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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 2 Annu - Baltic

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Armagnac
Armagnac, Formerly A Province Of France And The Most Important Fief Of Gascony, Now Wholly Comprised In The Depart Ment Of Gers (q.v.). In The 15th Century, When It Attained Its Greatest Extent, It Included, Besides Armagnac, The Neighbouring Territories Of Fezensac, Fezensaguet, Pardiac, Pays De Gaure, Riviere Basse, Eauzan ...

Armaments
Armaments : See Air Forces ; Army ; Artillery ; Battleship ; Cavalry ; Cruiser ; Destroyer ; Mines ; Navy; Torpedoes. ...

Armatoles
Armatoles, The Name Given To Greeks Who Discharged Certain Military And Police Functions Under The Turkish Govern Ment. When The Turks Conquered Greece In The 15th Century, Many Of The Greeks Fled Into The Mountainous Districts Of North Ern Greece And Maintained A Guerrilla Warfare. These Men Were Called Kleplets ...

Armature
Armature, A Covering For Defence. In Zoology The Word Is Used Of The Bony Shell Of The Armadillo. In Architecture It Is Applied To The Iron Stays By Which The Lead Lights Are Secured In Windows. (see Stanchion And Saddle : Saddle-bars.) In Mag Netism Dr. William Gilbert Applied The ...

Armavir I
Armavir. (i) A Province In North Caucasian Area Of The Russian S.f.s.r. Area 21,135 Sq.km. Population (1926) 926,851; Urban 105,396, Rural It Is A Fertile Black Earth Plain, But Includes A Part Of The Forested Mountain Slopes In The South. Wheat Is The Main Crop, And Rye, Oats, Barley, Millet, ...

Armavir
Armavir, Ruined Capital Of Armenia, On The Slopes Of The Extinct Volcano, Ala-geuz. It Was Built, According To Legend, By Armais In 1980 B.c., And Was The Capital Of The Armenian Kings Until The 2nd Century A.d. A Village, Tapadibi, Fills The Site. ...

Armenia
Armenia, A Socialist Soviet Republic Created In 1918, And United With Azerbaijan And_ Georgia (gruzia) In 1922 To Form The Transcaucasian S.f.s. Republic With Unification Of The Transport And Economic System. Area 30,948sq.km. Pop. (1926) 879,872, Urban 133,658, Rural 746,214. It Is Divided For Administrative Pur Poses Into Nine Districts, ...

Armenian Church
Armenian Church. The Earliest Notice Of An Organ Ized Church In Armenia Is In Eusebius, H. E. Vi. 46, To The Effect That Dionysius Of Alexandria (c. 25o) Sent A Letter To Meruzanes, Bishop Of The Brethren In Armenia. There Were Many Christians In Melitene At The Time Of The ...

Armenian Language
Armenian Language. The Armenian Language Is An Independent Member Of The Indo-european Family Of Languages (q.v.) Which, Spoken In A Moun Tainous Region, Has Never Spread Widely Or Permanently. It Pos Sesses Great Vitality Despite Many Persecutions. It Was Not Reduced To Writing Until The Spread Of Christianity In Armenia ...

Armenian Literature
Armenian Literature. The Armenians Had A Tem Ple Literature Of Their Own Which Was Destroyed In The 4th And 5th Centuries By The Christian Clergy So Thoroughly That Barely 20 Lines Of It Survive In The History Of Moses Of Khoren (chorene). Their Christian Literature Begins About A.d. 400 With ...

Armenoid
Armenoid, A Term Devised By Deniker To Indicate One Of The Three Brunette Sub-types Of The Broad-headed Complex Of White Races. The Armenoid Sub-type Is Very Peculiar; It Has The Head Abruptly Flattened Behind, Especially In The Ararat Mountain Region Peoples. The Head Is Characterized By A Very Lofty Vault ...

Armentieres
Armentieres, A Town Of France, Department Of Nord, On The Lys, 13m. W.n.w. Of Lille By Rail. Pop. Before Its Complete Destruction (1914-1918) It Was Important For Spinning And Weaving Of Flax And Cotton, Bleaching, Dyeing And The Manufacture Of Machinery. Its Association With Textiles Goes Hack To The Woollen ...

Armet
Armet, A Form Of Helmet Which Was Developed Out Of Exist Ing Forms In The Latter Part Of The 15th Century (diminutive Of Fr. Arme) . It Was Round In Shape, And Often Had A Narrow Ridge Or Comb Along The Top. It Had A Pivoted Or Hinged Vizor And ...

Armidale
Armidale, A Town In Sandon County, Is Situated On The New England Plateau Towards The North-east Corner Of New South Wales. The Undulating Upland Surfaces Afford Space For Settlement, And Armidale Is A Typical New England Town. It Is Situated At A Height Of 3,313ft.—an Elevation Which, In Spite Of ...

Armies In The World
Armies In The World War 46. Developments In Armament.—of The Developments In The Constitution Of Armies During The World War—to Be Con Sidered Under The Three Headings : Armament, Personnel And Organization—those In Armament Were The Most Considerable. The Progress Made In Aviation During The Years 1914-18 Intro Duced Into ...

Armies Since The World
Armies Since The World War 49. General Tendencies.—since The World War, 1914-18, Eight Factors Have Influenced The Organization And Size Of Armies: First, The Series Of Peace Treaties Definitely Limiting The Size Of The Armies Of The Defeated Central Powers And Their Allies; Sec Ond, The Russian Army; Third, The ...

Armilla Or Armillary Sphere
Armilla Or Armillary Sphere, An Astronomical Model Representing The Great Circles Of The Heavens, Including In The Complete Instruments, The Equator, Meridian, Ecliptic, And Tropics. It Is A Skeleton Celestial Globe, With Circles Divided Into Degrees For Angular Measurement. In The 17th And 18th Centuries Such Models, Either Suspended, Rested ...

Arminius
Arminius, The Latinized Form Of The Name Hermann, Or More Probably Armin (17 B.c.—a.d. 21), The German National Hero. He Was A Son Of Segimer, A Prince Of The Tribe Of The Che Rusci (q.v.), And In Early Life Served In The Roman Armies. Return Ing To Find His People ...

Armistice Day
Armistice Day, The Anniversary Of The Cessation Of Hos Tilities In The World War (nov. 11, 1918), And Of The Signing Of An Armistice Between The Allies And Germany. In London This Anniversary Is Observed By A Two Minutes' Silence In Memory Of The Fallen, Together With A Special Service ...

Armistice
Armistice, A Suspension Of Hostilities By Mutual Agree Ment Between Two Nations At War Or Their Respective Forces. An Armistice May Be Either General Or Particular. In The First Case There Is A Complete Cessation Of Hostile Operations In Every Part Of The Dominions Of The Belligerent Powers; In The ...

Armoire
Armoire, The French Name (cf. Almery) Given To A Tall Movable Cupboard, Or "wardrobe," With One Or More Doors. It Has Varied Considerably In Shape And Size, And The Decoration Of Its Doors And Sides Has Faithfully Represented Mutations Of Fashion And Modifications Of Use. It Was Originally Exceedingly Massive ...

Armorica
Armorica (aremorica), The Roman Name, Derived From Two Celtic Words Meaning The "seaside" (or, On, And Mor, Sea), For The Land Of The Armorici, Roughly The Peninsula Of Brittany. At The Time Of Caesar's Advance On Gaul There Were Five Princi Pal Tribes In Armorica, Among Whom Were The Veneti ...

Armour And Company
Armour And Company, One Of The Largest Of Meat Packing And Slaughtering Establishments, Has Its Headquarters In Chicago, Ill. It Prepares And Distributes Meats, Live Stock By Products, And Various Closely Related Products Such As Butter, Eggs, Cheese And Poultry. Founded In Chicago In 1867 By Philip D. Armour, The ...

Armour Plates
Armour Plates. The Idea Of Giving Extra Protection To The Hulls And Decks Of War Vessels Is A Very Ancient One. Archi Medes, In Building The Famous "syracusan"—that Most Palatial Of Ancient Ships—for King Hiero, Around 25o B.c. Provided For "mats Composed Of Stout Ropes Suspended By Brazen Chains." No ...

Armoured Car
Armoured Car (also Called Combat Car). A Motor Ve Hicle Provided With Protective Armour And Armament Used For Combat Purposes In War And For The Safe Transport Of Cash And Se Curities In American Cities In Peace Time. For Some Years After The World War, 1914-18, As Well As During ...

Armoured Trains
Armoured Trains. In The Earliest Days Of The Appli Cation Of Railways To War Uses, The Idea Presented Itself Of Utilizing The Weight-carrying Capacity Of The Railway And The Pulling Power Of The Locomotive For Tactical As Well As For Strategic Purposes. "railroad Batteries" Figured In The American Civil War ...

Arms And Armour
Arms And Armour. In Considering The History Of Defensive Armour In The Middle Ages It Is Essential That Some Notice Should Be Taken Of The Armourer On Whose Skill Depended The Lives Of His Patrons And With Them Often The Security Of King Doms And Empires, For The Early Battles ...

Army Organization
Army Organization 43. General.—in The Foregoing Sections The Principles On Which Armies Were Raised Up To The Time Of The World War Have Been Examined. Before Passing On To Consider What Changes Or Modifications The Grim Needs Of A Prolonged And Deadly War Occasioned, Some Outline Must Be Given Of ...

Army Worm
Army-worm (ciphis Unipuncta Or Leucania Unipuncta Of The Family Noctuidae) Is A Small Striped Green, And Nearly Naked, Caterpillar, Found Chiefly In The United States And Canada East Of The Rocky Mountains, But Also In New Mexico, Arizona, California And In Some Parts Of South America. From Time To Time ...

Army
Army (from Fr. Armee, Lat. Armata), A Considerable Body Of Men Armed And Organized For The Purpose Of Warfare On Land (ger. Armee), Or The Whole Armed Force At The Disposal Of A State Or Person For The Same Purpose (ger. Heer =host) . The Application Of The Term Is ...

Arn Or Aquila Arno
Arno, Arn Or Aquila (750?-82i), Archbishop Of Salzburg And Scholar, Entered The Church At An Early Age, Became Abbot Of Elnon, Or St. Amand, Where He Made The Acquaintance Of Alcuin. In 785 He Was Made Bishop Of Salzburg, And In 787 Was Employed By Tassilo Iii., Duke Of The ...

Arnaldus De Villa Nova
Arnaldus De Villa Nova, Also Called Arnaldus De Villanueva, Arnaldus Villanovanus Or Arnaud De Villeneuve (c. 1235-1313), Alchemist, Astrologer And Physician, Appears To Have Been Of Spanish Origin, And To Have Studied Chemistry, Medicine, Physics, And Also Arabian Philosophy. After Having Lived At The Court Of Aragon, He Went To ...

Arnauld
Arnauld, The Surname Of A Family Of Prominent French Lawyers, Chiefly Remembered In Connection With The Jansenist Troubles Of The I7th Century. At Their Head Was Antoine Arnauld (156o-1619), A Leader Of The Paris Bar; In This Capacity He De Livered A Famous Philippic Against The Jesuits In 1594, Accusing ...

Arnhem Or Arnheim
Arnhem Or Arnheim, Capital, Province Of Gelderland, Holland, On The Right Bank Of The Rhine (here Crossed By A Pon Toon Bridge), And A Junction 35m. By Rail East-south-east Of Utrecht. Pop. (193o) 78,234. Tramways Connect With Zutphen And Utrecht, And There Is A Regular Service Of Steamers To Cologne, ...

Arnica
Arnica, A Genus Of Plants Belonging To The Family Com Positae, And Containing 5o Species, Mostly North-west American, Of Which The Most Important Is Arnica Montana, A Perennial Herb Of The Mountains And Uplands In Northern And Central Europe. The Root-stock Of A. Montana Is Tough, Slender, Of A Dark ...

Arno
Arno (anc. Arnus), River, Italy, Rising In Mte. Falterona, About 25m. E.n.e. Of Florence, 4,265ft. Above Sea. It First Runs South-south-east Through The Beautiful Casentino ; Near Arezzo It Turns West, And At Montevarchi North-north-west ; Sum. Below It Forces A Way Through Limestone Rock At Incisa And Iom. Farther ...

Arnobius
Arnobius (called The Younger) , Christian Priest Or Bishop In Gaul, Flourished About 46o. He Is The Author Of A Mystical And Allegorical Commentary On The Psalms, First Published By Erasmus In 1522, And By Him Attributed To The Elder Arnobius. It Has Been Frequently Reprinted, And In The Edition ...

Arnobius_2
Arnobius (called Afer, And Sometimes The Elder), Early Christian Writer, Was A Teacher Of Rhetoric At Sicca Venerea In Proconsular Africa During The Reign Of Diocletian. His Great Treatise, In Seven Books, Adversus Gentes (or Nationes), On Ac Count Of Which He Takes Rank As A Christian Apologist, Appears To ...

Arnold
Arnold, Known As "arnold Of Brescia" (d. 1155), One Of The Most Ardent Adversaries Of The Temporal Power Of The Popes. He Was Born Probably At Brescia, In Italy, Towards The End Of The 11th Century. He Studied Theology In Paris, But There Is No Proof That He Was A ...

Arnoul D Audrehem
Audrehem, Arnoul D' (c. 1305-70), French Soldier, Was Born At Audrehem, In The Present Department Of Pas De Calais, Near St. Omer. In June 1351 He Became Marshal Of France. In March 1352 He Was Appointed Lieutenant For The King In The Territory Between The Loire And The Dordogne, In ...

Arnsberg
Arnsberg, A Town In Westphalia, Germany, Built On High Ground Almost Surrounded By The River Ruhr, 44m. S.s.e. Of Munster. Pop. (1933) 12,080. Near By Are The Ruins Of The Castle Of The Counts Of Arnsberg. It Received Its First Charter In 1237 And Later Joined The Hanseatic League. It ...

Arnstadt
Arnstadt, A Town In Thuringia, Germany, 11m. S. Of Erfurt. Pop. (1933) 22,024. It Dates From The 8th Century And Was Bought In 1306 By The Counts Of Schwarzburg, Who Lived Here Till 1716. The Liebfrauenkirche Is Romanesque (12th And 13th Centuries) . The Town Hall Dates From 1561. There ...

Arnswalde
Arnswalde, A Town Of Germany, In The Prussian Province Of Brandenburg, In A Marshy District, 2om. S.e. Of Stargard On The Railway To Posen. Pop. (1933), I1,783. Its Industries Include Spinning And Weaving And The Manufacture Of Brushes, Bricks, Sugar, Machinery. Trade Is In Corn. ...

Arnulf
Arnulf (85o?-899), Roman Emperor, Illegitimate Son Of Carloman, King Of Bavaria And Italy, Was Made Margrave Of Carinthia About 876, And On His Father's Death In 88o His Dignity And Possessions Were Confirmed By The New King Of The East Franks, Louis Iii. He Did Homage To The Emperor Charles ...

Arolsen
Arolsen, A Town Of Germany, In The Prussian Province Of Hessen-nassau, Formerly Capital Of The Principality Of Waldeck, 25m. N.w. Of Cassel, With Which It Is Connected By Rail Via Warburg. Pop. 2,564. Arolsen Is The Birthplace Of The Sculptor C. Rauch, And Of The Painters Wilhelm And Friedrich Von ...

Arona
Arona, A Town In Piedmont, Italy, Province Of Novara, On Lake Maggiore, 3m. From Its Southern Extremity, 23m. N. Of Novara, And 42m. N.w. Of Milan By Rail On The Simplon Line. Pop. (1931) 6,895 (town), 8,989 (commune). On A Hill To The North A Colossal Bronze Statue Of S. ...

Arosa
Arosa, A Climatic Station Of Switzerland, Situated At A Height Of 6,000ft. In The High Valley Of The Plessur, South-east Of Chur. Here, Among Extensive Pine Forests (remnants Of Which Still Shel Ter The Valley), A Small Village Has Existed, With Varying Pros Perity, From The 14th Century. The Extension ...

Arpeggio
Arpeggio, In Music, The Playing Of The Notes Of A Chord, Not Simultaneously But In Succession, As On A Harp. ...

Arpeggione
Arpeggione, A Musical Instrument Whose Nature Is Indi Cated By Its Alternative Name Of Guitar Violoncello; That Is To Say, It Was Shaped Like A Guitar But Played With A Bow, Being About The Size Of A Viol Da Gamba Or Small Violoncello. It Was Invented By G. Staufer, Of ...

Arpi
Arpi (gr. 'apyopor Ra), Ancient City, Apulia, Tom. W. Of The Coast And 5m. N. Of The Modern Foggia. Legend Attributes Its Foundation To Diomedes, And The Figure Of A Horse On Its Coins Shows The Local Importance Of Horse-breeding In Early Times. Its Territory Extended To The Sea, And ...

Arpino
Arpino (anc. Arpinum), A Town Of Lazio, Italy, In The Province Of Frosinone, I,475ft. Above Sea-level; 12m, By Rail N.w. Of Roccasecca, A Station On The Older Railway From Naples To Rome. Pop. (1931) 2,675 (town), 10,532 (commune). Arpino Occupies The Lower Part Of The Ancient Volscian Town Finally Taken ...

Arqua Petrarca
Arqua Petrarca, Village Of Venetia, Italy, 3m. S.w. Of Battaglia. The Population Of The Commune In 1931 Was 2,223. Petrarch Lived His Last Few Years And Died Here In 1374. Near Arqua, On The Banks Of The Small Lago Della Costa, Is The Site Of A Prehistoric Lake Village. ...

Arquata Scrivia
Arquata Scrivia, Village, Province Of Alessandria, Italy, From Which It Is 20 Miles S.s.e. By Rail. Pop. (commune 3,655). It Is The Junction Of The Lines To Genoa From Turin And Milan, And Was The Supply Base For British Forces In Italy (1917-1919). Two Miles North Are The Ruins Of ...

Arquebus
Arquebus, Also Called Harquebus, Hackbut, Etc., A Fire Arm Of The 16th Century, The Immediate Predecessor Of The Musket. The Word Itself Is Certainly To Be Derived From The German Hakenbuhse (mod. Hakenbiichse, Cf. Eng. Hackbut And Hackbush), "hook Gun." The French Arquebuse And Italian Arcobugio, Archi Bugio, Often And ...

Arques La Bataille
Arques-la-bataille, Village Of Northern France, In The Department Of Seine-inf Erieure, 4m. S.e. Of Dieppe By The Western Railway. Pop. (1931), 2,26o. Argues Is Situated Near The Confluence Of The Rivers Varenne And Bethune ; The Forest Of Argues Stretches To The North-east. The Castle, Built In The I I ...

Arraignment
Arraignment, A Law Term, Properly Denoting The Calling Of A Person To Answer In Form Of Law Upon An Indictment. After A True Bill Has Been Found Against A Prisoner By The Grand Jury, He Is Called By Name To The Bar, The Indictment Is Read Over To Him, And ...

Arran
Arran, A Town Of British India, Headquarters Of Shahabad District, In The Patna Division Of Bihar And Orissa. Pop. (1931) 48,922. Arrah Is Famous For An Incident In The Mutiny, When 15 Englishmen And Eurasians, With 5o Sikhs, Defended A Small Building Against 2,000 Sepoys And A Body Of Armed ...

Arrant
Arrant, A Word At First Used In Its Original Meaning Of Wandering, As In "knight-errant" (lat. Errare, To Wander) ; Thus An Arrant Or Itinerant Preacher, An Arrant Thief, One Outlawed And Wandering At Large; The Meaning Easily Passed To That Of Self-de Clared, Notorious, And By The Middle Of ...

Arran_2
Arran, The Largest Island Of The County Of Bute, Scotland, At The Mouth Of The Firth Of Clyde. Its Greatest Length, From The Cock Of Arran To Bennan Head, Is About 2om., And The Greatest Breadth—from Drumadoon Point To King's Cross Point—is I'm. Area I 65sq.m. Pop. The Scenery Of ...

Arras
Arras, Northern France, Chief Town Of The Department Of Pas-de-calais, 38m. N.n.e. Of Amiens On The Railway Between That City And Lille. Pop. (1931) 25,615. Arras Is Situated On The Right Bank Of The Scarpe, At Its Junction With The Crinchon, Which Skirts The Town On The South And East. ...

Array
Array, Orderly Arrangement, Particularly The Drawing Up Of An Army In Position Of Battle. From The 13th Century Onwards In England "commissions Of Array" Issued From The King For The Levy Of Military Forces (see Militia). In English Law The Term Is Used For The Setting In Order, Name By ...

Arrears
Arrears, The Whole Or Any Part Of A Debt Or Other Obliga Tion Which Remains Unpaid After The Expiration Of The Time Set For Its Payment. In Financial Matters It Relates Particularly To Past Dividends Due On Cumulative Preferred Stock, In Which Case It Is The Same As Cumulated Or ...

Arrest
Arrest, The Restraint Of A Man's Person, For The Purpose Of Compelling Obedience To The Law. It Is Defined As The Execution Of The Command Of Some Court Of Record Or Officer Of Justice. In Civil Cases.—arrest In Civil Cases Is Now Abolished Save Under The Provisions Of The Debtors ...

Arrestment
Arrestment, In Scots Law, The Process By Which A Cred Itor Detains The Goods Or Effects Of His Debtor In The Hands Of Third Parties Till The Debt Due To Him Shall Be Paid. It Is Divided Into Two Kinds: (i) Arrestment In Security, Used When Proceed Ings Are Commencing, ...

Arretium
Arretium (mod. Arezzo), Ancient City, Etruria, Upper Valley Of Arno, On The Via Cassia, 5om. S.e. Of Florentia. The Hill Top, Enclosed By A Wall, Was The Site Of The Ancient City And The Mediaeval Citadel, As So Often In Italy. Etruscan Tombs Have Been Found In The Lower Part ...

Arria
Arria, In Roman History, The Wife Of Caecina Paetus. When Her Husband Was Implicated In The Conspiracy Of Scriboni Anus Against The Emperor Claudius (a.d. 42) And Condemned To Death, She Resolved Not To Survive Him. She Accordingly Stabbed Herself With A Dagger, Which She Then Handed To Him With ...

Arrian Flavius Arrianus
Arrian (flavius Arrianus), Of Nicomedia In Bithynia, Greek Historian And Philosopher, Was Born About A.d. 96, And Lived During The Reigns Of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius And Marcus Aurelius. He Was Greatly Esteemed By Hadrian, Who Appointed Him Governor (legatos) Of Cappadocia (131-137), Where He Dis Tinguished Himself In A Campaign ...

Arrondissement
Arrondissement (from Fr. Arrondir, To Make Round), In France, An Administrative Subdivision Of A Department. It Com Prises Within Itself The Canton And The Commune. It Is Merely An Administrative Division And Not A Complete Legal Personality With Power To Acquire And Possess. It Is The Electoral District For The ...

Arrowhead Trail
Arrowhead Trail, A Scenic Highway Extending From Salt Lake City, Utah, To Los Angeles, California, Is 725m. Long. Improved, Surfaced Or Paved Throughout Its Length, It Not Only Connects Two Of The Na Tion's Favourite Playgrounds, But Traverses Sections Of Unusual Natural Beauty And Great Historical Interest. The Grand Canyon ...

Arrowroot
Arrowroot. A Large Proportion Of The Edible Starches Obtained From The Rhizomes Or Root-stocks Of Various Plants Are Known In Commerce Under The Name Of Arrowroot. Properly The Name Should Be Restricted To The Starch Yielded By Two Or Three Species Of Maranta (fam. Marantaceae), The Chief Of Which Is ...

Arrowsmith
Arrowsmith, The Name Of An English Family Of Geog Raphers. The First Of Them, Aaron Arrowsmith (1750-1823), Made Himself Famous By His Large Chart Of The World On Mercator's Pro Jection (17oo). Four Years Later He Published Another Large Map Of The World On The Globular Pro Jection, With A ...

Arroyo
Arroyo, The Channel Of A Stream Where The Water Flows Only At Certain Seasons Of The Year, A Term Used In U.s.a. For A Gully With Bed Of Loose Earth. ...

Ars Sur Moselle
Ars-sur-moselle, A Town Of Lorraine, A Terminus 5m. S. Of Metz On The Railway To Noveant. It Has A Handsome Roman Catholic Church And Extensive Foundries; In The Vicinity Are The Remains Of A Roman Aqueduct. Pop. 3.342. ...

Arsaces
Arsaces, A Persian Name, Which Occurs On A Persian Seal, Where It Is Written In Cuneiform Characters. The Most Famous Arsaces Was The Chief Of The Parni, One Of The Nomadic Scythian Or Dahan Tribes In The Desert East Of The Caspian Sea. A Later Tradition, Preserved By Arrian, Derives ...

Arsenal
Arsenal, An Establishment For The Construction, Repair, Receipt, Storage And Issue Of Warlike Stores. The Word "arsenal" Appears In Various Forms In Romanic Languages (from Which It Has Been Adopted Into Teutonic), I.e., Italian Arzanale, Spanish Arsenal, Etc. ; Italian Also Has Arzana And Darsena, And Spanish A Longer Form ...

Arsenic
Arsenic, A Hard, Steel-grey, Metallic Element Occurring Widely In Various Ores. The Oxide Known As White Arsenic Is Men Tioned By The Greek Alchemist, Olympiodorus, Who Obtained It By Roasting Arsenic Sulphide. These Substances Were All Known To The Later Alchemists Who Used Minerals Containing Arsenic To Give A White ...

Arseniuretted Hydrogen Arsine
Arsine, Arseniuretted Hydrogen, Also Known As Arsenic Trihydride, Is A Colourless, Neutral Gas With A Disagreeable Smell, Having The Formula (see Also Arsenic.) ...

Arsenius Autorianus
Arsenius Autorianus (13th Century), Patriarch Of Constantinople, Lived About The Middle Of The 13th Century. He Received His Education In Nicaea At A Monastery Of Which He Later Became The Abbot, Though Not In Orders. Subsequently He Led A Life Of Solitary Asceticism In A Bithynian Monastery. From This Seclusion ...

Arsenius
Arsenius (c. An Anchorite, Said To Have Been Born Of A Noble Roman Family. He Was Appointed By Theodosius The Great, Tutor Of The Young Princes Arcadius And Honorius; But At The Age Of 4o He Retired To Egypt, Where For 4o Years He Lived In Monastic Seclusion At Scetis ...

Arses
Arses, King Of Persia, The Youngest Son Of Artaxerxes Iii., Was Raised To The Throne In 338 B.c. By Bagoas (q.v.), Who Had Murdered His Father And All His Brothers. But When The Young King Tried To Make Himself Independent, Bagoas Killed Him Too, With All His Children, In The ...

Arsinoe
Arsinoe, The (greek) Name Of Four Egyptian Princesses Of The Ptolemaic Dynasty. The Name Was Introduced Into The Ptolemaic Dynasty By The Mother Of Ptolemy I. This Arsinoe Was Originally A Mistress Of Philip Ii. Of Macedon, Who Presented Her To A Macedonian Soldier A Short Time Before Ptolemy Was ...

Arsinoitherium
Arsinoitherium (from The Egyptian Queen Arsinoe), A Gigantic Horned Mammal From The Middle Eocene Beds Of The Fayum, Egypt, Representing A Sub-order Of Perissodactyla Called Barypoda. The Skull Carries A Huge Pair Of Horn-cores Above The Muzzle, Which Seem To Be The Enlarged Nasal Bones, And A Rudi Mentary Pair ...

Arson
Arson, A Crime Which Has Been Described As The Malicious And Voluntary Burning Of The House Of Another (3 Co. Inst. 66). At Common Law And By Statute It Is An Offence Of The Degree Of Felony. The Common-law Offence Of Arson (which Has Been Greatly Enlarged By Statute) Required ...

Arsot
Arsot, A Forest Near Belfort, Eastern France. Area, About 1,500 Acres. It Is Almost Encircled By A Small Stream, The Eloie, And Is About I,400ft. Above The Sea. It Is Continued East By The Forest Of Denney. The Lakes And Woodlands, Associated With Cold Tertiary Clays, Are Typical Of The ...

Arsuf
Arsuf, A Town On The Coast Of Palestine, I2m. N.n.e. Of Jaffa, Famous As The Scene Of A Victory Of The Crusaders Under Richard I. Of England Over The Army Of Saladin (third Crusade). After The Capture Of Acre On July 12, 1191, And The Departure For Home Of Philip ...

Art And Part
Art And Part, A Term Used In Scots Criminal Law, In Contradistinction To "actor," And Denoting Guilt Of The Crime By Accession Before Or Concomitant With The Fact. For Practical Purposes The Distinction Between The Guilt Of An Actor, And Guilt Art And Part, In The Perpetration Of A Crime, ...

Art Institute Of Chicago
Art Institute Of Chicago Was Incorporated On May 14, 1879, For The "founding And Maintenance Of A School Of Art And Design, The Formation And Exhibition Of Objects Of Art, And The Cultivation And Extension Of The Arts Of Design By Any Appro Priate Means." The Building, Of Italian Renaissance ...

Art Sales
Art Sales. The Practice Of Selling Objects Of Art By Auc Tion In England Dates From The Latter Part Of The S7th Century. Towards The Latter Part Of The First Half Of The 19th Century An Entirely New Race Of Collectors Gradually Came Into Existence; They Were For The Most ...

Art Teaching
Art Teaching. As Art Lost Touch With Production Art Teaching Inevitably Grew In Importance In The National Conscious Ness. The Story Of State Systems Of Art Education Is Mainly An Endeavour To Reunite The Personality Of Art To The Processes Of Industry. In Simpler Forms Of Society, Education Was Parental ...

Art
Art Is Defined In The Article Following And Under Aesthetics. There Are Articles On Painting, Landscape Painting, Portrait Painting, Etc. Technical Methods Are Described Under Art, Far Eastern Methods, Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Lithog Raphy, Mezzotint, Etc. ; Caricature, Illustration, Etc. The Article Periods Of Art Is Supplemented By Chinese ...

Arta Narda Or Zarta
Arta (narda Or Zarta), A Town In Greece, Province Of Epirus, On The Site Of The Ancient Ambracia. The Present Name Is Derived From Its River (anc. Arachthus) Which Enters The Gulf Of Arta South Of The Town And Was Formerly The Frontier Between Greece And Turkey. There Are A ...

Artabanus
Artabanus (ahr"ta-ba'nus), The Name Of A Number Of Persian Princes, Soldiers And Administrators. The Most Important Are The Following:— I. Brother Of Darius I., And, According To Herodotus, The Trusted Adviser Of His Nephew Xerxes. Herodotus Makes Him A Principal Figure In His Dialogues; He Warns Darius Not To Attack ...

Artaphernes
Artaphernes Or, Probably More Correctly Arta Phrenes, Brother Of Darius Hystaspes, And Satrap Of Sardis. It Was He Who Received The Embassy From Athens Sent Probably By Cleisthenes (q.v.) In 507 B.c., And Subsequently Warned The Athenians To Receive Back The Tyrant Hippias. Sub Sequently He Took An Important Part ...

Artaxerxes
Artaxerxes, A Name Representing Persian Artakhshatra, "he Whose Empire Is Well-fitted" Or "perfected," Heb. Artakh Shasta, Bab. Artakshatsu, Susian Irtakshashsha (and Variants), Gr. 'apra Ep Ris,'apro Eperis, And In An Inscription Of Tralles (dittenberger, Sylloge, 573) 'apra Ercn C; Herodotus (vi. 98) Gives The Translation A As Apip.os, And Considers ...

Artayga
Artayga, The Patrician Families Of The Hadareb Arabs In The Vicinity Of Suakin. ...

Artemidorus I
Artemidorus. (i) A Geographer Of "ephesus" Who Flourished About 1 Oo B.c. His Large Work On General Geography (t A 'yewypackovge/a) In I 1 Books, Much Used By Strabo And Others, Is Lost, But We Possess Many Small Fragments And Larger Fragments Of An Abridgment Made By Marcianus Of Heracleia ...

Artemis
Artemis (ahr'te-mis), One Of The Principal Goddesses In Greek Mythology, The Counterpart Of The Roman Diana (q.v.). In Homer, She Is The Daughter Of Zeus And Leto, Twin-sister And Counterpart Of Apollo. She Is Said To Have Been Born A Day Before Him (on The 6th Of The Month) And ...

Artemisia
Artemisia, Daughter Of Lygdamis, Was Queen Of Hali Carnassus And Cos About 48o B.c. She Took Part In The Expedition Of Xerxes Against The Greeks, And Fitted Out Five Ships, With Which She Distinguished Herself In The Sea-fight Near Salamis (48o) (hdt. Vii. 99, Viii. 87, 88). According To Herodotus ...

Artemisia_2
Artemisia, The Sister And Wife Of Mausolus (or Maussol Lus), King Of Caria, Was Sole Ruler From About 353 To 350 B.c. She Built For Her Husband, In Halicarnassus, The Magnificent Mauso Leum, Which Was One Of The Seven Wonders Of The World. There Are Statues Of Mausolus And Artemisia ...

Artemisia_3
Artemisia, A Large Genus Of Plants Of The Family Com Positae (q.v.), Comprising Some 28o Species, Most Abundant In Arid Regions, Notably In The Western United States, The Asiatic Steppes, South Africa And South America. They Are Bitter-aromatic Herbs Or Low Shrubs, Often With Much Divided Leaves And With Incon ...