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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 3 Baltimore - Braila

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Becquerel Rays
Becquerel Rays, The Rays, Discovered By A. H. Bec Querel (q.v.), Which Are Given Off By Uranium. These Have The Same Type Of Penetrating Power And Electrical And Photographic Action As The Rontgen Or X-rays, And The -y-rays, But Are Very Much More Feeble In Their Action. (see Radioactivity.) ...

Becquerel
Becquerel, The Name Of A French Family, Severai Mem Bers Of Which Have Been Distinguished In Chemical And Physical Research., ...

Bed Bug
Bed-bug (cimex Lectularius), A Nocturnal Insect Parasitic On Man, Whose Blood It Sucks. (see Bug; Hemiptera.) ...

Bed Mould
Bed-mould, In Architec Ture, The Moulding, Or Combina Tion Of Mouldings Projecting From The Wall Or Frieze Directly Under The Jutting Portion Of A Cornice, As A Means Of Support ; The Lowest Member Of A Classical Cornice. See Order. ...

Bed Sore
Bed-sore, A Form Of Ulceration Or Sloughing Occurring In Persons Who, Through Sickness Or Old Age, Are Confined To Bed, And Resulting From Pressure Or Irritation By Faeces Or Urine. Bed-sores Denote A Low Nutritive Condition Of The Tissues. They May Occur Wherever There Is Pressure, And Lack Of Cleanliness ...

Bed
Bed, A General Term For A Resting Or Sleeping Place For Men And Animals, And In Particular For The Article Of Household Furni Ture For That Object, And So Used By Analogy In Other Senses, In Volving A Supporting Surface Or Layer (a Word Of Teutonic Origin, Cf. Ger. Bett). ...

Beda Or Baeda Bede
Bede, Beda Or Baeda (672 Or 673-73 5) , English His Torian And Theologian. Of Baeda, Commonly Called "the Venerable Bede," Almost All That We Know Is Contained In The Short Auto Biographical Notice Which He Has Appended To His Ecclesiastical History: "thus Much Concerning The Ecclesiastical History Of Britain, ...

Bedarieux
Bedarieux, Town Of France, Department Of Herault, On The Orb, 27m. N.n.w. Of Beziers By Rail. Pop. It Has A 16th-century Church And Bridge. Bedarieux Is In A Zone Of Woollen And Cloth Industry Based On The Sheep-rearing Of The Hills To The North And North-east, And Its Cloth-making, Carried ...

Beddgelert
Beddgelert (gelert's Grave), Village, Carnarvonshire, North Wales. Pop. (19 21) Approx. 1,213. The Narrow Pass Of Aberglaslyn Leads Into The Snowdon Country, And At The Foot Of That Mountain The Colwyn, From The North-west, And The Glaslyn (vale Of Gwynant), From The North-east, Meet In A Picturesque Hollow In Which ...

Bedford
Bedford, Municipal Borough, And County Town Of Bed Fordshire, England, 5om. N.n.w. Of London By The L.m.s. Rail Way. Pop. (1931) 40,573. It Lies In The Fertile Valley Of The Ouse, Mainly North Of The River, Where Stands The Mound Which Marks The Site Of The Ancient Castle. Near The ...

Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire (abbreviated Beds.), A South Midland County Of England, Bounded North-east By Huntingdonshire, East By Cambridgeshire, South-east By Hertfordshire, West By Buck Inghamshire, And North-west By Northamptonshire. It Is Among The Smaller English Counties, Having An Area Of 466.4sq.m. It Lies Principally In The Middle Part Of The Ouse Basin, ...

Bedford_2
Bedford, A City Of Indiana, U.s.a., Tom. South By West Of Indianapolis ; In The Heart Of The Indiana Limestone District; The County Seat Of Lawrence County. It Is On Federal Highway 5o, And Is Served By The Monon Route And The Chicago, Indianapolis And Louisville Railways. The Population In ...

Bedford_3
Bedford, A Borough And The County Seat Of Bedford County, Pennsylvania, U.s.a., On The Raystown Branch Of The Juniata River, 38m. S. By W. Of Altoona. It Is On The Lincoln Highway And The Pennsylvania Railroad. The Population In 193o Was 2,953. It Lies In A Beautiful Valley At An ...

Bedford_4
Bedford, A Town Of Virginia, 25m. S.w. Of Lynchburg, On The Norfolk And Western Railroad; The County Seat Of Bed Ford County. The Population In 193o Was 3,713. It Lies Nearly I,000ft. Above Sea-level, And The View To The N. And W. Is Bound Ed By The Blue Ridge ; ...

Bedlam
Bedlam, The Popular Name Of Bethlehem Hospital, The First English Lunatic Asylum. It Was Originally Founded By Simon Fitzmary, Sheriff Of London, In 1247, As A Priory For The Sisters And Brethren Of The Order Of The Star Of Bethlehem. It Had As One Of Its Special Objects The Housing ...

Bedlington
Bedlington, Urban District, Northumberland, England, 5m. S.e. Of Morpeth, On A Branch Of The L.n.e.r. Pop. 27,315. It Lies On High Ground Above The River Blyth, 22m. Above Its Mouth. Bedlington (betlingtun) And The Hamlets Belonging To It Were Bought By Cutheard, Bishop Of Durham, Between Goo And 915 And, ...

Bedoul
Bedoul. In The Mountains Of The Sinai Peninsula, Inhabit Ing The Tombs, Are The Bedouls, The "changed Ones," Who Are Said To Have Been Jews And To Have Abandoned Their Faith Some Centuries Ago. ...

Bedstraw
Bedstraw, A Genus Of Plants (galium) Of The Family Rubiaceae With About 30o Species, Found Chiefly In Temperate Parts Of The Northern Hemisphere, Many Of Them Being Common Weeds. The Flowers Are Minute, But Are Often Aggregated Into Large Panicles (see Flower). Common British Species Are The Yellow Bedstraw (g. ...

Bedworth
Bedworth, Manufacturing Town, Warwickshire, England; On The Nuneaton-coventry Branch Of The London Midland And Scottish Railway, 3-im. S. Of Nuneaton. Population Of Parish (1931) 12,058. A Tramway Connects With Coventry, And The Cov Entry Canal Passes Through. Coal And Ironstone Are Mined ; There Are Iron-works, And Bricks, Hats, Ribbons ...

Bed_2
Bed, In Geology, A Term Used When Rocks Are Arranged In More Or Less Distinct Layers; These Are The Beds Of Rock Or Strata. Nor Mally The Bedding Of Rocks Is Horizontal, Or Very Nearly So; When The Upper And Lower Surfaces Of A Bed Are Parallel, The Bedding Is ...

Bee Culture In America
Bee Culture In America The Movable-frame Hive Was Invented By The Rev. L. L. Langstroth At Phila Delphia In 1852 And Immediately Intro Duced By Him To Bee-keepers Of The United States. The Hive Which He Devised After His Long Experience With Bees Contained Ten Frames Each I 7$ X ...

Bee Keeping
Bee-keeping. Though Bee-keeping Is Known To Have Existed From The Most Ancient Times, It May Be Said That During The Last 5o Years Almost Everything Connected With Bee Craft Has Been Revolutionized; Nor Has This Revolution Been Confined To Any Country, But Remarkable Progress Has Been Made In All Coun ...

Bee Line Highway
Bee Line Highway, A Thoroughfare Connecting Kansas City, Mo., With Canon City, Colo. It Is The Shortest Route Between These Two Points. Graded And Im Proved Throughout Most Of Its 675m., It Crosses The Fiat, Rolling Plains Of Kansas To The San Isabel National Forest At The Foot Of The ...

Bee
Bee, The Name Given To A Large Group Of Insects Forming The Superfamily Apoidea Of The Order Hymenoptera (q.v.). Their Feathery. The Labium And Maxillae Are Developed In The Form Of A Proboscis For Extracting Nectar, The Principal Part Concerned Being The Ligula Which Is Modified To Form The So-called ...

Beech
Beech, The Name For Well Known Trees Of The Genus Fagus, Members Of The Family Fagaceae To Which Belong The Sweet-chest Nuts And The Oaks. The Name Beech Is From The Anglo-saxon Boc, Bete Or Beoce (ger. Buche, Swedish, Bok), Words Meaning At Once A Book And A Beech-tree. The ...

Beechworth
Beechworth, A Town Of Bogong County, Victoria, Aus Tralia. Pop. 4,725. The Town Is A Centre Of Gold-mining (ovens Goldfields) But Much Of The Land Is Under Fruit And Grain Cultiva Tion. Industries : Tanning, Ironfounding, Coach-building. ...

Beef Eater
Beef-eater: See Yeomen Of The Guard. Beefsteak Club, The Name Of Several Clubs Formed In London During The 18th And 29th Centuries. The First Seems To Have Been That Founded In 1709 With Richard Estcourt, The Actor, As Steward : Its Badge Was A Gridiron. Its Fame Was Eclipsed In ...

Beef
Beef, Flesh From Mature Cattle Used As A Food. It Contains The Highest Form Of Protein For Human Consumption, In The Most Palatable, Stimulating And Digestible Form. It Is An Energy Pro Ducer And A Muscle Builder; It Supplies Mineral Salts And Some Vitamins. There Are Eight Standard Wholesale Cuts ...

Beelzebul Beelzebub
Beelzebub, Beelzebul, Baalzebub. Baalzebub Was The Name Of The God Of The Philistine City Ekron, To Whom Ahaziah Of Israel When Sick Sent To Inquire Whether He Should Re Cover (ii Ki. I. 1-18). The Meaning Of The Name Is Obscure. Baal (q.v.) The Common Title For A Semitic Deity, ...

Beem Boehme Behmen
Boehme (behmen, Beem, Behmont, Etc.), Jakob German Mystic, Was Born At Alt-seidenberg In Upper Lusatia. After Attending The Town School Of Seidenberg, He Entered The Shoemaking Trade In 1589. In 1612 He Gave Up Business And Wrote Aurora, Oder Die Morgenrote Im Auf Gang. Gregory Richter, The Pastor Primarius Of ...

Beer
Beer, A Beverage Made By The Alcoholic Fermentation Of Crushed Cereal, Is Of Great Antiquity Throughout The Greater Part Of The World. According To Dr. E. Huber (bier And Bierbereitung Bei Den Volkern Der Urzeit, 1926) The Scanty Records Of Ancient Babylon Going Back To 5000-6000 B.c. Show That Beer ...

Beersheba
Beersheba (mod. Bir Es-seba`), Simeonite Town On The Border Line Between The Waste And The Cultivated Land And Re Ferred To Frequently In The Bible As The Southern Limit Of Pales Tine. A Famous Sanctuary, It Was The Scene Of Several Theophanies. The Digging Of Its Well Is Attributed In ...

Beeswax
Beeswax, A Product Of Digestion Secreted By The Worker Bee For Constructing The Cell-walls Of The Honeycomb; It Is Esti Mated That About 10 Lb. Of Honey Are Consumed For One Pound Of Wax Secreted. Beeswax Is A Yellowish Solid Of Agreeable, Somewhat Honey-like Odour And Of A Faint Balsamic ...

Beet
Beet, A Biennial Vegetable, Producing, Like The Carrot, A Thick, Fleshy Tap-root During The First Year And A Leafy Flowering Stem In The Following Season. It Is A Cultivated Form Of The Plant Beta Vulgaris (family Chenopodiaceae, Q.v.), Which Grows Wild On The Coasts Of Europe, North Africa And Asia ...

Beetle
Beetle, A Name Commonly Applied To Those Insects Which Possess Horny Wing-cases; It Is Used To Denote The Cockroaches (q.v.) (black Beetles), As Well As The True Beetles Or Coleoptera (q.v.). From Another Word (o.e. Betel, Connected With "beat") Comes "beetle" In The Sense Of A Mallet, And The "beetling ...

Befana
Befana (ital., Corrupted From Epifania, Epiphany), The Italian Female Counterpart Of Santa Claus (st. Nicholas). On Epiphany, Or Twelfth Night, She Fills Children's Stockings With Presents. Tradition Relates That She Was Too Busy To See The Three Wise Men Of The East Pass On Their Journey To Pay Ador Ation ...

Beggar My Neighbour
Beggar-my-neighbour, A Simple Card-game. An Or Dinary Pack Is Divided Equally Between Two Players, And The Cards Are Held With The Backs Upward. The First Player Lays Down His Top Card Face Up, And The Opponent Plays His Top Card On It And This Goes On Alternately As Long As ...

Beggar
Beggar, One Who Begs, Particularly One Who Gains His Liv Ing By Asking The Charitable Contributions Of Others. The Word, With The Verbal Form "to Beg," In M.e. Beggen, Is Of Obscure History. The Words Appear First In English In The 13th Century, And Were Early Connected With "bag," With ...

Begonia
Begonia, A Large Genus (family Begoniaceae) Of Succulent Herbs Or Undershrubs, With About 75o Species In Tropical Moist Climates, Especially South America And India. Innumerable Gar Den Hybrids And Varieties Are Known Which Come Mainly From Species Introduced Between 1864 And 1867; Many Are Tuberous. The Flowers Are Usually Showy ...

Beguines
Beguines, At The Present Time The Name Of The Members Of Certain Lay Sisterhoods Established In The Netherlands And Germany, The Enclosed District Within Which They Live Being Known As A Beguinage (lat. Beginagium). The Equivalent Male Communi Ties, More Usually Called Beghards (lat. Baghardi), Have Long Ceased To Exist. ...

Begum Of Bhopal
Bhopal, Begum Of, Nawab Sultan Jahan (1858-193o), Was The Third Woman In Succession To Rule Bhopal, A State Of About 7,000 Sq.m. In Central India. Sprung From An Ancient Stock Of Afghan Invaders, She Was Married In 1874, And Succeeded In 1901. She Was Keenly Interested In The Education And ...

Beha Ud Din Abu L Mahasin Yusuf
Beha Ud-din (abu-l-mahasin Yusuf Ibn Raf T` Ibn Shaddad Beha Ud Din) (i145--1234), Arabian Writer And States Man. He Was At First A Teacher In The Nizamiyya At Baghdad And Then Professor At Mosul. In 1187, Of Ter Making The Pilgrimage To Mecca, He Visited Damascus. Saladin, Who Was At ...

Beha Ud Din Zuhair Abu L
Beha Ud-din Zuhair (abu-l Fadl Zuhair Ibn Mo Hammed Al-muhallabt) (1186-1258), Arabian Poet, Became Celebrated As The Best Writer Of Prose And Verse And The Best Calligraphist Of His Time. His Poetry Consists Mostly Of Panegyric And Brilliant Occasional Verse Distinguished For Its Elegance. It Has Been Published With English ...

Behar And Orissa Or
Behar And Orissa Or Bihar, A Province Of British India Created In 1912 By Separation From Western Bengal, Bounded On The North By Nepal And The Bengal District Of Darjeeling, On The East By Bengal, On The South By The Sea And The Madras Presi Dency, And On The West ...

Behar Or Bihar
Behar Or Bihar, A Tract In British India, Forming Part Of The Province Of Behar And Orissa. Behar, Extending Across The Valley Of The Ganges From The Frontier Of Nepal To The Hills Of Chota Nagpur, Corresponds To The Three Administrative Divisions Of Patna, Tirhut, And Bhagalpur (excluding The Santal ...

Behaviourism
Behaviourism Is A Direct Outgrowth Of Studies In Ani Mal Behaviour During The First Decade Of The 2oth Century. C. Lloyd Morgan, The British Psychologist, Must Be Looked Upon As The Founder, Virtually, Of The American School Of Animal Psychol Ogy. His Books, Introduction To Comparative Psychology And Animal Behaviour ...

Behbehan
Behbehan, A Town Of Persia, 30 35' N., 5o 19' E., In The Western Part Of The Province Of Fars, Pleasantly Situated In The Midst Of A Cultivated Plain, Some Isom. West-north-west Of Shiraz And About 5m. South Of The Marun Or Kurdistan River. Formerly A Very Flourishing And Important ...

Beheading
Beheading, A Mode Of Executing Capital Punishment. It Was In Use Among The Greeks And Romans, And The Former, As Xenophon Says At The End Of The Second Book Of The Anabasis, Regarded It As A Most Honourable Form Of Death. So Did The Romans, By Whom It Was Known ...

Behemoth
Behemoth (the Intensive Plural Of The Hebrew B'hemah, A Beast), The Animal Mentioned In Job Xl., Probably The Hippo Potamus. The Modern Use Expresses The Idea Of A Very Large And Strong Animal. ...

Behistun Or Bisitun
Behistun Or Bisitun, A Village At The Foot Of A Precipi Tous Peak Some 1,7ooft. High, In The Zangers Range In Persia, On The Right Bank Of The Samas-ab, A Tributary Of The Kerkha. The Original Form Of The Name (bagistana, "place Of The Gods," Or, "of God") Has Been ...

Beira
Beira, An Ancient Principality And Province Of Northern And Central Portugal ; Bounded On The North By Entre Minho E Douro And By Traz Os Montes, East By The Spanish Provinces Of Leon And Estremadura, South By Alentejo And Portuguese Estremadura, And West By The Atlantic Ocean. Pop. 1 ,734, ...

Beira_2
Beira, A Seaport Of Portuguese East Africa, At The Mouth Of The Pungwe And Busi Rivers, 19 50' S., 34 50' E., 528 M. N. Of Lourenco Marques, In Communication By Railway With Cape Town (2037 M.) Via Umtali, Salisbury (374 M.) And Buluwayo M.). On Dec. 31, 1926, The ...

Beirut
Beirut, The Chief Seaport Of Syria And The Most Beautiful, Is Situated On A Triangular Promontory Roughly 6m. By 5m., Backed By The Lebanon Range. The Bay Thus Formed To The North Is Known As St. George's Bay For It Was Here, According To Legend, That He Slew The Dragon. ...

Beisan
Beisan, A Town Situated On A Low Tableland Where The Vale Of Esdraelon Stoops Down To The Jordan Valley; Pop. 1,5oo, Almost Entirely Muslim (hebrew Beth-shan [shan], "house Of Tran Quillity"; In Classical Times Bore The Name Of Scythopolis And On Coins Nys[s]a). The Area Of The Ancient Town Enclosed ...

Beith
Beith, Town And Parish, Ayrshire, Scotland, 184m. S.w. Of Glasgow, By The L.m.s. Railway. Pop. Of Parish (1931), 5977 The Town Stands High, Overlooking Kilbirnie Loch, But In A District Disfigured By Manufacturing And Mining Industries. Coal, Iron And Limestone Are Worked And There Are Manufactures Of Linen Thread, Netting ...

Beja
Beja. The Truly Hamitic, I.e., Beja, Area Of The Anglo-egyp Tian Sudan Extends From The Red Sea To The Nile, And From The Egyptian Boundary In The North To The Neighbourhood Of The Junc Tion Of The Atbara With The Nile. South Of This There Are No Easily Defined Natural ...

Bejan
Bejan, A Term For Freshmen, Or Undergraduates Of The First Year, In The Scottish Universities (fr. Bejaune, From Bec Jaune, "yellow Beak," In Allusion To Unfledged Birds) . The Phrase Was Introduced From The French Universities, Where The Levying Of Bejaunium, "footing-money," Had Been Prohibited By The Statutes Of The ...

Bejart
Bejart, The Name Of Several French Actors, Children Of Marie Herve And Joseph Be J Art (d. 1643) , The Holder Of A Small Government Post. One Of The Sons, Joseph Bejart (c. Was A Strolling Player And Later A Member Of Moliere's First Com Pany (l'illustre Theatre), Accompanied Him ...

Beja_2
Beja, Town In Portugal, 95m. S.s.e. Of Lisbon By Railway; It Is Probably The Ancient Pax Julia. Pop. (1931) Beja Is An Episcopal City On An Isolated Hill, And Partly Enclosed By Walls Of Roman Origin With Fine Roman South Gateway. The Citadel, With Its Beautiful Gothic Tower Of White ...

Bek Budi Kenimekh
Bek-budi Kenimekh (formerly Karshi), A Town In The Uzbek S.s.r., At The Junction Of The Two Main Tributaries Of The Kashka-darya. Lat. 38 52' N., Long. 65 56' E. Pop. (1926) 14,150. It Is The Centre Of A Fertile Oasis Growing Grain, Poppies, Tobacco And Fruit : Mulberry, Poplar And ...

Bekescsaba
Bekescsaba, A Busy Regional Market Town In Hungary, 123m. South-east Of Budapest. Situated Near The White Koros, With Which It Is Connected By Canal, It Is An Important Railway Junction With An Active Trade In The Characteristic Products Of The Hungarian Plain, Viz., Cereals And Cattle. There Are Milling And ...

Bekker
Bekker (or Wolff), Elizabeth Dutch Novelist, Was Married To Adrian Wolff, A Reformed Clergyman. After The Death Of Her Husband In 1777, She Resided For Some Time In France With Her Close Friend, Agatha Deken. In 1795 She Re Turned To Holland, And Resided At The Hague Till Her Death. ...

Bel
Bel, The Accadian Word For "lord," The Counterpart Of The Phoenician Baal (q.v.), Sumerian En. It Is, Therefore, A Title Given To A Deity At The Head Of A Pantheon. It May Have Been First Applied As A Divine Name To En-lil, Of Which The First Element Again Has The ...

Bela Bartok
Bartok, Bela ), Hungarian Composer And Pianist. Born March 25, 188 I At Nagyszentmiklos, Transylvania, He Began Composition At The Age Of Nine And Studied First Under Laszlo Erkel And Later At The Musical Academy, Budapest, Under Stephen Thoman And John Koessler. In 1903 His Symphonic Poem "kossuth" Was Performed ...

Bela Iii
Bela Iii. (d. 1196), King Of Hungary, Was The Second Son Of King Geza Ii. Educated At The Byzantine Court, He Married Agnes Of Chatillon, Duchess Of Antioch, And In 1173 Was Placed By The Emperor Manuel By Force Of Arms On The Hungarian Throne. Bela Began By Adopting Catholicism ...

Bela Iv
Bela Iv. (1206-127o), King Of Hungary, Was The Son Of Andrew Ii., Whom He Succeeded In During His Father's Life Time He Colonized And Christianized Transylvania. The Salient Event Of Bela's Reign Was The Terrible Tatar Invasion Which Re Duced Three-quarters Of Hungary To Ashes. The Terror Of Their Name ...

Beldam
Beldam, A Grandmother Or Remote Ancestress, And So An Old Woman. Generally Used Contemptuously As Meaning An Old Hag. ...

Belemnites
Belemnites, The Name Of A Group Of Extinct Cephalopod Molluscs Allied To The Squids And Cuttlefish (qq.v.). The Shell Comprised A Straight Cone Divided Internally Into Chambers And Known As The Phragmocone, The Whole Enclosed In A Horny Or Calcareous Plate. It Was Probably Internal As In Most Modern Decapoda. ...

Belfast
Belfast, County Borough, Capital Of Northern Ireland. Pop. (1926) 415,151. It Is A Sea-port Of The First Rank, At The En Trance Of The River Lagan Into Belfast Lough, I24m. North Of Dublin By Rail. The Early History Of The Site Is Scanty And Vague. In The Annals Of The ...

Belfast_2
Belfast, A City Of Maine, U.s.a., On The North-west Shore Of Penobscot Bay, 3om. From The Sea And 85m. North-east Of Portland; A Port Of Entry And The County Seat Of Waldo County. It Is Served By Coasting Steamers, And By The Belfast And Moose Head Lake Railroad, Which Connects ...

Belfort
Belfort, Town Of France, Capital Of The Territory Of Bel Fort, 275m. E.s.e. Of Paris On The Main Line Of The Eastern Rail Way. Pop. (1931) 38,493. The Town Commands An Important Structural Gap Known As The Trou De Belfort Between The Vosges And The Jura And Is One Of ...

Belfry
Belfry, Originally A Word Used For A Movable Wooden Tower Employed In Sieges For Attacking And Scaling City Or Castle Walls ; Also A Watch Tower, Particularly One That Had An Alarm Bell. In Modern Usage The Word Signifies Any Bell Tower, Especially If Detached, And Also The Tower Chamber ...

Belgae
Belgae, A Celtic People First Mentioned By Caesar, Who States That They Formed The Third Part Of Gaul, And Were Sepa Rated From The Celtae By The Sequana (seine) And Matrona (marne). On The East And North Their Boundary Was The Lower Rhine, On The West The Ocean. Caesar's Statement ...

Belgard
Belgard, A Town And Railway Junction In The District Of Koslin, In The Prussian Province Of Pomerania, 18m. S.w. Of Koslin. Pop. It Is An Agricultural Centre. ...

Belgaum
Belgaum, A Town And District Of British India, In The Southern Division Of Bombay. It Is Situated Nearly 2,5ooft. Above Sea-level, 245m. S. Of Poona By Rail, And Has A Civil And Military Cantonment. An Ancient Fortress, Dating Apparently From 1519, And Covering About Iooac. And Surrounded By A Ditch, ...

Belgian Coast Operations
Belgian Coast Operations. The Operations On The Belgian Coast Carried Out During The World War By British Naval Forces, With The Assistance Of Local French Torpedo And Auxil Iary Craft, Deserve A Special Place In History, In View Of Their Im Portant Bearing On The Allied Effort In General And ...

Belgian Congo
Belgian Congo (formerly The Congo Free State, Q.v.), A Belgian Colony In Equatorial Africa. It Occupies The Major Part Of The Basin Of The Congo And A Small Part Of The Basin Of The Upper Nile. The Area Is Approximately 910,000 Square Miles. According To The Latest General Census The ...

Belgian Literature
Belgian Literature. The Literature Of Belgium Falls Naturally Into Two Divisions, Flemish And French. In The Early I9th Century (c. 1830) Was Established The "flemish Move Ment" With The Object Of Setting Up Low German As The Literary And Official Language. Before This Time Flemish Literature Was One With That ...

Belgium Independent
Belgium Independent The Powers Wished The Congress To Give The Crown To The Prince Of Orange, But Instead Of Doing So It Elected The Duke Of Nemours, The Son Of Louis Philippe (feb. 3, 1831) . For The Sake Of Pre Serving Peace, The King Of France Refused His Consent. ...

Belgium Under Austrian Rule
Belgium Under Austrian Rule The Change Of Dynasty Did Not Involve Any Change In The Political System Established In 1579 By The Peace Of Arras. Just As There Had Been No Spanish Domination, There Was Now No Austrian Domination. National Autonomy Was Maintained ; The Traditional Institutions Were Preserved ; ...

Belgium Under Spanish Rule
Belgium Under Spanish Rule From This Time Onwards The Whole Of The Southern Part Of The Netherlands Once More Recognized Philip Ii. As Its Sovereign. The System Set Up By The Peace Of Arras (may In All The Reconquered Provinces Was Not One Of Spanish Domination, But Simply Of Dynastic ...

Belgium
Belgium (fr. Belgique ; Flem. Belgie) , An Independent Constitutional State Occupying An Important Economic Position In North-west Europe. Its Neutrality Was Guaranteed By The Treaties Of 1831 And 1839, But Was Abolished By The Treaty Of Versailles (1919), When Belgium Was Given Full Freedom In Directing Her Foreign Policy. ...

Belgrade
Belgrade (serbian Beograd, I.e., "white Castle"), The Capital Of Yugoslavia. Pop. (1931) 241,542. Belgrade Occupies A Triangular Foreland At The Confluence Of Sava And Danube; At The Base Stands Ayala Hill, The Last Outpost Of The Rudnik Mountains, And At The Apex A Cliff 2ooft. High, Crowned By The Cita ...

Belief
Belief Is Acquiescence In The Reality Of An Object Or Assent To The Truth Of A Proposition. The Meaning Of The Term Varies Somewhat In Different Contexts. It Is Sometimes Applied To The Content Of A Belief, But More Usually To The Act Or Experience Of Believing. Somewhat More Serious ...

Belisarius
Belisarius (c. 505-565), One Of The Most Famous Generals Of The Later Roman Empire, Was Born About A.d. 505, In "ger Mania," A District On The Borders Of Thrace And Macedonia. As A Youth He Served In The Bodyguard Of Justinian, Who Appointed Him Commander Of The Eastern Army. He ...

Belit
Belit, Signifying The "lady," Par Excellence In The Babylo Nian Religion. Accadian Translation Of Sumerian Dingir-nin-(lil) Consort Of En-(lil) Of Nippur. The Earth God And His Consort Are Called Bel And Beltu "lord And Lady" In The Older Interlinear Texts, But The Accadian Translation Is Not Provided With The Deter ...

Belize
Belize, The Capital And Principal Seaport Of British Hondu Ras, On The Caribbean Sea, In I7 29' N., 88 11' W. (pop. [1931] 16,687), Occupies Both Banks Of The River Belize, At Its Mouth. The Ground Is Very Little Above Sea Level And The Town Is Divided From The Mainland ...

Bell A R M
Bell A R M I N E (ital. Bellarmino), R O B E R T O Francesco Romolo (1542-1621), Italian Cardinal And Theologian, Was Born In Monte Pulciano, Tuscany, On Oct. 4, 1s42. He Entered The Society Of Jesus In 156o. After Three Years At Rome He Was Sent To ...

Bell Boy
Bell Boy, Sometimes Called Bell Hop, In The United States One Who Attends To The General Needs Of A Hotel Guest. Most Hotels Prefer To Hire Bell Boys Over 18 Years Old, In Order To Avoid Legal Restrictions Incumbent Upon The Employment Of Minors. Some Managers, However, Employ Young Boys ...

Bell Flower
Bell-flower, The Name Given To Various Species Of Campanula (q.v.) Because Of The Shape Of Their Handsome Flowers. ...

Bell Harp
Bell Harp, A Curious Musical Instrument Invented In The 18th Century By An Englishman, John Simcox. It Was Neither A Bell Nor A Harp, But A Kind Of Dulcimer Or Psaltery (q.v.), Which Derived The First Half Of Its Name From The Fact That It Was Sus Pended And Swung ...

Bell Metal
Bell-metal, The Alloy Used For Bell Founding, Consists Of Three To Five Parts Of Copper To One Of Tin. It Is A Metal Harder Than Either Of Its Components, And Empirical Experiment Discov Ered Ages Ago That It Possesses A Peculiar Degree Of Sonority. (see Alloys.) ...

Bell Pits
Bell Pits, Small Holes Or Shafts, 3ft. Or 4ft. In Diameter, Driven Through A Few Feet Of Overlying Strata To The Seam Of Coal, And Then Widened Out To Allow For Excavation. In Sussex There Are Bell Pits Which Were Sunk In Prehistoric Times To Obtain Flints For The Making ...

Bell Rock Or Inchcape
Bell Rock Or Inchcape Rock, A Sandstone Reef In The North Sea, 12m. S.e. Of Arbroath, Angus Forfarshire, Scotland. It Measures 2,000f T. In Length, Is Under Water At High Tide, But At Low Tide Is Exposed For A Few Feet, The Sea For A Dis Tance Of Iooyds. Around ...

Bell
Bell. The Number Of Different Forms Assumed By Bells Is Very Large, Not All Of Which Need Be Dealt With Here. The Term Does Not Strictly Include Gongs, Cymbals, Metal Plates, Resonant Bars Of Metal Or Wood, Or Tinkling Ornaments, Such As, E.g., The "bells" Upon The Jewish High Priest's ...

Bellabella
Bellabella, The Common Name (popularized From The Indian Corruption Of Milbank) For A Tribe Of Kwakiutl Indians At Milbank, British Columbia, Including The Subtribes Kokaitk, Oet Litk And Oealitk. They Were Converted To Christianity By Protest Ant Missionaries, And Number About 300. ...

Bellacoola
Bellacoola, An American Indian Ethnic Unit, Also Called Tallion, Constituting The Northernmost Group Of The Salishan Family, Of The Coast Division. They Lived In A Number Of Inde Pendent Villages On Bentinck And Dean Inlets And Bellacoola River In British Columbia. They Adhered To The Maritime Culture Restricted To The ...

Belladonna
Belladonna, A Name For The Deadly Nightshade (atropa Belladonna) . (see Atropine ; Nightshade ; Solanaceae.) The Belladonna Lily Is Quite A Different Plant. (see Amaryllis.) ...

Bellagio
Bellagio, A Village Of Lombardy, Italy, Province Of Como, N.n.e. By Steamer From Como. It Is A Resort With Fine Gardens On The Promontory Between The Two Southern Arms Of The Lake. It Works In Silk And Olive-wood. ...

Bellaire
Bellaire, A City Of Belmont County, O., U.s.a., On The Ohio River, 5m. Below Wheeling. It Is Served By The Baltimore And Ohio And The Pennsylvania Railways. The Population Was 9,912 In 19oo; 15,061 In 192o, Of Whom 2,691 Were Foreign-born White; And Was 13,327 In 193o Federal Census. It ...