num. Xxi.). The Later Israelites Believed That This Primitive Race Was One Of Giants (amos Ii. 9 ; Deut. ...

Amoroso
Amoroso (ital.), A Musical Term Signifying That The Passage So Marked Is To Be Played In An Amorous Style, That Is, With Warmth And Tenderness ; Con Amore Has The Same Meaning. ...

Amorphism
Amorphism Is A Term Derived From A, Privative, And Popc517, Form, And Is Used In Chemistry And Mineralogy To De Note The Absence Of Regular Or Crystalline Structure In A Body; The Adjective "amorphous," Formless Or Of Irregular Shape, Is Used Technically In The Foregoing Sciences And Also In Biology, ...

Amortization
Amortization, The Paying Off Of A Debt Or Obligation, Or The Extinguishment Of An Asset By Means Of A Series Of Partial Payments Or Charges, Prorated To Extend Over The Period During Which The Obligation Or Asset Will Exist. Such Amortization Pay Ments Are Usually In Annual Or Semi-annual Amounts, ...

Amos Bronson Alcott
Alcott, Amos Bronson (1799-1888), American Edu Cationalist And Writer, Was Born Of Farming Stock In Wolcott (conn.), Nov. 29, 1799. Extrav Agant Pedlar, Visionary School Teacher, Peripatetic Philosopher, Bronson Alcott Gives The Lie To All Theories Of Yankee Shrewd Ness And Thrift. "a Venerable Don Quixote," As Carlyle Termed Him, ...

Amos I
Amos. I. The Book.—like Others Of The Prophetic Books Of The Old Testament, The Book Of Amos Is A Compilation Which Probably Reached Its Present Form Long After The Time Of The Prophet Whose Words It Enshrines. We Can Trace The Usual Three Types Of Source: (a) Oracular Matter, Comprising ...

Amoy
Amoy (24° 27' N. 118 ° 4' E.) , A Treaty Port In The Province Of Fukien On The Highly Indented South-eastern Coast Of China. It Lies At The Head Of A Wide Bay, Studded With Islands, Into Which Flows The Kiulung River, Whose Basin Occupies The South-east Of The ...