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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 3 Baltimore - Braila

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Bellary Or Ballari
Bellary Or Ballari, A City And District Of British India, In The Madras Presidency. The City Is 3o5m. By Rail From Madras. Pop. (over 58,00o In 190 1) Fell Below 35,00o In 1911, Owing To Plague, And Was 47,573 In 1931. The Fort Rises From A Huge Mass Of Granite ...

Bellbird
Bellbird, The Name Of A Species Of The Genus Chas Morhynchus And Especially Of C. Niveus, The Male Of Which Carries A Long, Fleshy, Erectile Appendage Ornamented With Short White Feathers On The Forehead. The Name Is Derived From The Note. C. Tricarunculatus Carries Three Wattles, One At Each Angle, ...

Belle Ile En Mer
Belle-ile-en-mer, An Island Off The West Coast Of France, Department Of Morbihan, 8m. S. By W. Of The Peninsula Of Quiberon. Pop. (1931) 6,o63. Area, 33sq.m. The Island Has Four Communes, Le Palais, Bangor, Sauzon And Locmaria. It Forms A Treeless Plateau With An Average Height Of I 3of T. ...

Belleau Wood
Belleau Wood, A Tract Of Forest Land, In Area Less Than A Square Mile, 5m. N.w. Of Chateau-thierry, And 42m. E. Of Paris, Notable For The Second Clash Between U.s.a. And German Troops In The World War. When The German Offensive Of May 27, 1918, Was Launched On The Aisne, ...

Bellecour
Bellecour French Actor, Whose Real Name Was Jean Claude Gilles Colson, Was Born On Jan. 16 I 725, The Son Of A Portrait Painter. After Playing In The Provinces He Made His Debut, On Dec. 21 I 75o, As Achilles In 1 Phigenie. He Was More Successful, However, In Comedy ...

Bellefontaine
Bellefontaine, A City Of Ohio, U.s.a., On A Hill I,s5oft. Above Sea-level, 45m. N.w. Of Columbus; The County Seat Of Logan County. It Is Served By The Big Four And The New York Central Railways. The Population In 193o Was 9,543. It Has Large Railway Car Shops, And Its Manufactures ...

Bellerophon Or Bellerophontes
Bellerophon Or Bellerophontes, A Hero, Probably Of Oriental Origin, Although Provided With A Greek Pedigree As Early As Homer. In The Iliad (vi., 153 F Oll.) , He Is Son Of Glaucus, The Son Of Sisyphus Of Ephyre (traditionally Identified With Corinth) . Anteia, Wife Of Proetus, King Of Argos, ...

Belles Lettres
Belles-lettres, A Term Used To Designate The More Artistic And Imaginative Forms Of Literature, As Poetry Or Romance, As Opposed To More Pedestrian And Exact Studies. Modern Usage Applies The Word More Often To The Little Hills Than To The Moun Tain-peaks Of Literature, And Denotes The Essay And The ...

Belleville
Belleville, Port Of Entry, Ontario, Canada, Capital Of Hastings County, Io6m.e.n.e. Of Toronto, On Bay Of Quinte And The Canadian National And Canadian Pacific Railways. Pop. Communication Is Maintained With Lake Ontario And The St. Lawrence By The Canadian Steamship Lines. An Agricultural Centre, It Exports Cheese And Farm Produce. ...

Belleville_2
Belleville, A City Of Illinois, U.s.a., 14m. S.e. Of St. Louis, Adjoining East St. Louis; The County Seat Of St. Clair County. It Is Served By The Illinois Central, The Louisville And Nashville And The Southern Railways, And (through A Belt Line For Freight) By 22 Other Railways Entering East ...

Belleville_3
Belleville, A Town Of Essex County, N.j., U.s.a., On The Passaic River, Adjoining Newark, And Served By The Erie Rail Road. The Population Was 15,66o In 1920, And Was 26,974 In 1930 Federal Census. It Is A Residential Suburb Of Newark And New York, And Also Has Considerable Manufacturing Industries ...

Bellevue
Bellevue, A City Of Ohio, U.s.a., 45m. S.e. Of Toledo, In Huron And Sandusky Counties. It Is Served By The New York Central, The Nickel Plate, The Wheeling And Lake Erie And The Pennsylvania Railways. The Population In 1930 Was 6,256. It Has Railroad Repair Shops, Limestone Quarries, Flour-mills And ...

Bellevue_2
Bellevue, A Residential Borough Of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, U.s.a., On The Ohio River And The Pennsylvania Railroad, 5m. N.w. Of Pittsburgh. Its Population In 1930 Was 10,252. ...

Belley
Belley, A Town Of France, Capital Of An Arrondissement, De Partment Of Ain, 52m. S.e. Of Bourg By The P.l.m. Railway. Pop. It Is Situated On Vine-covered Hills At The Southern Extremity Of The Jura, 3m. From The Right Bank Of The Rhone. Belley Is Of Roman Origin. It Was ...

Belligerency
Belligerency, The State Of Carrying On War In Accord Ance With The Law Of Nations. Insurgents Are Not As Such Ex Cluded From Recognition As Belligerents, And, Even Where Not Recognized As Belligerents By The Government Against Which They Have Rebelled, They May Be So Recognized By A Neutral State, ...

Bellingham
Bellingham, A City Near The North-west Corner Of Wash Ington, U.s.a., On The East Shore Of Bellingham Bay, 18m. From The Canadian Border ; A Port Of Entry And The County Seat Of Whatcom County. It Is On The Pacific Highway ; Is Served By The Great Northern, The Northern ...

Bellini
Bellini, The Name Of A Family Of Craftsmen In Venice, Three Members Of Which Fill A Great Place In The History Of The Venetian School Of Painting In The 15th And Early In The I6th Century. I. Jacopo Bellini (c. 1400—c. 1470) Was The Son Of A Tin Smith Or ...

Bellinzona
Bellinzona, The Political Capital Of The Swiss Canton Of Tessin Or Ticino, 105m. From Lucerne By The St. Gotthard Rail Way, And 14m. From Locarno. Until 1881 It Was Joint Capital Of The Canton, With Lugano And Locarno. The Old Town Is Built On Some High Ground Rising From The ...

Bello Horizonte
Bello-horizonte, A City Of Brazil, Capital Of The State Of Minas Geraes, About 5om. N.w. Of Ouro Preto, Connected With The Central Of Brazil Railway By A Branch Line 9m. In Length. Pop. In 145,206. The City Was Built By The State On An Open Plateau About 3,000ft. Above The ...

Bellona
Bellona, Originally Duellona, In Roman Mythology, The Goddess Of War (bellum, Duellum), Corresponding To The Greek Enuo. Sometimes Known As The Sister Or Wife Of Mars, She Has Been Identified With The Sabine War Goddess Nerio. Her Temple At Rome, Dedicated By Appius Claudius Caecus (296 B.c.) Dur Ing A ...

Bellows Falls
Bellows Falls, An Incorporated Village Of Windham County, Vermont, U.s.a., Beautifully Situated On The Connecticut River, 3om. From The Southern Boundary Of The State; On Federal Highway 5, And Served By The Boston And Maine And The Rutland Railways. The Population Was 4,86o In 192o, But It Fell Off To ...

Bellows
Bellows, An Appliance To Produce A Current Of Air By Compressing A Collapsible Bag Or Receptacle Into Which Air Has Been Admitted. The O.e. Word For Bellows Was Bldstbaelig; I.e., "blow-bag." By The 11th Century Baelig, Bag, Is Found In Early Glossaries. Baelig Became In M.e. Bely, The Plural "bellies" ...

Belluno
Belluno (anc. Bellunum), Episcopal See, Venetia, Italy, Capital Of Province Of Belluno, S4m. North Of Treviso By Rail And 28m. Direct, At Confluence Of Ardo And Piave, 1,285ft. Above Sea Level. Pop. (1931) 11,181 (town) ; 25,425 (commune). It Sur Rendered Voluntarily To Venice In 1420 And Remained Venetian Until ...

Bellwort
Bellwort (uvularia), The Name Given To A Group Of Hand Some Woodland Plants Of The Lily Family, Native To Eastern North America. There Are Five Or Six Species, All Low Perennials With Slender, Creeping Root Stocks Which Send Up Leafy Stems From 6 To 2oin. High, Bearing Large Pale Yellow ...

Belmont Or Bellomont Beaumont
Beaumont, Belmont Or Bellomont, The Name Of A Norman And English Family, Taken From Beaumont-le-roger In Normandy. In The Ilth Century Roger De Beaumont, A Kinsman Of The Dukes Of Normandy, Married A Daughter Of Waleran, Count Of Meulan, And Their Son, Robert De Beaumont (died Became Count Of Meulan ...

Belmont
Belmont, A Residential Town Of Middlesex County, Massa Chusetts, U.s.a., On The Boston And Maine Railroad, 6m. W. By N. Of Boston, Adjoining Cambridge. It Was Formed From Parts Of Watertown, Waltham And West Cambridge, And Was Incorporated In 1859 After A Bitter Contest Through Several Successive Legisla Tures. Its ...

Beloit
Beloit, A City Of Rock County, Wis., U.s.a., On Rock River, 70m. S.w. Of Milwaukee, On The Southern Boundary Of The State. It Is Served By The Chicago And North Western And The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul And Pacific Railways. The Population Was 10,436 In 1900; 25,284 In 1920, Of ...

Belomancy
Belomancy, A Form Of Divination (q.v.) By Means Of Arrows, Practised By The Babylonians, Scythians And Other Ancient Peoples (from I3exos, A Dart, And Uavreia Prophecy Or Divination). Nebuchadrezzar (ezek. Xxi. 21) Resorted To This Practice "when He Stood In The Parting Of The Way . . . To Use ...

Belper
Belper, Urban District, Derbyshire, England, On The River Derwent, Seven Miles N. Of Derby On The L.m.s. Railway. Pop. (1931) 13,023. Until 1846 Belper (beaurepaire) Formed Part Of The Parish Of Duffield, Granted By William I. To Henry De Ferres, Earl Of Derby. There Is No Distinct Mention Of Belper ...

Belshazzar
Belshazzar, A Babylonian General Of The 6th Century B.c. Until The Decipherment Of The Cuneiform Inscriptions, He Was Known Only From The Book Of Daniel (v. 2, Ii, 13, 18) And Its Reproduction In Josephus, Where He Is Represented As The Son Of Nebuchadrezzar And The Last King Of Babylon. ...

Belt
Belt, A Flat Strap Of Leather Or Other Material, Used As A Girdle (q.v.), Especially The Cinctura Gladii Or Sword-belt, The Chief "ornament Of Investiture" Of An Earl Or Knight (o.ger. Balz) ; In Machinery, A Flexible Strap Passing Round From One Drum, Pul Ley Or Wheel To Another, For ...

Beltene Beltane
Beltane, Beltene, Beltine Or Beal-tene (scot.gael. Bealltain), The Celtic Name For May-day, On Which Was Held A Festival Originally Common To All The Celtic Peoples. The Most Important Ceremony In Later Centuries Was The Lighting Of The Bonfires Known As "beltane Fires," Which Is Believed To Repre Sent The Druidical ...

Belting For Power Transmission
Belting For Power Transmission. The Trans Mission Of Power From An Engine Or Motor To A Machine By The Method Of Driving Shaft And Pulley Demands The Employment Of Belts Or Ropes Of Careful Manufacture. These Are Variously Of Leather, Friction Surface Rubber Balata, Solid Woven Cotton And Other Materials. ...

Belton
Belton, A City Of Texas, U.s.a., 55m. N.e. Of Austin; The County-seat Of Bell County. It Is On Federal Highway 81, And Is Served By The Santa Fe And The Missouri-kansas-texas Railways. The Population In 193o Was 3,779. Cotton, Grain, Honey, And Hogs Are Raised In The Surrounding Country. The ...

Beluga Or White Whale
Beluga Or "white Whale" (delphinapterus Leucas), A Cetacean Of The Family Delphinapteridae. A Native Of The Arctic Seas, It Extends In The Western Atlantic As Far South As The River St. Lawrence, Which It Ascends For A Considerable Distance. In Colour It Is Almost Pure White; The Maximum Length Is ...

Belvedere Or Belvidere
Belvedere Or Belvidere, An Architectural Structure Built In The Upper Part Of A Building Or In Any Elevated Position So As To Command A Fine View. The Belvedere Assumes Various Forms, Such As An Angle Turret, A Cupola, A Loggia Or Open Gallery. The Name Is Applied To The Whole ...

Belvidere
Belvidere, A City Of Illinois, U.s.a., Tom. N.w. Of Chicago, On The Kishwaukee River, At An Altitude Of 800f T. ; The County Seat Of Boone County. It Is On Federal Highway 20, And Is Served By The Chicago And North Western Railroad, Which Has Here Its Terminal Yards For ...

Bema
Bema, In Ecclesiastical Architecture, The Semi-circular Recess Or Apse (q.v.) In The Basilica, Where Later The Altar Was Placed. It Generally Is Roofed With A Half Dome. In Early Christian Churches The Seats Of The Priests Were Against The Wall, Looking Into The Body Of The Church, That Of The ...

Bemidji
Bemidji, A City In The Midst Of The Woods And Lakes Of Northern Minnesota, U.s.a., About 15om. N.w. Of Duluth; The County Seat Of Beltrami County. On Federal Highways 2 And 71, And Served By The Great Northern, The Soo, The Northern Pacific, And The Minneapolis, Red Lake And Manitoba ...

Ben Day Process
Ben Day Process, A Medium Invented About 1879 By Benjamin Day For Use In Photomechanical Engraving For Adding Tints, Shading Or Stippling To Line Engravings. Its Use Eliminates The Shading Of A Drawing By Hand And, Being Mechanical, It Avoids The Irregularities Of Hand-drawn Work. A Numerous And Varied Selection ...

Ben Ledi
Ben Ledi, A Mountain Of Perthshire, Scotland, 2,875ft. High. (see Perthshire.) ...

Ben Lomond
Ben Lomond, A Mountain In North-west Stirlingshire, Scotland, 3,192ft. High (see Lomond, Loch). ...

Ben Nevis
Ben Nevis, Highest Mountain In The British Isles, Inver Ness-shire, Scotland. It Is 4,4o6ft. Above Sea Level, E.s.e. Of Fort William, The Meridian Of 5° W. Passing Through It. From Banavie On The Caledonian Canal, It Shows Two Great Masses, And Though Bulky Is Much Less Striking Than Many Other ...

Ben Venue
Ben Venue, A Mountain In South-west Perthshire, Scot Land. Principal Peaks Are 2,393 And 2,386ft. (see Perthshire.) ...

Ben
Ben, In The Scottish Phrase "a But And A Ben," The Inner Room Of A House In Which There Is Only One Outer Door, So That The Entrance To The Inner Room Is Through The Outer, The But (o.e. Bennan Within, And Butan, Without) . Hence "a But And A ...

Benares Or Kasi
Benares Or Kasi, The Holy City Of The Hindus, Which Gives Its Name To A District And Division In The United Provinces Of India. It Ranks In The Affection And Reverence Of The Hindus As Mecca Does For The Muslims : And To Western Eyes Its Great Antiquity And Its ...

Benares
Benares, An Indian State Attached To The United Prov Inces; Area 87o Sq.m., And Pop. 391,272 In 1931. This Is The Latest Indian State To Be So Constituted, The Maharajah Having Been Given Powers As A Ruling Chief In 1911. His Ancestor, Balwant Singh, Although Nominally An Ordinary Landholder, Succeeded ...

Bench Mark
Bench Mark, A Surveyor's Mark Cut In Stone Or Some Durable Material To Indicate A Point In A Line Of Levels For The Determination Of Altitudes Over A Given District. The Name Is Taken From The "angle-iron" Which Is Inserted In The Horizontal Incision As A "bench" Or Support For ...

Bench Table
Bench Table, The Stone Seat Which Sometimes Runs Round The Walls And The Piers Of Large Churches; It Often Occurs In Porches. ...

Bench
Bench, A Long Narrow Wooden Seat For Several Persons, With Or Without A Back. While The Chair Was Yet A Seat Of State Or Dignity The Bench Was Ordinarily Used By The Commonalty. It Is Still Extensively Employed For Other Than Domestic Purposes, As In Schools, Churches And Places Of ...

Bend
Bend, A City In The Central Part Of Oregon, U.s.a., On The Deschutes River, 130m. S.e. Of Portland; The County Seat Of Deschutes County. It Is On Federal Highway 97, And Is Served By The Spokane, Portland And Seattle And The Union Pacific Railways. The Population Was S36 In 191o; ...

Benda
Benda, The Name Of A Family Of Czech Musicians, Of Whom The Most Important Is Jifi Who Was A Pupil Of His Elder Brother, Frantisek (1709-1786), Concertmeister In Berlin. Jifi Benda, The Violinist, Was A Famous Clavier Player And Oboist, Who Was Born On June 3o, 1722, And Died On ...

Bendigo
Bendigo (formerly Sandhurst), A City In Victoria (aus Tralia) Situated On The Flank Of The Great Divide C. Ioo M. N.n.w. Of Melbourne. In 1851 Alluvial Gold Was Discovered On A Sheep Run And The Richness Of The Finds Rapidly Attracted Population. In 1853 Some Three Million Pounds' Worth Of ...

Bene Israel
Bene-israel ("sons Of Israel"), A Colony Of Jews Set Tled In Kolaba, Bombay And Shana Districts And The Native State Of Janjira. With The Jews Of Cochin, They Represent A Very An Cient Judaic Invasion Of India. Some Think The Bene-israel Settled In Kolaba In The 6th Century, But Traditions ...

Benedetto Bonfigli
Bonfigli, Benedetto, 15th Century Italian Painter, Was Born At Perugia. The Most Important Of His Extant Works Are A Series, In Fresco, Of The Life Of St. Louis Of Toulouse, In The Communal Palace Of Perugia. ...

Benedict Biscop
Benedict Biscop (628?-69o), Also Known As Blscop Baducing, English Churchman Of Noble Family, Was For A Time A Thegn Of Oswiu, King Of Northumbria. He Then Went Abroad And After A Second Journey To Rome (he Made Five Altogether) Lived As A Monk At Lerins (665-667). It Was Under His ...

Benedict Xv
Benedict Xv. (1854-1922), Pope, Was Born At Pegli, In The Diocese Of Genoa, Nov. 21 1854, His Name Being Giacomo Della Chiesa. He Was Educated In The Seminary And At The University Of Genoa, Where He Took His Degree As Doctor Of Law In 1875. He Studied For The Priesthood ...

Benedict
Benedict (benedictus), The Name Taken By 14 Of The Popes. Benedict I. Succeeded John Iii. And Was Pope From 575 To 579, During The Incursions Of The Lombards And The Series Of Plagues And Famines Which Followed These Invasions. Benedict Ii. Was Pope From 684 To 685. He Succeeded Leo ...

Benedictines Or Black Monks
Benedictines Or Black Monks, Monks Living Ac Cording To The Rule Of St. Benedict (q.v.) Of Nursia. Subiaco In Latium Was The Cradle Of The Benedictines, And In That Same Neighbourhood St. Benedict Established 12 Monasteries. After Wards Giving Up The Direction Of These, He Migrated To Monte Cas Sino ...

Benediction
Benediction, Strictly Any Blessing Either Of Persons Or Things, But More Commonly Applied To Formal Blessings, Such As Are Pronounced By The Priest Or Minister At The Close Of Religious Services. In The Roman Catholic Church The Term Is More Often Applied To A Popular Form Of Devotion To The ...

Benedictus Abbas
Benedictus Abbas (d. 1194), Abbot Of Peterborough, Whose Name Is Accidentally Connected With The Gesta Henrici Regis Secundi, One Of The Most Valuable Of English 12th Century Chronicles. He First Makes His Appearance In 1174, As The Chan Cellor Of Archbishop Richard, The Successor Of Becket In The Primacy. In ...

Benedictus
Benedictus, The Hymn Of Zacharias (luke I. 68 Sqq.), So Called From The Opening Word Of The Latin Version. The Hymn Has Been Used In Christian Worship Since At Least The 9th Century, And Was Adopted Into The Anglican Order Of Morning Prayer From The Roman Service Of Matin-lauds. In ...

Benefice
Benefice, A Term First Applied Under The Roman Empire To Portions Of Land, The Usufruct Of Which Was Granted By The Em Perors To Their Soldiers Or Others For Life, As A Reward Or Beneficium For Past Services, And As A Retainer For Future Services. The Term Benefice, According To ...

Beneficiary
Beneficiary, In Law, One Who Holds A Benefice ; One Who Is Beneficially Entitled To, Or Interested In, Property, I.e., Entitled To It For His Own Benefit, And Not Merely Holding It For Others, As Does An Executor Or Trustee. In This Latter Sense It Is Nearly Equivalent To Cestui ...

Benefit Societies
Benefit Societies, A Term Sometimes Employed To Describe Associations Formed For The Purpose Of Obtaining For Their Members, Or For The Dependents Of Their Members, Certain Deferred Benefits, Such As Payments During Sickness Or Funeral Allowances. Benefit Societies Are In Fact Insurance Societies, And Their Activities Range Over A Wide ...

Benevento
Benevento, Archiepiscopal See, Campania, Italy, Capital Of Province Of Benevento, 6om. By Rail And 32m. Direct N.e. Of Naples, On A Hill 400ft. Above Sea-level At The Confluence Of The Calore And Sabdato. Pop. (1931), 27,416 (town) ; 36,92o (com Mune). Beneventum, Originally Maleventum Or Maluentum, Sup Posed In The ...

Benevolence
Benevolence, A Term For An Act Of Kindness, Or A Gift Of Money Or Goods, But Used In A Special Sense To Indicate Sums Of Money, Disguised As Gifts, Which Were Extorted By Various English Kings From Their Subjects Without Consent Of Parliament (lat. Bene, Well, And Volens, Wishing). Edward ...

Bengal
Bengal, A Province Of British India, Bounded On The East By Assam And Burma; On The South By The Bay Of Bengal And Madras ; On The West By The Province Of Behar And Orissa ; And On The North By Nepal And Bhutan. It Has An Area (including The ...

Bengali Language And Literature
Bengali Language And Literature. The Bengali Language Is One Of Four Forms Of Speech Composing The Eastern Group Of The Indo-aryan Languages (q.v.). ...

Bengali Literature
Bengali Literature The Earliest Bengali Writer Is The Vaishnava Poet Candi Das, A.d. 1400. His Language Does Not Differ Much From Modern Ben Gali. He Founded A School Of Poets Who Wrote Hymns In Honour Of Krishna, Many Of Whom, In Later Times, Became Connected With The 16th-century Religious Revival ...

Bengasi
Bengasi (anc. Euliesperides Or Hesperides-berenice), A Seaport In Italian North Africa. Pop. (19 21) 32,600, 5,000 Of Whom Are Italians, Not Including The Garrison. It Is On A Narrow Strip Of Land Between The Gulf Of Sidra And A Salt Marsh, In 3o° 7' N. Lat. And 20° 3' E. ...

Beni El Beni
Beni (el Beni), A Lowland Department Of North-eastern Bolivia. Pop. In 1932, 56,064 Including 6,000 Wild Indians; Area 95,354 Sq.m. The "llanos De Mojos," Famous For Their Flourish Ing Jesuit Mission Settlements Of The 17th And 18th Centuries, Occupy The Eastern Part Of This Department And Are Still Inhabited By ...

Beni
Beni, A River Of Bolivia, A Tributary Of The Madeira, Rising In The Elevated Cordilleras Near The City Of La Paz And At First Known As The Rio De La Paz, And Flowing East, And North-east, To A Junction With The Mamore At Io° 20' S. Lat. To Form The ...

Benin
Benin, The Name Of A Country, City And River Of British West Africa, West Of The Main Channel Of The Lower Niger, Form Ing Part Of Southern Nigeria. The Name Was Formerly Applied To The Coast From The Volta, In O° 4o' E., To The Rio Del Rey, In 8° ...

Benitoite
Benitoite, A Mineral Discovered In 19o7 Near The Head Waters Of The San Benito River, San Benito County, Calif., In Veins With Natrolite In Glaucophane Schist. It Is A Titano-silicate Of Bar Ium Crystallizing In The Trigonal System, With A Hard Ness Of 6.5 And Specific Gravity 3.65. It May ...

Benjamin Disraeli Beaconsfield
Beaconsfield, Benjamin Disraeli, Earl Of (1804-1881), British Statesman And Novelist, Eldest Son Of Isaac D'israeli (q.v.) And Miriam (or Maria) Basevi Was Born On Dec. 21, 1804, At 6 King's Road, Bedford Row, Now 22 Theobald's Road, London. His Grandfather, Benjamin D'israeli (or Israeli) Had Come To England In 1748 ...

Benjamin L E Bonneville
Bonneville, Benjamin L. E. (c. American Military Engineer And Explorer, Was Born In France About 1795. He Emigrated To The United States And Graduated At The U. S. Military Academy At West Point In 1815. In 1831-36, Having Obtained Leave Of Absence From The Army, He Conducted An Explor Ing ...

Benjamin Of Tudela
Benjamin Of Tudela (in Navarre), A Jewish Rabbi Of The I 2th Century. He Visited Constantinople, Egypt, Assyria And Persia, And Penetrated To The Frontiers Of China, His Journeys Occupying About 13 Years. His Itinerary Is Valuable For The Jewish History Of The 12th Century. ...

Benjamin Smith Barton
Barton, Benjamin Smith American Naturalist, Was Born At Lancaster, Pa., In 1766. When Only 24 Years Old He Was Appointed To A Professorship Of Natural History And Botany At The College Of Philadelphia, Now The University Of Pennsylvania—probably The First Position Of Its Kind In Any American College. Later He ...

Benjamin
Benjamin, A Tribe Of Israel Which Traced Its Pedigree Back To Jacob And Rachel (gen. Xxxv., The Alternative Name Ben-oni May Have Originated In A Period Of Intertribal Hostil Ity Such As That Described In Jud. Xix-xxi.). The Tribe Is Thus Regarded From The First As Closely Allied, Though Possibly ...

Bennington
Bennington, A Village In The South-west Part Of Ver Mont, U.s.a., 35m. N.e. Of Albany, On The Rutland Railroad, And At The Intersection Of Main Highways From Three States; The County-seat Of Bennington County. The Population In 193o Was Bennington Is Picturesquely Situated On The Walloomsac River, At The Foot ...

Benno
Benno (ioio-1106), Bishop Of Meissen, Germany, Son Of Werner, Count Of Woldenburg, Was Educated At Gosslar, And In Io66 Was Nominated By The Emperor Henry Iv. To The See Of Meissen. In The Troubles Between Empire And Papacy That Fol Lowed, Benno Took Part Against The Emperor. In 1085 He ...

Benoit Boigne
Boigne, Benoit, Count (1751-183o), The First Of The French Military Adventurers In India, Was Born At Chambery, Savoy, March 8 1751. He Joined The Irish Brigade In France In 1768; Subsequently He Entered The Russian Service And Was Captured By The Turks. After Serving For A Short Time In The ...

Benoit De Sainte More Or
Benoit De Sainte-more Or Sainte-maure, 12th Century French Troubadour, Supposed Author Of The Chron Ique Des Ducs De Normandie And The Roman De Troie. It Cannot, However, Be Regarded As Certain That The Benoit Of The Chronique Is The Same Person As The Benoit Who Wrote The Romance Of Troy. ...

Bensberg
Bensberg, A Large Commune (landgemeinde), In The Mill Heim District Of Rhenish Prussia, South Of Bergisch Gladbach. Pop. It Manufactures Metals, Leather And Ex Plosives. ...

Benthamism
Benthamism Means The Views, Especially The Ethical Views, Of Jeremy Bentham (q.v.). It Is Sometimes Used As Synon Ymous With Utilitarianism (q.v.). (see Also Ethics, History Of.) ...

Benthos
Benthos, The Name Used To Denote Collectively The Seden Tary Bottom-living Animal And Plant Life Of The Sea, In Contradis Tinction To The Drifting Plankton (q.v.) And Actively-swimming Nekton (q.v.). See Marine Biology. ...

Benton Harbor
Benton Harbor, A City Of Berrien County, Michigan, U.s.a., On The St. Joseph River, About Mi. From Lake Michigan, With Which It Is Connected By A Ship-canal, And Im. North-east Of St. Joseph. It Is Served By The Michigan Central, The Pere Mar Quette, And The Big Four Railways, And ...

Benton
Benton, A City Of Illinois, U.s.a., 8om. S.e. Of St. Louis, The County Seat Of Franklin County, The Leading Coal-producing County Of The State. It Is Served By The Chicago And Eastern Illi Nois, The Illinois Central And The Missouri Pacific Railways. The Population Was 7,201 In 1920 And Was ...

Benue
Benue, A River Of The Cameroons And Northern Province Of Nigeria In West Africa And The Largest And Most Important Afflu Ent Of The Niger (q.v.), Which It Joins After A Course Of Over Boom. In A General East To West Direction From Its Source In The Moun Tains Of ...

Benzaldehyde
Benzaldehyde (oil Of Bitter Almonds) Was First Iso Lated In 1803 And Was The Subject Of An Important Investigation By J. V. Liebig In 1837. It Occurs Naturally In The Form Of The Glucoside Amygdalin (c20h27n011) (q.v.) Which Is Present In Bitter Almonds, Cherries, Peaches And The Leaves Of The ...

Benzene
Benzene, A Hydrocarbon Discovered ' In 1825 By Faraday In The Liquid Produced In The Compression Of The Illuminating Gas Obtained By Distilling Certain Oils And Fats. Its Formula Is C6h6. E. Mitscherlich Prepared It In 1834 By Distilling Benzoic Acid With Lime; And In 1845 Hofmann Discovered It In ...

Benzidine
Benzidine Is An Important Chemical Base Of The Aromatic Or Coal-tar Group Crystallizing In Colourless Plates That Melt At 12 7 28 ° C. ; It Owes Its Origin To A Noteworthy Series Of Chemical Changes Arising From The Reduction Of Nitro Benzene In Alkaline Media. Removal Of Oxygen From ...

Benzoic Acid
Benzoic Acid Occurs Naturally In Some Resins, Especially In Gum Benzoin (from Styrax Benzoin), In Dragon's Blood, And As A Benzyl Ester In Peru And Tolu Balsams. It Crystallizes From Water In Glistening Leaflets Which Melt At 121.4° C. And Boil At 249. 2 ° C. Its Specific Heat Is ...

Benzoin Or Gum Benjamin
Benzoin Or Gum Benjamin, A Balsamic Resin Ob Tained From Styrax Benzoin, A Tree Of Considerable Size, Native To Sumatra And Java, And From Other Species Of Styrax. It Is Obtained By Making Incisions In The Bark Of The Trees, And Appears To Be Formed As The Result Of The ...

Benzophenone
Benzophenone Is The Simplest Ketone (q.v.) In The Aromatic Series (see Chemistry: Organic). It Is Structurally A Diphenyl Ketone, Having The Formula It Is A Di Morphous Substance, Existing In Two Enantiotropic Forms, One Melt Ing At 26° C And The Other At 48° C (th. Zincke, 1871). It Boils ...

Benzyl Alcohol Phenyl Carbinol
Benzyl Alcohol (phenyl Carbinol) Occurs Com Bined With Benzoic Acid In Peru Balsam, With Cinnamic Acid In Tolu Balsam, With Acetic Acid In Essential Oil Of Jasmine, And Also In Storax. It Is A Colourless Liquid, With A Faint Aromatic Smell, Boiling At 206° C And Having The Composition It ...

Beothuk
Beothuk, An American Tribe Of Hunters And Collectors, Resi Dent Chiefly Upon The Coast Of Newfoundland Where Salmon And Shell-fish Could Be Obtained To Eke Out The Supply Of Deer. Their Skill As Canoemen Was Commented Upon By Several Early Writers, But They Were Equally At Home In The Woods. ...

Beowulf
Beowulf. The Epic Of Beowulf, The Most Precious Relic Of Old English, And, Indeed, Of All Early Germanic Literature, Has Come Down To Us In A Single Ms., Written About A.d. Moo, In The Cottonian Collection Now At The British Museum. The Subject Of The Poem Is The Exploits Of ...

Bequest
Bequest, The Disposition Of Property By Will. Strictly, "bequest" Is Used Of Personal, And "devise" Of Real Property. (see ...