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Encyclopedia Brittanica

Volume 4, Part 2: Brain to Casting

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Casement
Casement, In Architecture, A Frame In Wood Or Metal, Which Holds The Glass Of A Window, And Is Hung By Hinges Either At The Top, Bottom Or Sides. The Term Is Also Used For Any Hinged Win Dow, And For A Wide Hollow Or Cavetto Employed In Late Gothic Architecture. ...

Caserne
Caserne, A Barrack Or Lodging For Troops In A Town (from French Caserne And Spanish Caserna, Case, A House). ...

Caserta
Caserta, A Town And Episcopal See Of Campania, Italy, In The Province Of Naples, Situated 21m. N.e. Of Naples By Rail Via Acerra, And 23m. Via Aversa. Pop. (1931) Town, 24,131 ; Com Mune, 51,423. The Modern Town Was A Mere Village Belonging To The Caetani Family Of Sermoneta, Who ...

Cash Credit
Cash Credit. The Scottish Banks Long Ago Established A Cash Credit System Which Has Worked Admirably And Had Much To Do With The Wide, Popular Use Of Banks In Scotland. The System Was Begun In 1727 By The Royal Bank Of Scotland, Which Was Founded In That Year. A Cash ...

Cash On Delivery
Cash On Delivery. The Cash On Delivery Service, Pop Ularly Known As C.o.d., Is Designed Principally To Provide A Means Of Ordering Goods And Securing Delivery Through An Agent Against Payment In Cash Instead Of On Credit Or Prepayment. In Most Countries The System Is A Feature Of The Postal ...

Cash Register
Cash Register, A Re Cording, Calculating And Checking Machine Used To Help A Mer Chant Control His Business, Assist Salespeople In Serving Customers And Keep A Record Of Different Transactions. In Various Forms It Has Come Into Very Wide Use. The Machines Make Records Of A Transaction, Both For The ...

Cash
Cash. Originally Meaning A Box, The Word Cash, Derived From The 0. Fr. Casse, A Box Or Chest, Is Now Commonly Applied To Ready Money Or Coin. In Commercial And Banking Usage, "cash" Is Sometimes Confined To Specie; It Is Also, In Opposition To Bills, Drafts Or Securities, Applied To ...

Cashel
Cashel, City And Urban District Of Co. Tipperary, Ireland, 96 M. S.w. Of Dublin On The Great Southern Railway. Pop. (1926) The Town Lies At The Base Of The Rock Of Cashel (300 Ft.), The Summit Of Which Is Occupied By Remains Of St. Patrick's Cathe Dral, A Round Tower, ...

Cashew Nut
Cashew Nut, The Fruit Of The Cashew, Cadju Or Acajou Tree, Anacardium Occidentale (family Anacardiaceae), A Native Of The West Indian Islands. The Fruit Is Kidney-shaped, About An Inch In Length, And The Kernel Is Enclosed In Two Coverings, The Outer Of Which Is Smooth, Grey And Leathery. Inside This ...

Cashibo Or Carapache
Cashibo Or Carapache ("bat"), A Tribe Of South American Indians Of Pannoan Stock, Living In Scanty Numbers On The West Side Of The Ucayali, Peru. ...

Cashier I
Cashier. (i) (adapted From The Fr. Caissier, One In Charge Of The Caisse, Or Money-box), One Who Has Charge Of The Payment Or Receiving Of Money In A Business House. The "cashier" May Be A High Executive Official Of A Banking Or Mercantile House—thus The Name Of The Chief Cashier ...

Cashiers Check
Cashier's Check Is Used In The United States For A Check Drawn By A Bank Upon Itself And Signed By Its Cashier. It Is A Direct Obligation Of The Issuing Bank And Is Payable When Presented To That Institution. It Is Frequently Used As A Form Of Remittance By Persons ...

Cashmere
Cashmere. A Textile Trade Term Applied Originally To A Type Of Soft Woollen Dress Fabric Of Very Light Texture, Woven From Yarn Spun From The Fine And Long Fleece Of The Cashmere Goat. The Modern Paisley Shawls, Manufactured In The Scottish Town Of That Name, Are Beautiful Reproductions Of The ...

Casilinum
Casilinum, An Ancient City Of Campania, Italy, 3m. N.w. Of The Ancient Capua. Its Position At The Point Of Junction Of The Via Appia And Via Latina, And At Their Crossing Of The River Vol Turnus, Gave It Considerable Importance Under The Roman Repub Lic. In The Second Punic War ...

Casimir Iii
Casimir Iii., Called "the Great," King Of Poland (1310 1370), Son Of Wladislaus Lokietek, King Of Poland, And Jadwiga, Princess Of Kalisch, Was Born At Kowal In Kujavia. He Was Educated At The Court Of His Brother-in-law, Charles Robert Of Hungary, Where He Had A Reputation For Frivolity And Lack ...

Casimir
Casimir ,1427-1492), Second Son Of Wladislaus Ii. Jagiello, Was Appointed As A Lad Grand-duke Of Lithuania By His Father, And Crowned King Of Poland At Cracow In June 1447, Three Years After The Death Of His Elder Brother, Wladislaus Iii. Throughout Life Casimir Aimed At The Preserva Tion Of The ...

Casino Or Cassino
Casino Or Cassino, A Card Game For Two, Three Or Four (in Partnership) Players. A Full Pack Is Used. Players Cut For Deal ; Low Deals ; King Is The Highest And Ace Is The Lowest Card. Senior (eldest Hand Or Elder) Sits At The Dealer's Left; Junior (youngest Hand, ...

Casket Letters
Casket Letters, The Name Given To Eight Letters And A Series Of Irregular Sonnets Asserted By James, 4th Earl Of Mor Ton, To Have Been Found By His Servants In A Silver Casket In The Possession Of A Retainer Of James, 4th Earl Of Bothwell, On June 20, 1567, Six ...

Casket
Casket, A Small Box Or Chest, Commonly Used For Jewels, Money, Papers Or Other Objects Of Value. History And Literature Are Full Of References To The Often Disconcerting Contents Of These Famous Receptacles. The "casket Letters" (q.v.) Are One Of The Mysteries Of History. Harpagnon's Casket Plays An Important Part ...

Caslon
Caslon, The Name Of A Famous Family Of English Type Founders. William Caslon (1692-1766), The First Of The Name, Was Born At Cradley, Worcestershire, And In 1716 Began In London As An Engraver Of Gun Locks And Barrels, And As A Bookbinder's Tool-cutter. Being Thus Brought Into Contact With Printers, ...

Casper
Casper, The Second City Of Wyoming, U.s.a., On The North Platte River, In The Central Part Of The State ; The County Seat Of Natrona County. It Is On Federal Highways 20 And 87e, And Is Served By The Burlington And The Chicago And North Western Rail Ways. In 1900 ...

Caspian Languages
Caspian Languages, The Designation Of One Division Of The Iranian Group Of Indo-european Languages, A Division Com Prising (a) Mazandarani, (b) Gilaki, (c) Talishi, (d) Tat And (e) Samnani. Mazandarani Has Been A Literary Tongue Since The Middle Ages And Is Used In Poetry. ...

Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea, An Inland Sea Between Europe And Asia, Extending From 37° To 47° N., And From To E. Its Length Is 1,280 Km. From North To South, And Its Breadth 160 To Km., And Its Area Reaches 438,690 Sq.km. (a Little More Than The Area Of The Baltic), Of ...

Cassaba
Cassaba Or. Torgutlu, A Town Of Asia Minor In The Vilayet Of Sarukhan, 63 M. E. Of Smyrna, With Which It Is Con Nected By Rail. Pop. (1927) 31,105. It Has Considerable Local Trade, And Exports The Products Of The Surrounding District. Cot Ton Is The Most Important Article, And ...

Cassander
Cassander (c. 350-297 B.e.), King Of Macedonia, Eldest Son Of Antipater, First Appears At The Court Of Alexander At Baby Lon, Where He Defended His Father Against The Accusations Of His Enemies. On The Death Of Antipater, Who Had Passed Over His Son And Appointed Polyperchon Regent Of Macedonia, Cassander ...

Cassandra
Cassandra, In Greek Tradition, Daughter Of Priam And Hecuba. In Legend She Was Beloved Of Apollo, Who Promised To Bestow On Her The Spirit Of Prophecy If She Would Comply With His Desires. Cassandra Accepted The Proposal, And Then Refused Her Favours. Apollo Revenged Himself By Ordaining That Her Prophecies ...

Cassano Allionio
Cassano All'ionio, A Town Of Calabria, Italy, In The Province Of Cosenza; Its Railway Station (6m. S. Of The Town) Is 37m. N. By E. From The Town Of Cosenza, While It Is 6m. W. Of Sibari, On The Line Between Metaponto And Reggio. Pop. (1931) 7,461 (town), 10,s76 (commune). ...

Cassation
Cassation, In Music, The Name Of A Type Of Orchestral Work, Consisting Of Several Short Movements Of A Light Character, Popular In The 18th Century, Serenade And Divertimento Being Other Names For Much The Same Kind Of Composition. Mozart Wrote Three Works So Named. In Law, Caseation Signifies Quashing, Annulling ...

Cassava
Cassava, The Farinaceous Root Of Two Plants Of The Spurge Family (euphorbiaceae, Q.v.), The Bitter Cassava, Alanihot Rdtilissima, And The Sweet Cassava, M. Aipi, Both Important Sources Df Food Starches. They Are Herbaceous Or Semi-shrubby Perennials With Very Large Fleshy, Cylindrical, Tapering Roots As Much As 3f T. Long And ...

Cassel
Cassel, A Town Of Northern France In The Department Of Nord, On An Isolated Hill, About 12 M. E.n.e. Of St. Omer. Pop. 2,045. It Was A Roman Station Castellum Menapiorum, As Numerous Remains Of The Gallo-roman Period Attest, And An Important Centre Of Roads. It Was The Scene Of ...

Cassel_2
Cassel (also Kassel), A City Of Germany, Capital Of The Former Electorate Of Hesse-cassel, And, Since Its Annexation By Prussia In 1866, Capital Of The Province Of Hesse-nassau. Pop. 175,018. The Earliest Mention Of Kassel Is In 913, When It Is Referred To As Cassala. The Town Passed From The ...

Casserole
Casserole, A Covered Earthenware Dish In Which Meat And Vegetables Are Cooked In The Oven. The Heat Penetrates The Porous Dish Thereby Insuring An Even Temperature For All Its Contents. The Cover Prevents Any Of The Flavour From Escaping As Steam So That Food Cooked In Casseroles Retains All Its ...

Cassia
Cassia, The Aromatic Bark Derived From Cinnamoinum Cassia (family Lauraceae) . The Greater Part Of The Supply Coming From China, It Is Sometimes Termed Chinese Cinnamon. The Bark Is Much Thicker Than That Of True Cinnamon ; The Taste Is More Pungent And The Flavour Less Delicate, Though Somewhat Similar ...

Cassini
Cassini, The Name Of An Italian Family Of Astronomers, Four Generations Of Whom Succeeded Each Other In Official Charge Of The Observatory At Paris. ...

Cassiodorus
Cassiodorus (not Cassiodorius), The Name Of A Syrian Family Settled At Scyllacium (squillace) In Bruttium, Where It Held An Influential Position In The 5th Century A.d. Its Most Important Member Was Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (c. 490--585), Historian, Statesman, And Monk. "senator" (not A Title) Is The Name Used ...

Cassiopeia
Cassiopeia, In Greek Mythology, The Wife Of Cepheus And Mother Of Andromeda; In Astronomy, A Constellation Of The Northern Hemisphere, Easily Recognized By The Group Of Five Stars Forming A Slightly Irregular W. The Most Brilliant Nova (tem Porary Star) On Record Broke Out In This Constellation In 1572 When ...

Cassiterides
Cassiterides, In Ancient Geography The Name Of Islands Regarded As Being Situated Somewhere Near The West Coasts Of Europe (from The Gr. Kaaaimpos, Tin, I.e., "tin-islands"). Herod Otus (43o B.c.) Had Dimly Heard Of Them. Later Writers, Posi Donius, Diodorus, Strabo And Others, Call Them Smallish Islands Off (strabo Says, ...

Cassiterite
Cassiterite, The Mineralogical Name Of Tin-stone, Sno,, The Common Ore Of Tin (from The Gr. Aaaairepos, Tin). It Crystallizes In The Tetragonal System, Usually In Prisms With Four Or Eight Sides, Terminated By Pyramids. Twinning Is Common, As Shown By Re-entrant Angles On The Crystals, Certain Slender Pris Matic Crystals ...

Cassius
Cassius, The Name Of A Distinguished Ancient Roman Family, Originally Patrician. Its Most Important Members Are The Fol Lowing : I. Spurius Cassius, Surnamed Vecellinus (vicellinus, Viscel Linus), Three Times Consul, And Author Of The First Agrarian Law. In His First Consulate (502 B.c.) He Defeated The Sabines; In His ...

Cassivelaunus Or Cassivellaunus
Cassivelaunus Or Cassivellaunus, A British Chieftain, The Ruler Of The Country North Of The Thames, Who Led Caturellauni Against Julius Caesar On His Second Expedition (54 B.c.) (see Britain). After Several Indecisive Engagements, Caesar Took The Camp Of Cassivelaunus, Who Was Obliged To Make Peace On Condition Of Paying Tribute ...

Cassock
Cassock, A Long-sleeved, Close-fitting Robe Worn By The Clergy And Others Engaged In Ecclesiastical Functions. Originally Applied To The Dress Of Soldiers And Horsemen, And Later To The Long Garment Worn In Civil Life, The Name Came Into Ecclesiastical Use Somewhat Late (as A Translation Of Subtaneum, Vestis Talaris, Toga ...

Cassone
Cassone, In Furniture, The Italian Name For A Marriage Coffer. The Ancient And Once Almost Universal European Custom Of Providing A Bride With A Chest Or Coffer To Contain The Household Linen, Which Often Formed The Major Part Of Her Dowry, Produced In Italy A Special Type Of Chest Of ...

Cassowary
Cassowary (casuarius), A Genus Of Ostrich-like Birds, Only Inferior In Size To The Emu And Ostrich, And Approximating To The Extinct Moas Of New Zealand. The Species Is Characterized By Rudimentary Wings, Bearing Four Or Five Barbless Shafts, A Few Inches Long, And Apparently Useless; And By Loosely Webbed Feathers, ...

Cast
Cast, A Throw, Or Something Thrown (a Word Of Scandinavian Origin, Cf. Dan. Kaste, Throw), E.g., A Throw Of Dice, With The Figurative Sense Of A Chance ; The Spreading Out Of Hounds In Search Of A Lost Scent ; With The Meaning Of A Twisted Throw Or Turn, A ...

Castalia Or Fons Castalius
Castalia Or Fons Castalius, A Celebrated Fountain In Greece, Now Called The Fountain Of St. John, Which Rises In A Chasm Of Mount Parnassus Near Delphi. It Was Sacred To Apollo And The Muses, And Its Water Was Used In The Religious Purifica Tions Of Pilgrims. From Its Connection With ...

Castanets
Castanets, Instruments Of Percussion, Introduced Through The Moors By Way Of Spain Into Europe From The East. Cas Tanets, Always Used In Pairs, One In Each Hand, Consist Of Two Pear Or Mussel-shaped Bowls Of Hard Wood, Hinged Together By A Cord, The Loop Being Passed Over The Thumb And ...

Caste Indian
Caste (indian). The Term Caste Is In English Hardly Older Than 1 Soo, Before Which Year It Was Spelt "cast." Borrowed From The French "caste," Itself An Adaptation Of The Portuguese "casta" (also Spanish) Meaning "breed" Or "clan," It Was Used By The Earlier Portuguese Travellers In The Sense Of ...

Castelfranco Dell Emilia
Castelfranco Dell' Emilia, A Town Of Emilia, Italy, In The Province Of Bologna, 16 M. Northwest By Rail From The Town Of Bologna. Pop. (1921) 2,925 (town), 17,115 (commune). The Churches Contain Some Pictures By Later Bolognese Artists. Just Outside The Town Is A Massive Fort Erected By Urban Viii. ...

Castelfranco Veneto
Castelfranco Veneto, A Town And Episcopal See Of Venetia, Italy, In The Province Of Treviso, 16m. W. By Rail From The Town Of Treviso. Pop. (1921) 4,240 (town), 15,881 (com Mune). The Older Part Of The Town Is Square, Surrounded By Medi Aeval Walls And Towers Constructed By The People ...

Castellammare Di Stabia
Castellammare Di Stabia, A Seaport And Episcopal See Of Campania, Italy, In The Province Of Naples, 17m. S.e. By Rail From The Town Of Naples. Pop. (1931) Town, 34,553; Com Mune, 43,713. It Lies In The South-east Angle Of The Bay Of Naples. At The Beginning Of The Peninsula Of ...

Castello Branco
Castello Branco, A Portuguese Episcopal City, 1,56oft. Above The Sea, On The Abrantes-guarda Railway. Pop. (193o) 9,82o. The City Has Many Roman Remains And Is Dominated By A Ruined Castle, And Partly Enclosed By Ancient Walls; Its Chief Buildings Are The Cathedral And Episcopal Palace. Cloth Is Manu Factured, And ...

Castellon De La Plana
Castellon De La Plana, A Province Of Eastern Spain, Formed In 1833 Of Districts Formerly Included In Valencia; Bounded On The North By Teruel And Tarragona, East By The Medi Terranean Sea, South By Valencia, And West By Teruel. Pop. (1930) 308,746; Area, 2,495sq.m. The Province Is Mainly Occupied By ...

Castellon De La Plana_2
Castellon De La Plana, A City Of Eastern Spain, Capital Of The Province Described Above, On The Barcelona-valencia Railway, 4m. From The Mediterranean Sea. Pop. (1930) 36,781. Castellon Lies On A Fertile Plain Irrigated From The Mi J Ures Estuary, 5m. S.e., By A Rock-hewn Moorish Aqueduct. The Town, Partly ...

Castellorizo
Castellorizo, The Ancient Megiste, An Island Of The Dodecanese. It Was Included By The Turks In The Privileged Group Known As "the Dodecanese" (q.v.), But Did Not Form Part Of The Italian "dodecanese" Occupied During The Libyan War Of 1912. The Outbreak Of Hostilities Against Turkey During The World War ...

Castelnaudary
Castelnaudary, A Town Of South-western France, In The Department Of Aude, 22 M. W.n.w. Of Carcassonne, On The Railway To Toulouse. Pop. (1931) 6,003. It Probably Represents The Ancient Town Of Sostomagus, Taken During The 5th Century By The Visigoths, Who, It Is Conjectured, Rebuilt The Town, Calling It Castrum ...

Castelsarrasin
Castelsarrasin, A Town Of South-western France, Cap Ital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Tarn-et-garonne, 12m. W. Of Montauban. Pop. (1931), 2,984. The Name Appears In The 13th Century. Castrum Cerrucium, Castel-sur-azine (from The Neighbouring Stream, Azine) And Castellum Sarracenum Are Suggested Derivations. The Town Is Situated On The ...

Castiglione Delle Stiviere
Castiglione Delle Stiviere, A Town In Lom Bardy, 22 Miles N.w. Of Mantua, Was The Scene Of A Battle On Aug. 5, 1796, Between The French Army Of Italy Under Napoleon Bonaparte And The Austrians Under Wurmser. The Latter's Attempt To Relieve The Fortress Of Mantua, Which Had Been Besieged ...

Castiglione Olona
Castiglione Olona, A Village Of Lombardy, Italy, In The Province Of Como, 27 M. N.e. Of Milan By Rail. Pop. (1921) 834 (commune) 2,168. The Choir Of The Collegiate Church, Erected About 1428 By Cardinal Branda Castiglioni, Contains Fine Frescoes By Masolino Of Florence. There Are Other Works By The ...

Castile
Castile, An Ancient Kingdom Of Spain, Bounded On The North By The Bay Of Biscay, North-east By The Basque Provinces And Navarre, East By Aragon, South-east By Valencia And Murcia, South By Andalusia, West By Estremadura And Leon, And North West By Asturias. Pop. (1926) Estimated 4,494,872. Area, Sq.m. The ...

Casting Or Founding
Casting Or Founding. The Process Of Giving Shape To Or Reproducing An Object By Pouring Its Material In Liquid Form Into A Mould. (see Founding.) ...

Cesar
Cesar Frangois Cassini Or Cassini De Thury (1714-1784), Son Of Jacques Cassini, Was Born At The Observatory Of Paris On June 17, 1714. He Succeeded To His Father's Official Employments, Continued The Hereditary Surveying Operations, And Began In The Construction Of A Great Topographical Map Of France. The Post Of ...

Cesare Cantu
Cantu, Cesare Italian Historian And Novel Ist, Was Born At Brivio, Lombardy, On Dec. 5, 1804. On His Father's Death He Was Left In Charge Of His Brothers And Sisters, And Supported Them By The Proceeds Of Teaching And Writing. His Early Books Include Some Of His Best Work, Notably ...

Charles Alexandre De Calonne
Calonne, Charles Alexandre De (1734 1802), French Statesman, Was Born At Douai On Jan. 20, 1734. He Became In Succession Advocate To The General Council Of Artois, Procureur To The Parlement Of Douai, Master Of Requests, Then In Tendant Of Metz (1768) And Of Lille (1774)• Calonne Assumed Of Fice ...

Charles Cagniard De La
Cagniard De La Tour, Charles French Engineer And Physicist, Was Born In Paris On March 31, 1777, And After Attending The Ecole Polytechnique Became One Of The Ingenieurs Geographiques. He Was Made A Baron In 1818, And Died In Paris On July 5, 1859. He Was The Author Of Numerous ...

Charles Carroll
Carroll, Charles American Political Leader, Of Irish Ancestry, Was Born At Annapolis, Md., On Sept. 19, 173 7. He Was Educated Abroad In French Jesuit Colleges, Studied Law At Bourges, Paris And London, And In Feb. 1765, Returned To Maryland, Where An Estate Known As "carrollton," In Frederick County, Was ...

Charles Edward Callwell
Callwell, Charles Edward Only Son Of Henry Callwell, Of Lismoyne, Antrim, Was Born In London On April 2, 1859, And Educated At Haileybury. He Entered The Royal Military Academy In 1876. He Saw Active Service In India, In The Transvaal 1881, And In The South African War. He Had Resigned ...

Charles John Canning
Canning, Charles John, Eng Lish Statesman, Governor-general Of India During The Mutiny Of 1857, Was The Youngest Child Of George Canning, And Was Born In London On Dec. 14, 1812. In 1836 He Entered Parliament And Filled In Succession The Offices Of Under-secretary For Foreign Affairs, Commissioner Of Woods And ...

Charles Manners Sutton Canterbury
Canterbury, Charles Manners-sutton, 1st Viscount (1780-1845), Speaker Of The House Of Commons, Was The Elder Son Of Charles Manners-sutton (q.v), Afterwards Archbishop Of Canterbury, And Was Born On Jan. 29, 1780. Edu Cated At Eton And Trinity College, Cambridge, He Was Returned (1806) To Parliament In The Tory Interest As ...

Charles Pratt Camden
Camden, Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Lord Chancellor Of England, Was Born In Kensington In 1714. He Was A Descendant Of An Old Devonshire Family, The Third Son Of Sir John Pratt, Chief-justice Of The King's Bench In The Reign Of George I. He Was Educated At Eton And King's College, ...

Charles Stuart Calverley
Calverley, Charles Stuart Eng Lish Poet And Wit, And The Literary Father Of What May Be Called The University School Of Humour, Was Born At Martley In Worcester Shire On Dec. 22, 1831, And Died On Feb. 17, 1884. His Father, The Rev. Henry Blayds, Resumed In 1852 The Old ...

Charles Wakefield Cadman
Cadman, Charles Wakefield ), American Musical Composer, Was Born At Johnstown (pa.), On Dec. 24, 1881. He Used American-indian Material In Music. His Song, "from The Land Of Skyblue Water," Has Become A Classic Of American Song Literature In Many Countries, Including Russia. Among His Operas Are Shanewis (the Robin ...

Chichester Samuel For Tescue
Carlingfobd, Chichester Samuel For Tescue, Baron (1823-1898), British Statesman, Belonged To A Family Long Settled In Ireland, And Became Liberal M.p. For Louth In 1847. He Was Junior Lord Of The Treasury (1854), Chief Secretary For Ireland (1865) Under Lord Russell And (186 7) Under Gladstone, President Of The Board ...

Chinese
Chinese For Chronological Purposes, The Chinese People, As Else Where In The East Of Asia, Employ Cycles Of Sixty To Reckon Their Days, Moons And Years. The Days Are Distributed In The Calendar Into Cycles Of Sixty, In The Same Manner As Ours Are Distributed Into Weeks, Or Cycles Of ...

Cho Cho Cho Cho
Cho Cho Cho Cho Synthetic Glucosides And The Structure Of Glucose.— Aldehydes Ordinarily React With One Or With Two Molecules Of Ethyl Alcohol To Give Either An Alcoholate, Or An Acetal, • Methyl Alcohol In The Presence Of An Acid As Catalyst Yields, A Dimethyl-acetal, A Sugar Aldose, However, Under ...

Christopher Carson
Carson, Christopher , Eri Can Hunter A== Was C•:=-- In Ma:ysc N : _ Ry Ky. On Dec. Raised On :ne Missouri =::::ier. For A Brief Riod A Ap :e__:.ce 3-_c Teamster In :_a Soo:_.;cs;., After Ij:e He Bew_'ae A Profess; ==a_ Trapper. Hunter A He Accompanied Toh<^ C. Fremca: ...

Claude Capperonnier
Capperonnier, Claude French Clas Sical Scholar, Born At Montdidier On May I, 1671. He Took Orders But Devoted Himself Almost Entirely To Classical Studies. He Pub Lished An Edition Of Quintilian (1725) And His Edition Of The Ancient Latin Rhetoricians Was Published Posthumously In 1756. He Furnished Much Material For ...

College Of Cardinals
Cardinals, College Of. The Codex Of Canon Law, Ordered To Be Codified By Pius X. And Promulgated By Bene Dict Xv. By The Bull, Providentissima Mater, In 1917, Contains Perhaps The Last Word To Be Said Concerning The Cardinalitial Dignity And The Privileges And Duties Attached To The Office Of ...

Conference Of Cannes
Cannes, Conference Of (jan. 6-13, 1922), A Meet Ing Of The Supreme Council Of The Allies With The Primary Object Of Considering The Anglo-french Suggestions For Reparations, Drafted At The Preliminary Conference Of London On Dec. 18-22, 192i (see London, Conference Of). The Conference Opened With A Criticism Of The ...

Constantine Cantemir
Constantine Cantemir Became A Prince Of Moldavia, 1685 1693. He Was Succeeded On The Throne By His Son Antioch, Who Ruled Twice, 1696-1700 And 1705-1707. His Youngest Brother, Demetrius Or Demeter Cantemir (b. October 26, 1673), Was Made Prince Of Moldavia In 1710; He Ruled Only One Year, 1710-1711, When ...

Constitutional Development
Constitutional Development During The Imperial Conference Of 1911, Dominion Delegates For The First Time Received Important Confidential Information Upon Foreign Relations. It Was Resolved, On The Motion Of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, That The British Government Should Secure The Consent Of Foreign Powers That Any Dominion Might Withdraw From The Opera ...

Cristobal De Castillejo
Castillejo, Cristobal De Spanish Poet, Was Born At Ciudad Rodrigo. When Quite Young He Entered A Carthusian Monastery, But In 1525 He Became Secretary To Charles V.'s Brother, Ferdinand Of Austria, In Whose Service He Spent The Rest Of His Life, Mostly Outside Spain. He Died And Was Buried At ...

David Calderwood
Calderwood, David Scottish Divine And Historian, Was Educated At Edinburgh, Where He Took The Degree Of M.a. In 1593. About 1604 He Became Minister Of Crailing, Near Jedburgh, And Resolutely Opposed The Introduction Of Episcopacy. In 1617, While James Was In Scotland, A Remon Strance, Which Had Been Drawn Up ...

Denis I Calvart
Calvart, Denis (i Flemish Painter, Was Born At Antwerp. After Studying Landscape-painting In His Native City He Went To Bologna, Where He Perfected Himself In The Anatomy Of The Human Form Under Prospero Fontana, And So Completely Lost The Mannerism Of Flemish Art That His Paintings Appear To Be The ...

Differential And Integral Calculus
Calculus, Differential And Integral. The Differential Calculus And The Integral Calculus Are The Two Divisions Of A Branch Of Mathematics Which Treats Problems Involving Variable Quantities. Such Problems Arise Regularly In Geometry, Physics And Other Branches Of Science. By A Quantity, Is Meant A Distance, A Weight, A Period Of ...

Diogo Cam Cao
Cam (cao), Diogo (fl. 1480-1486), Portuguese Discov Erer, The First European Known To Sight And Enter The Congo, And To Explore The West African Coast Between Cape St. Catherine (2° S.) And Cape Cross (21 ° 5o' S.) Almost From The Equator To Walfish Bay. When King John Ii. Of ...

Dirk Rafelsz Camphuysen
Camphuysen, Dirk Rafelsz Dutch Painter, Poet, And Theologian, Was The Son Of A Surgeon At Gor Cum. As He Manifested Great Artistic Talent, His Brother, In Whose Charge He Was Left On The Death Of His Parents, Placed Him Under The Painter Govaerts. But At That Time There Was Intense ...

Domenico Campagnola
Campagnola, Domenico, Italian Painter And En Graver, Who Worked During The First Half Of The 16th Century At Padua. In Conjunction With Titian He Decorated The Scuola Del Santo With A Series Of Frescoes Representing The Life Of St. An Thony. He Was Also Employed On Frescoes In The Scuola ...

Don Carlos Maria Isidro
Carlos, Don (carlos Maria Isidro) (1788-1855), The First Of The Carlist Claimants Of The Throne Of Spain, Was The Sec Ond Surviving Son Of King Charles Iv. And His Wife, Louisa Maria Of Parma. He Was Born On Mar. 29, 1788. From 1808 Till 1814, He Was A Prisoner Of ...

Don Carlos
Carlos, Don Prince Of Asturias, The Son Of Philip Ii., King Of Spain, By His First Wife Maria, Daughter Of John Iii. Of Portugal, Was Born At Valladolid On July 8, In 1560 He Was Recognized As Heir To The Throne Of Castile, And Three Years Later To That Of ...

Don Charles Maria De
Carlos, Don (charles Maria De Los Dolores) (1848 1909), Prince Of Bourbon, Claimant, As Don Carlos Vii., To The Throne Of Spain, Was Born At Laibach On March 3o, 1848, The Son Of Don Juan (john) Of Bourbon And The Archduchess Maria Beatrix, Daughter Of Francis Iv., Duke Of Modena. ...

Donald Cargill
Cargill, Donald Scottish Covenanter, Was Educated At Aberdeen And St. Andrews. In 1655 He Was Appointed To The Barony Parish In Glasgow From Which He Was Ejected In 1662. He Ventured Back To Celebrate The Communion, And Was Arrested. But Soon Liberated. He Was Wounded At Both Well Bridge, And ...

Drainage Of Land
Drainage Of Land), For Irriga Tion (q.v.), Or More Especially For The Purpose Of Navigation By Boats, Barges Or Ships. For Canalized Rivers See Below. Traf Fic On Inland Waterways And In Ternational Agreements Affecting Them Are Dealt With In The Article ...

Earldom Of Carnarvon
Carnarvon, Earldom Of. The Earldom Of Car Narvon Was Created In 1628 For Robert Dormer, Baron Dormer Of Wyng (c. 1610-1643), Who Was Killed At The First Battle Of New Bury Whilst Fighting For Charles I., And It Became Extinct On The Death Of His Son Charles, The 2nd Earl, ...

Earls And Dukes Of
Cambridge, Earls And Dukes Of. Under The Norman And Early Plantagenet Kings Of England The Earldom Of Cambridge Was United With That Of Huntingdon, Which Was Held Among Others By David I., King Of Scotland, As The Husband Of Earl Wattheof's Daughter, Matilda. As A Separate Dignity The Earldom Dates ...

Earls Of Carlisle
Carlisle, Earls Of. This English Title Has Been Held By Two Families, Being Created For James Hay In 1622, And Being Extinct In That Line On The Death Of His Son In 166o, And Then Be Ing Given In 166r To Charles Howard, And Descending To The Present Day In ...

Early British Caricature
Early British Caricature 17th And Early 18th Century.—the Catalogue Of Satirical Prints In The British Museum, Compiled By F. G. Stephens, Is Un Fortunately Only Carried Down To The Year 177o. Its Contents, Numbering Over 4,00o Items, With Copious Notes, Are An Indispensa Ble Commentary On The History Of The ...

Echinocactus
Echinocactus (fig. 3) Is The Genus Bearing The Popular Name Of Hedgehog Cactus. It Comprises Nine Species, Native Of The South Western United States And Mex Ico. They Have The Fleshy Stems Characteristic Of The Family, These Being Either Globose, Oblong Or Cylindrical, And Ribbed As In Melocactus, And Armed ...

Edmund Calamy
Calamy, Edmund, Known As "the Elder" (1600-1666), English Presbyterian Divine, Was Born Of Huguenot Parents In Walbrook, London, In February 160o, And Educated At Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, Where His Opposition To The Arminian Party, Then Powerful In That Society, Excluded Him From A Fellowship. Nicholas Felton, Bishop Of Ely, However, ...

Edmund Campion
Campion, Edmund (154o-1581), English Jesuit, Was Born In London And Educated At Christ's Hospital And St. John's College, Oxford. About 1564 Religious Difficulties Began To Beset Him, But At The Persuasion Of Edward Cheyney, Bishop Of Glou Cester, Although Holding Catholic Doctrines, He Took Deacon's Orders In The English Church. ...

Edmund Cartwright
Cartwright, Edmund ), English Inven Tor, Younger Brother Of Maj. John Cartwright, Was Born At Marn Ham, Nottinghamshire, On April And Educated At Wakefield Grammar School And At Oxford University. In 1779 He Became Rector Of Goadby Marwood, Leicestershire, And In 1786 A Prebend In The Cathedral Of Lincoln. He ...