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Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich
Aldrich, Nelson Wilmarth Ameri Can Politician, Was Born At Foster, R.i., On Nov. 6, 1841. His First Political Service Was As A Member (1869-75) And President (1871-7 2) Of The Providence Common Council. He Was A Mem Ber Of The Lower House Of The Rhode Island Legislature In And Speaker ...

Ness Delirium
Ness ; Delirium.) A Dose Of Alcohol (such As Would Be Present In 2 A Oz. Of Whisky Or 1 A Pints Of Beer) Exerts No Influence On The Performance Of Simple Muscular Acts Not Demanding Precision. For Acts Requir Ing Skill Or Accuracy Efficiency Is Temporarily Impaired By Such ...

Nett
Nett (1873- ), British Politician, Was Born At Gorakhpur, North West Provinces, India, Nov. 22, 1873, And Was Educated At Harrow And Balliol College, Oxford. He Was Elected A Fellow Of All Souls College In 1897, And, After Travelling For A Year In The Near East, In 1899 Joined The ...

Nicholas Amhurst
Amhurst, Nicholas English Political Writer, Was Born At Marden, Kent, Oct. 16 1697, And Died At Twickenham, April 12 1742. He Was Educated At Merchant Tay Lors' School And St. John's College, Oxford. At Oxford He Wrote Many Satirical Poems On University Life, And In 1 759 Was Expelled. Some ...

Nicolas
Nicolas) . In Brief, The Process Consists Of Two Parts, The Salt-cake Process, And The "black Ash" Process. The Salt-cake Process Is Described Elsewhere (see Hydrochloric Acid) ; The Reaction Of Sulphuric Acid With Common Salt Produces Hydrochloric Acid And Sodium Sulphate (salt Cake). (sulphuric Acid) (salt) (sodium Sulphate) (hydrochloric ...

Nicolaus Von Amsdorf
Amsdorf, Nicolaus Von Protestant Reformer, Was Born On Dec. 3 1483, At Torgau, On The Elbe And Died At Eisenach On May 14 1565. He Was Educated At Leipzig, And Then At Wittenberg. Throughout His Life He Re Mained One Of Luther's Most Determined And Active Supporters. He Was With ...

Niels Henrik Abel
Abel, Niels Henrik (18o2--29), Norwegian Mathema Tician, Was Born At Findoe, Aug. 25,1802, And Educated At Christi Ania. His First Notable Work Was A Proof Of The Impossibility Of Solving The Quintic Equation By Radicals. State Aid Enabled Him To Visit Germany And France In 1825. He Spent Six Months ...

Nikolaj Abraham Abildgaard
Abildgaard, Nikolaj Abraham , Danish Painter, Was Born At Copenhagen. He Was Known As The "father Of Danish Painting," Had A Great Reputation In His Own Country, And Was The Master Of Thorwaldsen And Eckersberg. ...

Noel Natalis Alexander Alexandre
Alexandre, Noel (natalis Alexander) (1639-1724), French Theologian And Ecclesiastical Historian, Born At Rouen, Jan. 19, 1639, Was Professor Of Philosophy At The Con Vent Of Saint-jacques In Paris. He Became Provincial Of His Order In 1706, But Was Banished To Chatellerault In 1709 For Hav Ing Subscribed To The Cas ...

North Africa
North Africa The Archaeological Documents Of North Africa Reflect The Cul Tural Conditions Recorded In Its Ancient History, The Imposition Of Successive Alien Civilizations By Dominant Mediterranean Powers Upon A Receptive But Resistant Native Population. The Ancient In Vaders Were (under Their Political Names) Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Vandals And Byzantines; ...

Oakes Ames
Ames, Oakes (1804-1873), American Manufacturer, Cap Italist And Politician, Was Born In Easton, Mass., On Jan. Io 1804. As A Manufacturer Of Shovels, With His Father And His Brother Oliver (1807-77), He Amassed A Large Fortune. From 1863 To 1873 He Was A Republican Member Of The National House Of ...

Of Beverley Alfred
Alfred, Of Beverley, Alredus, Alured Or Aluredus, Was Sacristan Of The Church Of Beverley In The First Half Of The R2th Century. He Wrote, Apparently About The Year 1143, A Chronicle Entitled Annales Sive Historia De Gestis Regum Britan Niae, In Nine Books, Which Begins With The Legend Of Brutus ...

Or Adenoids
Adenoids, Or Adenoid Growths, Masses Of Soft, Spongy Tissue Between The Back Of The Nose And Throat, Occurring Mostly In Young Children; Blocking The Air-way, They Prevent The Due Inflation Of The Lungs And The Proper Development Of The Chest. The Growths Are Apt To Keep Up A Constant Catarrh ...

Or Aguilar De La
Aguilar, Or Aguilar De La Frontera, A Town Of Southern Spain, In The Province Of Cordova. Pop. (1930) Aguilar "of The Frontier" Was So Named In The Middle Ages From Its Position On The Border Of The Moorish Territories. Situated In The South Of The Fertile Campina De Cordoba, Its ...

Or Alidade
Alidade, Or Sight Rule, A Ruler Provided With Sights And Used As An Accessory With The Plane-table Employed For Topographic Survey. (see Surveying.) ...

Or Anastigmat
Anastigmat, Or Anastigmatic Lens, A Photographic Lens Free From Astigmatism (q.v.), And Which Is Capable Of Forming A Large Sharp Image In Which A Relatively Great Quantity Of Light Is Concentrated. (see Photography : Apparatus.) ...

Or Axan Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan, Or Axan, Mohammed Ben Da`ud (io29-72), The Second Sultan Of The Dynasty Of Seljuk, In Persia, And Great-grandson Of Seljuk, The Founder Of The Dynasty, Was Born In The Year A.d. Io29 (421 Of The Hegira). He Assumed The Name Of Mohammed When He Embraced The Muslim Faith; ...

Or Eon Aeon
Aeon, Or Eon, R Greek Term Used To Denote An Indefinite Duration Of Time ; And Hence An Existence That Continues For Ever. In The Latter Sense It Was Used By The Gnostic Sects To Denote Those Eternal Beings Or Manifestations Which Emanated From The One Incomprehensible And Ineffable God. ...

Origin Of Aerodynamic Data
Origin Of Aerodynamic Data Of Design - Aeroplane Or Airplane. The Designer Bases His Calculations On Data Derived From Four Main Sources : ( 1) Theoretical Investigations, Such As The Lan Chester-prandtl Theory Of The Action Of Wings. (2) Experiments On Models In Wind Tunnels. (3) Experiments On Full Scale ...

Oscar Fay Adams
Adams, Oscar Fay (1855-1919), American Author And Editor, Was Born In Worcester, Mass., In 1855. He Was Educated In The New Jersey State Normal School. He Became A Teacher Of English Literature And A Frequent Contributor To Periodicals. In 1886 He Edited Through The Year With The Poets, In 12 ...

Oscar Josef Alin
Alin, Oscar Josef 0846-190o), Swedish Historian And Politician, Was Born At Falun Dec. 22, 1846, And Became Rector Of Uppsala University. Among His Numerous Works The Following Are Specially Worthy Of Note: Bidrag Till Svenska Rddets Historia Und,er Medel Tiden (1872); Sveriges Historia,1511–z6.rr (1878); Bidrag Till Svenska Statsrickets Historia (1884-87); ...

Otto Wilhelm Hermann Von
Abich, Otto Wilhelm Hermann Von (18o6 1886), German Mineralogist, Geologist And Traveller, Was Born In Berlin On Dec. I1, 18o6, And Died In Vienna On July 1, 1886. His Earliest Scientific Work Related To Spinels And Other Minerals, And Later He Made Special Studies Of Fumaroles, Of The Mineral Deposits ...

Outcomes Of Conflict
Outcomes Of Conflict 1. Sublimation.—this Term Is Applied To A Process Whereby The Energy Pertaining To A Given Sexual Impulse Can Lose Its Spe Cifically Sexual Exciting Character And The Impulse In Its Search For Gratification Be Directed Towards A Non-sexual, And Usually Social, Goal. The Process Is Entirely An ...

Pa Olo Agostino Or
Agostino Or Agostini (augustinus), Pa Olo Italian Musician, Was Born At Valerano, And Studied Under G. B. Nanini. He Succeeded Ugolini As Conductor Of The Pope's Orchestra In St. Peter's. Among His Compositions Is An Agnus Dei For Eight Voices, Once Greatly Admired. ...

Part
Part 1.-articles Of Food Which May Contain Preservative And Nature And Proportion Of Preservative In Each Case:— The Articles Of Food Specified In The First Column Of The Following Table May Contain The Preservative Specified In The Second Column In Proportions Not Exceeding The Number Of Parts (estimated By Weight) ...

Pasha Ahmed Vefik
Ahmed Vefik, Pasha (1819-1891), Turkish States Man And Man Of Letters, Was Born In Stambul And Educated In Paris. He Was Appointed To A Post In The Bureau De Traduction Of The Ministry For Foreign Affairs, And Devoted His Leisure To The Translation Of Moliere's Plays Into Turkish And To ...

Pathological Effects Of Alcohol
Alcohol, Pathological Effects Of. The Pathological Effects Of Alcohol Are Due To A Chronic Poisoning Rather Than An Acute. Large Doses May, However, Cause Death Almost Instantaneously By A Reflex Action On The Heart Or By Cardiac And Respiratory Depression After The Drug Has Been Ab Sorbed. If The Alcohol ...

Patrick Abercromby
Abercromby, Patrick (1656 — C. 1716), Scottish Physician And Author, Was Born At Forfar, And Educated At St. Andrews. He Is Best Known As The Author Of The Martial Atchievements Of The Scots Nation (fol. 1711-16), In Which He Had The Assistance Of Many Learned Contemporaries. As A Pam Phleteer ...

Patrick Adamson
Adamson, Patrick (1537-92), Scottish Divine, Arch Bishop Of St. Andrews, Was Born At Perth And Educated At St. Andrews. He Then Spent Some Years In Paris, And Was In Hiding For Seven Months After The Massacre Of St. Bartholomew. He Re Turned To Scotland In 1572, And In 1576 Was ...

Paul Adam
Adam, Paul (1862-192o), French Novelist, Was Born In Paris On Dec. 7, 1862, And Died There On Jan. 2, 192o. He Was Prosecuted For His First Novel, Chair Molle (1885), But Was Ac Quitted. He Collaborated With Jean Moreas In Le The Chez Miranda (1886), And With Moreas And Gustave ...

Paulus Aegineta
Aegineta, Paulus, A Celebrated Surgeon Of The Island Of Aegina, Whence He Derived His Name. According To Le Clerc's Calculation, He Lived In The 4th Century Of The Christian Era ; But Abulfaragius (bar-hebraeus) Places Him With More Probability In The 7th. The Title Of His Most Important Work Is ...

Paulus Aemilius
Aemilius, Paulus (paolo Emili0) (d. 1529), Italian Historian, Was Born At Verona. He Obtained Such Repute In His Own Country That He Was Invited To France In The Reign Of Charles Viii. In Order To Write In Latin The History Of The Kings Of France, And Was Presented To A ...

Pedro Antonio Alarcon
Alarcon, Pedro Antonio ), Spanish Writer, Was Born At Guadix March O 1833. He Had A Consider Able Reputation As A Journalist And Poet When His Play, El Hijo Prodigo, Was Hissed Off The Stage In 1857. The Failure Exasper Ated Alarcon So Much That He Enlisted Under O'donnell As ...

Pedro De Alvarado
Alvarado, Pedro De One Of The Spanish Leaders In The Discovery And Conquest Of America, Was Born At Badajoz About 1495. He Held A Command In The Expedi Tion Sent From Cuba Against Yucatan In The Spring Of 1518, And Returned In A Few Months, Bearing Reports Of The Wealth ...

Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War.) • (3) Agis Ii., Son Of Archidamus Iii., Of The Eurypontid Line, Succeeded His Father In 338 B.c., On The Very Day Of The Battle Of Chaeronea. During Alexander's Asiatic Campaign He Revolted Against Macedonia (333 B•e.) And, With The Aid Of Persian Money And Ships And A ...

Personal Accident Insurance
Accident Insurance, Personal. This Class Of Insurance Dates From The Industrial Revolution Of The Last Century And Was Introduced In Consequence Of The Frequency Of Railway Accidents. Under English Law, In Insurance There Are Certain Pri Mary Principles To Be Observed. First, There Is The Principle Of "the Utmost Good ...

Peter Abelard
Abelard, Peter (1079-1142), Scholastic Philosopher, Was Born In Pallet (palais), Not Far From Nantes, In 1079. He Was The Eldest Son Of A Noble Breton House. He Studied First Under Roscelin, The Extreme Nominalist, And Then Went To The Cathedral School Of Notre Dame, Whose Master Was William Of Champeaux, ...

Phenylamine Or Aminobenzene Aniline
Aniline, Phenylamine Or Aminobenzene, An Organic Base First Obtained From The Destructive Distillation Of Indigo In 1826 By 0. Unverdorben, Who Named It Crystallin . In 1834, F. Runge Isolated From Coal-tar A Sub Stance Which Produced A Beautiful Blue Colour On Treatment With Chloride Of Lime; This He Named ...

Philippe De Croy Aerschot
Aerschot, Philippe De Croy, Duke Of (1526 Prince Of Chimay, Governor-general Of Flanders, Was Born At Valenciennes, And Inherited The Estates Of The Ancient And Wealthy Family Of Croy. He Was Appointed Governor Of The Citadel Of Antwerp When The Spanish Troops Withdrew In 1577. After A Period Of Vacillation ...

Phosphorus Sulphur Ironarsenic
Phosphorus ; Sulphur ; Iron ; Arsenic ; Selenium ; Tin ; Antimony ; Tellurium; Boron And Ice. The Methods Which Have Been Used In Determining Transition Points Are The Following: (a) Dilatometric Method: The Solid Is Sealed In A Bulb Attached To A Capillary Tube; The Bulb Is Then ...

Physiology Scientific Resultstraceable
Physiology - Scientific Results Traceable To Animal Experiment. Passing Over The Fundamental Knowledge Gained In This Way On The Heart And Circulation By William Harvey, Stephen Hales And John Hunter We Have Learned By Animal Experiment To Measure Accurately The Work Done By The Heart And, By Studying The Man ...

Pierre D Or Petrus
Ailly, Pierre D' Or Petrus De Alliaco (1350-1420), French Churchman And Schoolman, Was Born At Compiegne And Studied At The College Of Navarre Of The University Of Paris. He Became Master Of The College In 1384 And Later Obtained The Highest Dignity In The University, The Chancellorship Of Notre Dame. ...

Pietro D Abano
Abano, Pietro D' (c. 1250–c. 1316), Known Also As Pe Trus De Apono Or Aponensis, Italian Physician And Philosopher, Was Born At Abano In 125o Or 1246. After Studying Medicine And Philosophy At Paris He Practised At Padua. He Was Twice Brought To Trial By The Inquisition On A Charge ...

Pomponio Amalteo
Amalteo, Pomponio (1505-1584), Italian Painter Of The Venetian School, Was Born At San Vito In Friuli. He Was A Pupil And Son-in-law Of Pordenone, Whose Style He Closely Imi Tated. His Works Consist Chiefly Of Frescoes And Altar-pieces And Many Of Them (e.g., In The Church Of Santa Maria De' ...

Powder Of Algaroth
Algaroth, Powder Of, A Basic Chloride Of Antimony. It Was Known To Basil Valentine, And Was Used Medicinally By The Veronese Physician Victor Algarotus About The End Of The I6th Century. It May Be Prepared By The Addition Of Much Water To A Solution Of Antimony Chloride, A Bulky Amorphous ...

Power Alcohol
Power Alcohol Whilst Alcohol Can Be Used Like Petrol (gasolene) In Motor En Gines, It Cannot Be Used With Maximum Efficiency By Itself In En Gines Of Modern Motor Vehicles Because It Requires A Higher Degree Of Compression Than Such Engines Are Usually Designed To Stand, And Also Because, Unless ...

Power In Agriculture Drainage
Power In Agriculture; Drainage Of Land; Etc.) Bibliography. The Bibliography Of Agricultural Engineering Conbibliography. The Bibliography Of Agricultural Engineering Con- Sists Chiefly Of The Publications Dealing With Its Various Component Subjects. See Bulletins Of The U.s. Department Of Agriculture And Those Of The State Agricultural Experiment Stations And Extension Services; ...

Power Required For Flight
Power Required For Flight - Aeroplane Or Airplane When An Aeroplane Of Conventional Design And Normal Propor Tions Is Flying Horizontally (in Air Of A Given Density) The Power 'angle Of The Chord To The Longitudinal Axis Of The Aeroplane. The Chord Of The Wing Sections In Fig. 2 Is ...

Primitive Agriculture
Agriculture, Primitive. Agriculture (cultivation Or Tillage Of The Ground F Or The Production Of Plants For Food) Is The Basis Of Civilization, And Primitive Agriculture Marks The Transi Tion From The Lowest Cultural Stage, Commonly Called Savagery. When And Where, How And Why Were The First Steps Taken? No Simple ...

Prince Consort Of England
Albert, Prince Consort Of England (1819 1861), B. At Rosenau Aug. 26, 1819. Francis Charles Augustus Albert Emmanuel Was The Second Son Of The Hereditary Duke Of Saxe-coburg-gotha (belonging To The Ernestine Or Elder Branch Of The Royal Family Of Saxony) By His First Wife, The Princess Louise Of Saxe-gotha-altenburg ...

Principal Raw Materials Used
Principal Raw Materials Used In Manufacture Of Ethyl Alcohol Importation Of Raw Molasses Into The United States Was 2 5,000, 000gal. In The Year Ended June 3o, 1904. For The Year Ended June 3o, 1938, Importation By The United States Of Molasses Not For Human Consumption Was 2 29,306,9o8ga1. And ...

Projectiles
Projectiles Types Of Projectiles.—projectiles For Ordnance May Be Di Vided Into Two Main Classes, Shot And Shell. The Only Shot Now Found In Modern Armaments Are Proof Shot, Practice Shot, Paper Shot And Case Shot. Proof Shot Are Solid Shot Used For Proving Ordnance And Charges. Practice Shot Are Solid ...

Properties Of Alloys
Properties Of Alloys Properties Of Pure Metals.—theproperties Of An Alloy De Pend On The Properties, The Proportions And Arrangement Of The Constituents. Pure Metals Differ Greatly In Specific Properties, Such As Hardness, Melting Point, Electrical Conductivity, Ductility, Density, Etc. Many Of These Properties Are Transmitted To Alloys Of Which A ...

Prospero Alpini
Alpini, Prospero, Or Prosper Alpinus (1553-1617), Italian Physician And Botanist, Was Born At Marostica, In The Republic Of Venice. During A Three Years' Residence In Egypt As Physician To The Italian Consul In Cairo He Studied The Palm Tree, And He Seems To Have Deduced The Doctrine Of The Sexual ...

Psycho Analytical Theory
Psycho-analytical Theory Application Of The Free Association Method And Accompanying Technique Led Freud To His Three Most Important Conclusions. 1. The Unconscious.—the First Was The Demonstration Not Only That Many Mental Processes Are Unconscious, I.e., Both Un Conscious In Themselves And Completely Unknown To Consciousness, But Also That They Could ...

Psychology Of Advertising
Psychology Of Advertising The Psychology Of Advertising Embraces The Application Of Mod Ern Psychology To The Problems Of Advertising. Every Effect Has A Cause : Human Behaviour Is Just As Susceptible Of Interpretation In Terms Of Cause And Effect As Are The Movements Of The Heavenly Bodies. To Understand Behaviour ...

Psychoneuroses
Psychoneuroses At This Point We May Cast Back To Pre-analytical Days And Con Sider, In As Condensed A Way As Possible, The Vast Problem Of The Neuroses As A Whole. Two Contrasting Views Have Always Ob Tained On This Matter, The Popular And The Medical Respectively. According To The Former, ...

R V Aceldama Akeldama
Aceldama (akeldama, R. V.), Land (originally A Potter's Field) Said In Matthew To Have Been Bought By The Priests For A Burial Ground For Strangers With The Money Which Was Returned By Judas, And Could Not Be Put Into The Treasury "because It Was The Price Of Blood," Aramaic W' ...

Radioactivity Transmutation Ofelements
Radioactivity ; Transmutation Of Elements ; Matter.) Bibliography.-l. Zetzner, Theatrum Chemicum (6 Vols., 1613-22) ;bibliography.-l. Zetzner, Theatrum Chemicum (6 Vols., 1613-22) ; Nic. Lenglet-dufresnoy, Histoire De La Philosophie Hermetique (3 Vols., ; Louis Figuier, L'alchimie Et Les Alchimistes (1854) ; Ferd. Hoefer, Histoire De La Chimie (2nd Ed., 2 Vols., ...

Radulph Or Ralph Agas
Agas, Radulph Or Ralph (c. ), English Land Surveyor, Was Born At Stoke-by-nayland, Suffolk. He Is Best Known For His Maps Of Oxford (1578), Cambridge (1592) And London. Copies Of The First Two Are Preserved In The Bodleian Library. Of The Map Of London And Westminster, Which Was Prob Ably ...

Reference T E
Reference.-t. E. Thorpe, Dictionary Of Applied Chemistry (1921). "amines," P. 185. (g. T. M.) ...

Richard Airey Airey
Airey, Richard Airey, Baron (1803-1881), British General, Served In The Crimean War As Quartermaster-general To Lord Raglan. He Was Recognized In The Army As One Of The Best Men On The Staff, But Public Opinion Held Him Responsible For The Failures Of The Commissariat. Airey Demanded An Inquiry In Which ...

Richard Alleine
Alleine, Richard (1611-1681), English Puritan Di Vine, Was Born At Ditcheat, Somerset, Where His Father Was Rector. He Was A Younger Brother Of William Alleine, The Saintly Vicar Of Blandford. Richard Was Educated At St. Alban's Hall, Oxford, And New Inn, And In 1641 Became Rector Of Batcomb (somerset). He ...

Richard Allen
Allen, Richard (176o-1831), American Negro Clergy Man, Was Born Of Slave Parents In Philadelphia, Pa., In I76o. Soon After His Birth His Parents Were Sold Into Slavery In Delaware. At 17 Years Of Age He Joined The Methodist Episcopal Church And When 22 Years Old Was Licensed To Preach. Four ...

Richard Allestree Or Allestry
Allestree Or Allestry, Richard Royalist Divine And Provost Of Eton College, Son Of Robert Alles Tree, And A Descendant Of An Ancient Derbyshire Family, Was Born At Uppington In Shropshire. He Took An Active Part In The Civil War, And During The Commonwealth Frequently Carried Despatches Between Prince Charles And ...

Richard Everard Webster Alverstone
Alverstone, Richard Everard Webster, 1st Viscount (1842-1915), Lord Chief Justice Of England, Was Born Dec. 22, 1842, The Second Son Of Thomas Webster, Q.c., And Died Dec. 15 1915, At Cranleigh, Surrey. He Was Educated At King's College And Charterhouse Schools, And Trinity College, Cambridge; Was Called To The Bar ...

Richard Henry Anderson
Anderson, Richard Henry Ameri Can Soldier, Was Born In South Carolina On Oct. 7, 1821. He Graduated At West Point In 1842, And Won The Brevet Of First Lieutenant In The Mexican War, Becoming First Lieutenant In 1848 And Captain In 1855, And Took Part In The Following Year In ...

Right Of Angary
Angary, Right Of. The Term "angary" Is Derived From A Persian Word Signifying "a Messenger" Upon The Royal Service Who Was Entitled To Requisition Means Of Transport. This Custom Was Adopted In Greece In The 3rd Century B.c. And Passed To Rome. In Corpus Juris, Angaria Denotes Requisition Of Horses, ...

Rithms
Rithms.) Elementary Series.—amongstthose Inheritances From Me Diaeval Arithmetic Which Found Their Way Into The Early Textbooks In Algebra, Was The Topic Of Progressions. This Term Usually Cov Ered The Rules For The Summation Of Simple Types Of Arithmetical And Geometric Series, And Sometimes A Brief Discussion Of Harmonic Series. With ...

Roald Amundsen
Amundsen, Roald (1872-1928), Norwegian Explorer, Was Born July 16 1872, In Borge, A Country District Near Sarps Borg In South-eastern Norway. Educated At Christiania (now Oslo) He Took His B.a. Degree In 18go And Began To Study Medi Cine, But Gave It Up And Went To Sea In 1894. During ...

Robert Adam
Adam, Robert (1728-1792), British Architect, The Sec Ond Son Of William Adam Of Maryburgh, In Fife, And The Most Celebrated Of Four Brothers, John, Robert, James, And William Adam, Was Born At Kirkcaldy In 1728. He Studied At The Uni Versity Of Edinburgh, And Probably Received His First Instruction In ...

Robert Ainsworth
Ainsworth, Robert English School Master And Author, Was Born At Eccles, Near Manchester, In Sept. 1660. Ainsworth's Name Is Associated' With His Latin-english Dictionary, Begun In 1714 And Published In 1736 As Thesaurus Linguae Latinae Compendiarius. He Died In London, April 4, ...

Robert Anderson
Anderson, Robert (17 Scottish Author And Critic, Was Born At Carnwath, Lanarkshire, Jan. 7 175o, And Died At Edinburgh Feb. 20 1830. His Principal Work Was His Edition Of The Works Of The British Poets, With Prefaces Biographical And Critical (1792-1807). ...

Robert Francis Withers Allston
Allston, Robert Francis Withers '864), American Planter And Governor Of South Carolina, Was Born In All Saints' Parish, S.c., On April 21, 1801. He Was Edu Cated At The West Point Academy And Upon His Graduation In 182i He Was Appointed A Lieutenant In The Coast Survey. He Aided In ...

Robert Grant Aitken
Aitken, Robert Grant ), American Astronomer, Was Born In Jackson, Calif., On Dec. 31, 1864. He Was Educated At Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., From Which He Graduated In 1887 And Received The Degree Of M.a. In 1892. In 1888-91 He Was Instructor Of Mathematics In Livermore College, And From 1891 ...

Rodolphus Agricola
Agricola, Rodolphus (properly Roelof Huys Mann) Dutch Scholar, Was Born At Baflo Near Groningen, Aug. 23 1443. He Was Educated At Louvain, Paris, And At Ferrara, Where He Attended The Lectures Of The Celebrated Theodorus Gaza (1400-78) On The Greek Language. In 1482, On The Invitation Of Johann Von Dalberg, ...

Roger Adams
Adams, Roger (1889– ), American Chemist, Was Born In Boston, Mass., On Jan. 2, 1889. He Was Educated At Har Vard University From Which He Graduated In 1909 And Received The Degree Of Ph.d. In 1912. Following Two Years' Study In The Uni Versity Of Berlin And The Kaiser Wilhelm ...

Roman Africa
Africa, Roman, Comprised The Whole Of The Continent Known To The Ancients, Except Egypt And Ethiopia. The Official And Administrative Language Used The Word Africa In A Narrow Sense, As Noticed Below. The Term Was Borrowed By The Romans From The Language Of The Natives. In Latin Literature It Was ...

Root Crops
Root Crops Are Given A Heading, While Turnip, Potato, Man Gold, Etc., Have Separate Articles. There Are Also Articles On Grass And Grassland, Hay And Lucerne. As To Animals And Meat, Articles May Be Consulted On Cattle, Sheep, Pig, Beef, Mutton, Pork, Bacon And Ham, In Addition To The General ...

Roy Chapman Andrews
Andrews, Roy Chapman ), American Naturalist And Explorer, Was Born At Beloit, Wis., On Jan. 26, 1884. Immediately After His Graduation From Beloit College In 1906 He Entered The American Museum Of Natural History, New York, And Went To Alaska On His First Exploring Trip In 1908. In 1909-10 He ...

Royal Academy
Academy, Royal. The Royal Academy Of Arts In Lon Don, To Give It The Original Title In Full, Was Founded In 1768, "for The Purpose Of Cultivating And Improving The Arts Of Painting, Sculpture And Architecture." It Was The Outcome Of Many Attempts Which Had Previously Been Made In England ...

Royal
Royal.) The Academy Of Ancient Music Was Established In London In 1710, With The View Of Promoting The Study And Practice Of Vocal And Instrumental Harmony. About 1734 The Academy Became A Seminary For The Instruction Of Youth In The Principles Of Music And The Laws Of Harmony. The Royal ...

Rudolph Ackermann
Ackermann, Rudolph Inventor And Publisher, Was Born On April 20,1764 At Schneeberg, In Saxony. He Had Been A Saddler And Coach-builder For Ten Years In Different German Cities And In Paris And London, When, In 1795, He Established A Print-shop And Drawing School In The Strand. Ackermann Set Up A ...

Running Amuck
Amuck, Running (or More Properly Amok), The Native Term For The Homicidal Mania Which Attacks Malays. A Malay Will Suddenly And Apparently Without Reason Rush Into The Street Armed With A Kris Or Other Weapon, And Slash And Cut At Every Body He Meets Till He Is Killed. These Frenzies ...

Russell Alexander Alger
Alger, Russell Alexander Ameri Can Soldier And Politician, Was Born In Lafayette Township, Medina County, Ohio, On Feb. 27, 1836. He Was Admitted To The Bar In 1859 And Began Practice At Cleveland, Ohio, But Early In 186o Removed To Michigan, Where He Engaged In The Lumber Business. Enlisting In ...

Safety Of Air Travel
Safety Of Air Travel - Aeroplane Or Airplane. One Reason Why Air Travel Is Not More Common Is A General Public Apprehension Of The Risks Involved. These Risks Are Asso Ciated With The Following Causes: (i) Physical Failure Of The Pilot, ( 2) Fire When In Flight, (3) Collision When ...

Saint Adrian
Adrian, Saint, One Of The Praetorian Guards Of The Emperor Galerius Maximian, Who, Becoming A Convert To Christianity, Was Martyred At Nicomedia On March 4, 3o3. His Limbs Were Struck Off On An Anvil, And He Was Then Beheaded. St. Adrian's Festival, With That Of His Wife, St. Natalia, Is ...

Saint Agnes
Agnes, Saint, A Virgin Martyr Of The Catholic Church. The Legend Of St. Agnes Is That She Was A Roman Maid, By Birth A Christian, Who Suffered Martyrdom At The Age Of 13, During The Reign Of The Emperor Diocletian, On Jan. 21, 304. The Prefect Sempronius Wished Her To ...

Saint Alban
Alban, Saint, The First Martyr Of Britain, Is Said To Have Been Born At Verulamium (st. Albans, Hertfordshire) And To Have Served For Seven Years In Rome In The Army. On His Return To Britain He Is Said By Gildas To Have Been Put To Death As A Chris Tian ...

Saint Ambrose
Ambrose, Saint Bishop Of Milan, One Of The Greatest Fathers Of The Church, Was Born A Roman Citizen About 33 In Treves, Where His Father Was Prefect Of Gallia Narbonensis. His Mother Was A Woman Of Intellect And Piety. Ambrose Was Intended To Follow His Father's Career And Accord Ingly ...

Saint Anno Or Hanno
Anno Or Hanno, Saint (c. I010-1o75), Archbishop Of Cologne, Belonged To A Suabian Family, And Was Educated At Bamberg. He Became Confessor To The Emperor Henry Iii., Who Appointed Him Archbishop Of Cologne In 1056. Anno Was The Leader Of The Party That Abducted The Young King Henry Iv. From ...

Salomon August Andree
Andree, Salomon August Swedish Engineer, Was Born At Grenna, On Lake Vetter, Oct. 18 After Education At The Stockholm Technical College, He Studied Aeronautics, And In 1895 Elaborated A Plan For Crossing The North Polar Region By A Balloon Which Should Be In Some Degree Dirigible By Sails And Trailing ...

Samuel Adams
Adams, Samuel (1722-1803), American Statesman, Born In Boston (mass.), On Sept. 27, 1722, A Second Cousin To The Elder John Adams. He Graduated At Harvard College In 174o And Began The Study Of Law. Though He Repeatedly Failed In Business And Was Sued Because Of His Easy Methods As Tax-collector, ...

Samuel Allport
Allport, Samuel 0816-97), English Petrologist, Was Born In Birmingham Jan. 23, 1816, And Died At Cheltenham July 7, 1897. He Was A Pioneer In Microscopic Petrology. The Basalts Of South Staffordshire, The Diorites Of Warwickshire, The Pho Nolite Of The Wolf Rock (to Which He First Directed Attention), The Pitchstones ...

Samuel Amsler
Amsler, Samuel Swiss Engraver, Was Born At Schinznach, In The Canton Of Aargau. He Studied His Art Under Johan Heinrich Lips (1758-1817) And Karl Ernst Hess, At Munich, And From 1816 Pursued It In Italy, And Chiefly At Rome, Till In 1829 He Succeeded His Former Master Hess As Professor ...

Samuel Austin Allibone
Allibone, Samuel Austin 1 , American Author And Bibliographer, Was Born In Philadelphia (pa.) , April 17, 1816, Of French Huguenot And Quaker Ancestry. He Was Privately Educated And For Many Years Was Engaged In Mercantile Business In His Native City. He, However, Acquired A Very Unusual Knowledge Of English ...

Samuel Hopkins Adams
Adams, Samuel Hopkins ), American Author, Was Born In Dunkirk, N.y., On Jan. 26, 1871. He Graduated At Hamilton College In 1891 And Entered Journalism. From 1891 To 190o He Was Engaged As A Reporter And Special Writer For The New York Sun. He Was Managing Editor Of Mcclure's Syndicate ...

Sarah Flower Adams
Adams, Sarah Flower (1805-1848), English Poet, Was Born At Great Harlow, Essex, Feb. 22, 1805. She Was The Daughter Of Benjamin Flower And In 1834 Married William Bridges Adams, Inventor And Pamphleteer. She Was A Unitarian And Her Writings Are Chiefly Religious. Her Longest Work, Vivia Perpetua (1841), A Dramatic ...

School
School), And Technical Institutes, Conducted For Profit And In A Relatively Small Number Of Cases, Philanthropically Endowed, Oper Ate In Cities Of All Sizes Throughout The Country. They Vary Widely In Efficiency And In Repute. The Schools Of This Type Which Utilize The Correspondence Method Of Instruction Have Reached Large ...

Scientific Academies
Scientific Academies Austria.—the Akademie Der Wissenschaften At Vienna, Orig Inally Projected By Leibnitz, Was Founded By The Emperor Ferdi Nand I. In 1846, And Has Two Classes—mathematics And Natural Science, And History And Philology. ...