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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 2 Annu - Baltic

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Appoggiatura
Appoggiatura, A Musical Term For A Melodic Ornament, A Grace-note Prefixed To A Principal Note And Printed In Small Character (from Ital. Appoggiare, To Lean Upon). The Effect Is To Shorten The Principal Note, By Taking Away The Time-value Of The Appoggiatura Prefixed To It. There Are Two Kinds, The ...

Appomattox Court House
Appomattox Court House, A Village Of Appo Mattox County, Virginia, U.s.a., 25m. E. Of Lynchburg, In The S. Part Of The State. It Is Served By The Norfolk And Western Rail Way. The Village Was The Scene Of The Surrender Of The Confeder Ate Army Of Northern Virginia Under General ...

Apportionment Bill
Apportionment Bill, An Act Passed By The Congress Of The United States After Each Decennial Census To Determine The Number Of Members Which Each State Shall Send To The House Of Representatives. The Ratio Of Representation Fixed By The Origi Nal Constitution Was 1 To 30.000 Of The Free Population, ...

Apportionment
Apportionment, Distribution Or Allotment In Proper Shares; A Term Used In Law In A Variety Of Senses. (i) Sometimes It Is Employed Roughly And With No Technical Meaning To Indicate The Distribution Of A Benefit (e.g., Salvage, Damages Under The Fatal Accidents Act 5846, S. 2), Or Liability (e.g., General ...

Apposition
Apposition, A Grammatical Term Used Of A Noun When It Is Employed As Complement To A Preceding Noun Or Noun Clause. The Word Also Signifies An Oral Examination ; "speech-day" At St. Paul's School, London Is Known As Apposition. ...

Appraiser
Appraiser, One Licensed To Set A Value Upon Real Or Personal Property. In England, Appraisers Are Usually Auctioneers Also, And The Name Itself Has Given Place, To A Great Extent, To That Of "valuer." One Who Exercises The Calling Of Appraiser Or Valuer, And Who Makes Any Valuation Chargeable With ...

Apprehension
Apprehension, In Psychology, A Term Applied To A Mode Of Consciousness In Which Nothing Is Affirmed Or Denied Of The Ob Ject In Question, But The Mind Is Merely Aware Of ("seizes") It. "judgment" (says Reid, Ed. Hamilton, I. P. 414) "is An Act Of The Mind Specifically Different From ...

Apprenticeship
Apprenticeship. The Idle Or Industrious Apprentice, Fed, Clothed And Lodged By His Master, Was Learning His Craft At Least Ioo Years Before 1383 When Apprenticeship Was First Noticed In An Act Of Parliament. In The 12th Century The Craftsmen Of The Towns Were Associated In Gilds For Their Mutual Protection, ...

Approach
Approach, In Military Language The Phase During Which Troops Are Moving Forward From Their Assembly Positions Or Con Centration Areas Towards The Enemy, And Lasting Until They Deploy For Battle. An Alternative Term Is "approach March." With The Smaller Units, Of Course, In These Days Of Long-range Weapons, Their Own ...

Appropriation
Appropriation, The Act Of Setting Apart And Applying To A Particular Use To The Exclusion Of All Other. In Ecclesiastical Law, Appropriation Is The Perpetual Annexation Of An Ecclesiastical Benefice To The Use Of Some Spiritual Corporation, Either Aggregate Or Sole. In The Law Of Debtor And Creditor, Appropriation Of ...

Appropriations In Aid
Appropriations In Aid. In The Terminology Of British Government Finance, The Money Received By Government Departments, In The Course Of Their Work, For Certain Fees, Miscel Laneous Services, Rents, Etc. These Receipts Are In Many Cases Not Paid Into The Exchequer, But "appropriated In Aid" Of The Ex Penses Of ...

Approved Societies
Approved Societies. In Pursuance Of Its Policy Of Grouping The Compulsorily Insured Population In Voluntary Insti Tutions, The National Insurance Act Of Great Britain, Which Became Law In 1911, Provides That Any Respectable Thrift Institu Tion, Or Body Of Persons, May Adapt Itself Or Establish Itself To Carry Out The ...

Appurtenances
Appurtenances, A Legal Term For What Belongs To And Goes With Something Else, The Accessories Or Things Usually Con Joined With The Substantive Matter In Question. By S. 6 Of The Conveyancing And Law Of Property Act, 1881 (now S. 62 Of The Law Of Property Act, 192 5) A ...

Apricot
Apricot, The Fruit Of Prunus Armeniaca. Like The Plum, The Apricot Is A Stone Fruit, Cultivated Generally Throughout Temperate Regions, And Used Chiefly In The Form Of Preserves And In Tarts. The Tree Has Long Been Cultivated In Armenia (hence The Name Armeniaca) ; It Is A Native Of North ...

Apries
Apries, The Name By Which Herodotus (ii. 161), And Diod Orus (i. 68) Designate O6a4piis (pharaoh-hophra), The Fourth King (counting From Psammetichus I.) Of The 26th Egyptian Dynasty. He Reigned From 589 To 57o B.c. (see Egypt And Amasis. ) ...

April Fools Day Or All Fools
April-fools' Day Or All-fools' Day, The Name Given To The 1st Of April In Allusion To The Custom Of Playing Prac Tical Jokes On Friends On That Day, Or Sending Them On Fools' Errands. The Origin Of This Custom Has Been Much Disputed; It Is In Some Way A Relic ...

April
April, The Second Month Of The Ancient Roman And The Fourth Of The Modern Calendar, Contains 3o Days. The Derivation Of The Name Is Uncertain. The Traditional Etymology From Lat. Aperire, "to Open," In Allusion To Its Being The Season When Trees And Flowers Begin To "open," Is Supported By ...

Apron Stage
Apron Stage, In Theatre Design, The Portion Of The Stage Projecting Into The Auditorium. In England, The Elizabethan Platform Stage Developed During The Restoration Period Into The Wide "apron" Extending From The Proscenium Arch. The Apron Itself Was Level, Whilst The Stage Behind It Generally Sloped Slightly Upwards. This Form ...

Apron
Apron, Originally "napron," But Corrupted From "a Napron" To "an Apron" (o.fr. Naperon, Dim. Of Nape, Nappe, Table-cloth). An Article Of Dress Worn To Protect The Front Of The Clothes. The Apron Is Part Of The Ceremonial Dress Of Freemasons, And Bishops And Deans. The Word Is Also Used Technically ...

Apse
Apse And Apsides, In Mechanics, Either Of The Two Points Of An Orbit Which Are Nearest To And Farthest From The Centre Of Motion. They Are Called The Lower Or Nearer, And The Higher Or More Distant Apsides Respectively. The "line Of Apsides" Is That Which Joins Them, Forming The ...

Apsidiole
Apsidiole, In Architecture, A Small Apse, Especially A Minor Apse Attached To The Exterior Of The Main Apse Of A Church. ...

Apsines
Apsines, Of Gadara, A Greek Rhetorician, (c. A.d. 190-250). He Was The Friend Of Philostratus, The Author Of The Lives Of The Sophists, Who Speaks Of His Accurate Memory. Two Rhetorical Treatises By Him Are Extant—a Handbook Of Rhetoric Largely Taken From The Rhetoric Of Longinus, And A Smaller Work ...

Apt
Apt, A Town In France, In The Department Of Vaucluse, On The Left Bank Of The Coulon, 41m. E. Of Avignon By Rail. Pop. Apt Was The Chief Town Of The Vulgientes, De Stroyed By The Romans About 125 B.c. And Restored By Julius Caesar, Who Named It Apta Iulia. ...

Apterygota
Apterygota, The Name Given To The Lower Of The Two Subclasses Into Which The Insects (q.v.) Are Divided And Now Used In Preference To The Older Term Aptera, Which Has Been Discarded In Modern Zoological Classification. The Apterygota Are All Wing Less Insects And There Is Every Reason To Believe ...

Apteryx
Apteryx, The Generic Name Of The Kiwis (q.v.) Of New Zealand, Referring To The Extremely Reduced Condition Of The Wings. ...

Apulia
Apulia, A Part Of Italy Once Inhabited By The Apuli, A Sam Nite Tribe (see Samnites) Settled Round Mt. Garganus On The East Coast. They Mingled With Iapygians (dauni, Peucetii, Poedi Culi) Who, Like The Mesapii, Had Come From Illyria, So The Name Apulia Reached To The Border Of Ancient ...

Apure
Apure, A River Of Western Venezuela, Formed By The Con Fluence Of The Sarare And Uribante At 6° 45' N. And 71° W., And Flowing Eastward Across The Venezuelan Llanos To A Junction With The Orinoco At About 7° 4o' N. And 66° 45' W. Its Drainage Area Includes The ...

Apurimac
Apurimac, An Interior Highland Department Of Southern Peru. Area, 8,187 Sq.m.; Pop. (1927) Estimate 280,00o. The De Partment Was Created In 1873 And Comprises Five Provinces. Its Physical Features And Productions Are Very Similar To Those Of Ayacucho (q.v.), With The Exception That Sugar-cane Is Cultivated With Noteworthy Success In ...

Apurimac_2
Apurimac, A River Of Central Peru, Rising In The Laguna De Villafra In The Western Cordilleras, Seven Miles From Caylloma, A Village In The Department Of Arequipa, And Less Than Loom. From The Pacific Coast. It Flows First North-easterly, Then North-westerly Past. Cuzco To The Mouth Of The Perene Tributary, ...

Apyrexia
Apyrexia, In Pathology, The Normal Interval Or Period Of Intermission In A Fever. ...

Aqua Regia
Aqua Regia, A Mixture Of One Volume Of Concentrated Nitric Acid And Three Volumes Of Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid. It Was Originally Given The Name Which It Still Retains, By The Alchemists Because Of Its Power To Dissolve Gold—the King Of Metals. When Aqua Regia Dissolves Gold, The Metal Is Converted ...

Aquae Albulae
Aquae Albulae, Springs, W. Of Tibur, Latium, Italy, The Water Of Which Is Bluish, Strongly Impregnated With Sulphur And Carbonate Of Lime, And Rises At A Temperature Of About Fahrenheit. Remains Of A Roman Thermal Establishment Exist Near The Principal Spring, The So-called Lago Della Regina. The Baths Are Still ...

Aquae Cutiliae
Aquae Cutiliae, A Mineral Spring In Italy, Near Modern Cittaducale, 9m. E. Of Rieti. The Lake Near It, Supposed By Classical Writers To Be The Centre Of Italy, Was Renowned For Floating Islands Formed From Partial Petrification Of Plants By Mineral Substances In The Water. Remains Of Baths May Be ...

Aquae
Aquae, A Name Given By The Romans To Sites Where Mineral Springs Issued From The Earth (lat. For "waters."). Over Ioo Can Be Identified, Some Declaring By Their Modern Names Their Ancient Use: Aix-les-bains In Savoy (aquae Sabaudicae), Aix-en Provence (aquae Sextiae), Aix-la-chapelle Or Aachen (aquae Grani), Etc. Only Two ...

Aquamarine
Aquamarine, A Transparent Variety Of Beryl (q.v.), Hav Ing A Delicate Blue Or Bluish-green Colour, Suggestive Of The Tint Of Sea-water. It Occurs At Most Localities Which Yield Ordinary Beryl, Some Of The Finest Coming From Russia. ...

Aquarelle
Aquarelle, The French Term For Water-colour, Used In Reference Both To The Technique And The Resultant Painting, The Executant Being Referred To As Aquarelliste. ...

Aquarii
Aquarii, A Name Given To The Christians Who Substituted Water For Wine In The Eucharist. They Were Not A Sect, For The Practice Was Widely In Vogue At An Early Time, Even Among The Orthodox. (see ...

Aquarium
Aquarium (plural Aquaria), A Name Given To A Receptacle Or Institution In Which Living Aquatic Animals And Plants Are Kept. The Term May Be Applied To A Show-place Exhibiting Aquatic Specimens With The Ob Ject Of Entertaining Or Instructing The Pub Lic, Or It May Be Used To Describe Such ...

Aquarius
Aquarius (the Water-bearer Or Cup-bearer), In Astronomy, The Eleventh Sign Of The Zodiac, Situated Between Capricornus And Pisces. Its Symbol Is Representing Part Of A Stream Of Water, Probably In Allusion To The Fact That When The Sun Is In This Part Of The Heavens (january, February), The Weather Is ...

Aquatint
Aquatint, A Variety Of Etching (q.v.) In Which Effects Are Obtained By The Action Of Acid Through A Porous Ground Of Sand Or Some Powdered Resinous Substance (lat. Aqua, Water, And Tincta, Dyed). The Plate Is First Covered With A Ground Over Which The Resinous Powder Or Sand Is Evenly ...

Aqueducts
Aqueducts. In The Broad Sense Of The Word, An Aqueduct Is An Artificial Channel For The Conveyance Of Water. In A More Restricted Sense It Is Often Understood To Mean A Bridge Formed In A Series Of Arches Or Spans For The Conveyance Of Water Across A Valley. In The ...

Aqueous Humour
Aqueous Humour, The Clear Watery Fluid Which Fills The Front Part Of The Eyeball. It Is Enclosed By The Cornea In Front And The Lens, Suspensory Ligament And Ciliary Body Behind. The Iris Divides This Small Space Into An Anterior And A Posterior Cham Ber. The Fluid Is Secreted In ...

Aquifoliaceae
Aquifoliaceae, A Family Of Trees And Shrubs, The Best Known Members Of Which Are The Holly (q.v.) And The Paraguayan Tea, Both Of The Genus Ilex. ...

Aquila Degli Abruzzi
Aquila Degli Abruzzi, Abruzzi, Italy, Capital Of A Province, Seat Of An Archbishop, 2,36oft. Above Sea-level, 5om. Di Rectly North-east Of Rome, And 145m. By Rail. Pop. (1921) 17,877; Commune, 24,184. It Lies On A Hill In The Wide Valley Of The Aterno, Surrounded By Mountains With The Gran Sasso ...

Aquila
Aquila ('akaas), (i) A Jew From Rome, Who With His Wife Prisca Or Priscilla Had Settled In Corinth, Where Paul Stayed With Them (acts Xviii. 2, 3). They Became Christians And Fellow Workers With Paul, To Whom They Seem To Have Shown Their Devotion In Some Special Way (rom. Xvi. ...

Aquila_2
Aquila, In Astronomy, The "eagle," Sometimes Named The "vulture," A Constellation Of The Northern Hemisphere, Traversed By A Bright Part Of The Milky Way, Which Is Here Divided Into Two Branches. The Stars, G, A, Y (see Altair), Form A Conspicuous Group Reminding Us Slightly Of Orion's Belt. Several Novae ...

Aquileia
Aquileia (med. Aglar, Slovene Vogle J) , A Former City Of The Roman Empire And Mediaeval Western Patriarchate, Situated At The Head Of The Adriatic, Six Miles Inland, And 22m. West-north West Of Trieste; It Is Now A Mere Village. Aquileia Was Founded By The Romans 181 B.c. To Prevent ...

Aquinum
Aquinum, Ancient City Of The Volsci, Italy, 7im. N.w. Of Cassino. The Pop. Of The Commune In 1931 Was 3,176. Birth Place Of Juvenal And Of The Emperor Pescennius Niger ; S. Thomas Aquinas Was Born In Roccasecca Castle, 5m. To The North. It Retains Portions Of Walls, So-called Temples, ...

Aquitaine
Aquitaine, The Name Of An Ancient Province In France, The Extent Of Which Has Varied Considerably From Time To Time. About The Time Of Julius Caesar The Name Aquitania Was Given To That Part Of Gaul Lying Between The Pyrenees And The Garonne, And Its Inhabitants Were A Race, Or ...

Ara
Ara, A Constellation Of The Southern Hemisphere (ara, An Altar). (see Constellation.) ...

Arab
Arab, The Anc. Araxes, Phasis (xenophon), Ras (turk Ish And Arabian), Yerash (armenian), Rashki (georgian), A River Which Rises South Of Erzerum, Near The Source Of The Euphrates, In The Bingeul-dagh, And Flows East Through Arme Nia. It Is About 600m. Long, And Its Chief Tributary, The Zanga, Flows By ...

Arabesque
Arabesque, A Word Meaning Simply "arabian," But Tech Nically Used For A Certain Form Of Decorative Design In Flowing Lines Intertwined ; Hence Comes The More Metaphorical Use Of This Word, Whether In Nature Or In Morals, Indicating A Fantastic Or Complicated Interweaving Of Lines Against A Background. In Deco ...

Arabgir Or Arabkir
Arabgir Or Arabkir, A Town Of Turkey In Asia In The Malatia Vilayet, Situated Near The Confluence Of The Eastern And Western Euphrates, But Some Miles From The Right Bank Of The Combined Streams. Pop. (1927), 21,778. It Is Connected With Sivas By A C/iaussee, Prolonged To The Euphrates. The ...

Arabi Pasha
Arabi Pasha (1839?-1911), More Correctly Ahmad 'arabi, To Which In Later Years He Added The Epithet Al-misri, "the Egyptian," Egyptian Soldier And Revolutionary Leader, Was Born In Lower Egypt In 1839 Or 1840 Of A Fellah Family And Entered The Army As A Conscript. Said Pasha Gave Him A Commission ...

Arabia
Arabia, A Peninsula At The South-west Extremity Of Asia Ly Ing Between 12° And 32° N. And 35° And 6o° E., Bounded West By The Red Sea, South By The Gulf Of Aden And The Indian Ocean, East By The Gulf Of Oman And The Persian Gulf, And North By ...

Arabian Philosophy
Arabian Philosophy. What Is Known As "arabian" Philosophy Owed To Arabia Little More Than Its Name And Its Language. It Was A System Of Greek Thought, Expressed In A Semitic Tongue, And Modified By Oriental Influences, Called Into Existence Amongst The Muslim People By The Patronage Of Their More Liberal ...

Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea (anc. Mare Erythraeum), The North-west Section Of The Indian Ocean, Bounded East By India, North By Baluchistan And Southern Persia, And West By Arabia And The "horn" Of Africa. It Has Two Important Branches—the Gulf Of Aden, Connecting With The Red Sea Through The Strait Of Bab-el Mandeb; ...

Arabic Acid
Arabic Acid, Also Known As Arabin And Gummic Acid, Is The Chief Constituent Of Gum Arabic. (see Gums.) It Can He Obtained As An Amorphous Precipitate By Treating With Alcohol An Aqueous Solution Of Gum Arabic In The Presence Of Hydrochloric Acid. It Is Soluble In Water And Insoluble In ...

Arabic Language
Arabic Language. In The 7th And 8th Centuries, Arab Conquests And The Expansion Of Islam Spread The Arabic Language Into Many Countries Outside Arabia, And In Some Form Or Other It Is Spoken (sometimes, Along With Other Languages) In Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Malta, North Africa, And In Certain Districts ...

Arabic Literature
Arabic Literature Begins With The Poems And Prov Erbs Of The Northern Arabs Of The 5th And 6th Centuries After Christ. Of Written Literature, Prior To The Redaction Of The Koran, Nothing Is Known. ...

Arabici
Arabici, A Religious Sect Originating About The Beginning Of The 3rd Century, Mentioned By Augustine (de Haeres, C. Lxxxiii.), And Called Also Ovsjrot/ivyirac ("mortal-souled") By John Of Damascus (de Haeres, C. Xc.). Their Distinctive Doctrine Was A Form Of Christian Materialism, Showing Itself In The Belief That The Soul Perished ...

Arable
Arable. The Social Movements Of The Age, Especially The Later Developments Of The Industrial Revolution In Britain, Have Given A Peculiar Emphasis To The Word Arable And The Condition It Describes. For Purposes Of Agriculture The "land" Is Commonly Divided In British Official Statistics Into Grass Land And Arable Land, ...

Arabs
Arabs. The Term Arab As Used In The Sudan Signifies Any People Professing Islam, However Dark-skinned They May Be, So That While The Term Has An Obvious Cultural Value It Is Strictly Speaking Of Little Ethnic Significance. But In A Broad Sense The Word May Be Taken To Denote A ...

Aracajij
Aracajij A City And Seaport Of Brazil, Capital Of The State ? Y P ? P Of Sergipe, I7om. N.n.e. Of Bahia, On The River Cotinguiba, Or Cotindiba, 6m. From The Coast. The Municipality, Of Which It Forms A Part, Had A Population In 1890 Of 16,336, About Two-thirds Of ...

Aracaty Or Aracati
Aracaty Or Aracati, A City And Port Of Brazil, In The State Of Ceara, 75m. S.e. Of Fortaleza, On The River Jaguaribe, 8m. From The Sea. Population Of The Municipality (189o) 20,182, Of Whom About 12,000 Belonged To The City; (192o) 27,551, Of Whom '7,375 Belonged To The City. A ...

Araceae Or Aroideae
Araceae Or Aroideae, The Arum Family, A Large Group Of Monocotyledonous Plants Containing Upwards Of Loo Genera And More Than I,000 Species, Of Which The Cuckoo-pint In Great Britain, And The Jack-in-the-pulpit, Found In Eastern North America, Are Familiar Examples. Neither Of These Small Plants, However, Gives More Than Meagre ...

Arachne
Arachne, In Greek Mythology, The Daughter Of Idmon Of Colophon In Lydia, A Dyer In Purple. She Had Acquired Such Skill In The Art Of Weaving That She Ventured To Challenge Athena. Offended At Her Having Depicted The Amorous Adventures Of The Gods, And Enraged At The Perfection Of Her ...

Arachnida
Arachnida. The Arachnida Are A Class Of Animals Be Longing To The Phylum Arthropoda And Comprising The Scorpions, Spiders, Mites And Their Allies, Which Are Typically Terrestrial Air Breeders, And Also A Host Of Marine Forms, Mostly Extinct, Of Which The King Crabs Are The Only Existing Representatives. The Name ...

Arachosia
Arachosia, A Far Eastern Province Of The Persian Empire And That Of Alexander. It Was Early Lost By The Seleucids And Be Came Part Of The Rising Parthian Empire. It Lay North Of Gedrosia (baluchistan) And Occupied The Southern Portion Of Afghanistan (q.v.). Its Chief Town Was Alexandria Arachosiorum. (see ...

Arad
Arad, A Town In Western Rumania, Capital Of The Department Of The Same Name. The Population Of The Town In 1930 Totalled It Lies On The Right Bank Of The River Mures And Consists Of The Inner Town And Five Suburbs. Arad Is A Modern Built Town And Contains Many ...

Aragon
Aragon, Constituent Kingdom Of The Spanish Monarchy, Administrative Unit Until 1833, Now Divided Into The Three Prov Inces Of Saragossa, Huesca And Teruel (q.v.). The North Frontier Of Aragon Follows The Pyrenean Water-parting, From The Peak Of Anie (2,504m.), The Last Of The Great Peaks Towards The West, To The ...

Aragonite
Aragonite, One Of The Mineral Forms Of Calcium Car Bonate The Other Form Being The More Common Mineral Calcite. It Crystallizes In The Orthorhombic System, And The Crystals Are Either Prismatic Or Acicular In Habit. Simple Crystals Are, However, Rare; Twinning On The Prism Planes Being A Charac Teristic Feature ...

Aragua
Aragua, One Of The Smaller States Of Venezuela Lying Principally Within The Parallel Ranges Of The Venezuelan Cor Dillera And Comprising Fertile And Healthful Valleys. It Is Bounded On The East By The Federal District And State Of Miranda, On The South By Guarico And On The West By Zamora ...

Arakan
Arakan, A Division Of Burma (q.v.), A Strip Along The Eastern Seaboard Of The Bay Of Bengal, From The Naaf Estuary, On The Borders Of Chittagong, To Cape Negrais. Length From Northern Extremity To Cape Negrais, About 400m. ; Greatest Breadth In The Northern Part, 90m., Gradually Diminishing Towards The ...

Aral
Aral, A Lake Or Inland Sea In Western Asia, Between Lat. 3o' And 46° 50' N., And Long. 58° O' And 62° E. It Was Known To The Ancient Arab And Persian Geographers As The Sea Of Khwarizm Or Kharezm, From The Neighbouring District Of The Chorasmians, And Derives Its ...

Aralia
Aralia, A Genus Of Aromatic Herbs, Shrubs And Small Trees Of The Aralia Or Ginseng Family (araliaceae), Containing About 35 Species, Found In North America, Asia, Malaya And Australia. Various Forms Are Cultivated For Ornamental Foliage And Some Possess Medicinal Properties. The Stems And Leaf Stalks Are Often Spiny Or ...

Arameans
Arameans, The Former Inhabitants Of Aram, A Country Or North Semitic Kingdom Extending From The Western Borders Of Babylonia To The Highlands Of Western Asia. Their Central City Was Zenjirli To The North Of Aleppo And Here Many Inscriptions Have Been Found. In The Septuagint And Vulgate The Name Of ...

Aran Islands Or South
Aran Islands Or South Aran, Three Islands Lying Across Galway Bay, On The West Coast Of Ireland, In A South-easterly Direc Tion, Forming A Natural Breakwater. They Belong To County Gal Way, And Their Population In 1921 Was 1,625. They Are Inishmore (or Aranmore), The Great Island In The North; ...

Aranjuez
Aranjuez, A Town Of Central Spain, 3om. S. Of Madrid, On The Tagus, Which Above This Receives Few Tributaries For A Long Distance, But Here Joins With The Jarama From The North, So This Is The Crossing Point For The Southern Road And Rail From Madrid. Pop. The Vega Or ...

Arapaho
Arapaho, An Algonkin Plains Tribe, Bison Hunting, And Tepee Dwelling, On The Upper Platte And Arkansas At The Time Of First White Settlement, Now On Reservations In Wyoming And Okla Homa. About 1,50o Survive Of The Former 3,000-4,000. Besides The Northern And Southern Divisions Now Recognized, There Are Submerged Remnants ...

Ararat
Ararat, A Municipal Town In Ripon County (western Dis Trict) In About The S.w. Centre Of Victoria (australia). It Is Situ Ated Towards The Western End Of The Western Victorian Highlands And Is Flanked On The South And East By A Range Of Hills, The Pyre Nees. The "mountains" In ...

Ararat_2
Ararat, The Culminating Point Of The Armenian Plateau, 17,000f T. Above The Sea. The Massif Of Ararat Rises On The North And East Out Of The Alluvial Plain Of The Aras, Here From 2,5ooft. To 3,00o Ft. Above The Sea, And On The South-west Sinks Into The Plateau Of Bayezid, ...

Araroba Powder
Araroba Powder, A Drug Occurring As A Yellowish Brown Powder, Varying In Tint, Which Derives An Alternative Name —goa Powder—from The Portuguese Colony Of Goa, Where It Appears To Have Been Introduced About The Year 1852. The Tree Which Yields It Is Andira Araroba Of The Natural Order Legumi Nosae. ...

Arator
Arator, Of Liguria, A Christian Poet, Who Lived During The 6th Century. He Was Educated By Laurentius, Archbishop Of Milan, And Ennodius, Bishop Of Pavia. He Practised As An Advo Cate, And Was Appointed To An Influential Post At The Court Of Athalaric, King Of The Ostrogoths. About S4o He ...

Aratus Of Sicyon
Aratus Of Sicyon ,271-213 B.c.) Greek Politician. He Set Up A Democracy In Sicyon (251) And Brought It Into Alli Ance With The Achaean League (q.v.) Of Which He Became The Moving Spirit, Being Elected General In Alternate Years. From When He Captured From Antigonus The Fortress Of Corinth, The ...

Aratus
Aratus, Of Soli In Cilicia, A Minor Greek Didactic Poet, A Contemporary Of Callimachus And Theocritus, Was Born About 315 B.c. He Resided At The Courts Of Antigonus Gonatas And An Trochus I. Of Syria And Died In Macedonia About 245 B.c. His Only Extant Works Are Two Short Poems, ...

Araucania
Araucania, The Name Of A Large Territory Of Chile, South America, South Of The Bio-bio River, Belonging To The Arau Canian Indians At The Time Of Their Inde Pendence Of Spanish And Chilean Author Ity. The Loss Of Their Political Independ Ence Has Been Followed By That Of The Greater ...

Araucanian
Araucanian, A Linguistic Stock Of South American Indians, Comprising A Number Of Different Tribes, Originally Occu Pying A Considerable Area In Central Chile. Some Have Regarded Them As Allied To The Tribes Of The Argentine Pampas, And There Fore As Invaders And Immigrants In Chile, Where The True Araucanians Have ...

Araucaria
Araucaria, A Genus Of Coniferous Trees Included In The Tribe Araucarineae. They Are Magnificent Evergreen Trees, With Apparently Whorled Branches, And Stiff, Flattened, Pointed Leaves, Found In Brazil And Chile, Polynesia And Australia. The Name Of The Genus Is Derived From Arauco, The Name Of The District In Southern Chile ...

Aravalli Hills
Aravalli Hills, An Indian Mountain Range; Running For 3oom. In A North-easterly Direction, Through The Rajputana States And The British District Of Ajmere-merwara, Situated Be Tween 24° And 27° N., And Between 72° And 75° ,5° East. The Series Of Ridges And Peaks, With Breadth Varying From 6 To 6om., ...

Arawakan
Arawakan, One Of The Most Important And Widely Ex Tended Of The Linguistic Stocks Of South American Indians, Whose Name Is Taken From The Arawaks, One Of The Earliest And Best Known Tribes. The Guana, The Most Southerly Tribe Of This Stock, Were On The Upper Paraguay River, In Southern ...

Arbaces
Arbaces, According To Ctesias (diodor. Ii. 24 Ff. 32), One Of The Generals Of Sardanapalus, King Of Assyria And Founder Of The Median Empire About 83o B.c. But Ctesias's Whole History Of The Assyrian And Median Empires Is Fabulous ; His Arbaces And His Successors Are Not Historical Personages. From ...

Arbe
Arbe (serbo-croatian Ras), An Island In The Adriatic Sea, Forming The Northernmost Point Of Dalmatia, Yugoslavia. Pop. Arbe Is 13m. Long; Its Greatest Breadth Is 5m. The Capital Of The Same Name, Is A Beautiful Walled Town On A Steep Ridge On The West Coast. At The Seaward End Is ...

Arbela
Arbela (modern Erbil), An Important Foothill Town In North-eastern Mesopotamia, About 48m. E. By S. Of Mosul In 36° N. And 44° West. In Ancient Times Arbela (arba-'ilu) Formed One Of The Group Of Cities Of Ashur, The Other Members Of The Group Being Ashur, Nineveh And Nimrud, All Close ...

Arbitrage
Arbitrage, The Term Applied To The System Of Equalizing Prices In Different Commercial Centres By Buying In The Cheaper Market And Selling In The Dearer. These Transactions, Or Their Con Verse, Are Mainly Confined To Stocks And Shares, Foreign Exchanges And Bullion, And Are Carried On Between The Various Financial ...

Arbitration
Arbitration, A Term Derived From The Nomenclature Of Roman Law, And Applied To An Arrangement For Taking, And Abiding By, The Judgment Of A Selected Person In Some Disputed Matter, Instead Of Carrying It To The Established Courts Of Justice. In Disputes Between States, Arbitration Has Long Played An Im ...

Arbogast
Arbogast (died 394), A Barbarian Officer In The Roman Army At The End Of The 4th Century. His Nationality Is Uncertain, But Zosimus, Eunapius And Sulpicius Alexander (a Gallo-roman Historian Quoted By Gregory Of Tours) All Refer To Him As A Frank. Having Served With Distinction Against The Goths In ...

Arbois
Arbois, A Town Of Eastern France, Among The Wine-growing Northern Foothills Of The Jura, About 3om. S.s.w. Of Besancon, In The Department Of Jura. Pop. , The Church Of St. Just, Founded In The Loth Century, Has A 16th-century Belfry And Good Wood-carving. Two Towers Of The Old Walls Remain, ...

Arbon
Arbon, A Town Of Switzerland, On The Lake Of Constance 18m. S.e. Of Konstanz. Pop. (1844) 66o; (1930) About 8,570. The Name Comes From The Lain Arbor Felix. It Has Neolithic Pile Dwellings And A Castle Begun In The 4th Century. Linen Manufac Ture Began In The 18th Century And ...

Arbor Day
Arbor Day, The Name Applied To An Annual Tree-planting Day Generally Observed Throughout The United States. It Origi Nated In Nebraska, Where It Was First Observed On April To, 1872. The Plan Of Devoting A Certain Day Each Year To The Public Plant Ing Of Trees And The Name Arbor ...