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Encyclopedia Brittanica

Volume 5, Part 1: Cast-Iron to Cole

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Jean Lefebvre De Cheverus
Cheverus, Jean Lefebvre De French Ecclesiastic, Was Born On Jan. 28, 1768, In Mayenne, France. He Was Made Canon Of The Cathedral Of Le Mans And Began To Act As Vicar To His Uncle In Mayenne, But Owing To The Revolution He Emigrated In 1792 To England, And Thence In ...

Jean Martin Charcot
Charcot, Jean Martin (1825-1893), French Phy Sician, Was Born In Paris On Nov. 29, 1825. In 1853 He Took His M.d. At Paris, And Three Years Later Was Appointed Physician Of The Central Hospital Bureau. In 186o He Became Professor Of Pathological Anatomy In The Medical Faculty Of Paris, And ...

Jean Simeon Chardin
Chardin, Jean Sim.eon (1699-1779), French Genre Painter, The Son Of Jean Chardin, Master-carpenter, Was Born In Paris On Nov. 2, 1699, And Died Dec. 6, 1779. He Became Famous For His Still-life Pictures And Domestic Interiors, Which Are Well Represented At The Louvre, And For Figure-painting, As In His Le ...

Joao De Castro
Castro, Joao De Called By Camoens Cas Tro Forte, Viceroy Of The Portuguese Indies, The Son Of Alvaro De Castro, Governor Of Lisbon, Served In North Africa Between 1518 And 1538, Soon After Which Date He Went With His Uncle Garcia De Noronha To The Indies. On Arrival At Goa ...

Job Charnock
Charnock, Job (d. 1693), English Founder Of Calcutta, Went Out To India In 1655 Or 1656, Apparently Not In The East India Company's Service, But Soon Joined It. He Was Stationed At Cossimbazar, And Subsequently At Patna. In 1685 He Became Chief Agent At Hugli. Being Besieged There By The ...

John Brydges
John Brydges, 1st Baron Chandos (c. A Son Of Sir Giles Brydges, Or Bruges (d. 1511), Was A Prominent Figure At The English Court During The Reigns Of Henry Viii., Edward Vi. And Mary. He Took Part In Suppressing The Rebellion Of Sir Thomas Wyat In 1554, And As Lieutenant ...

John Chalkhill
Chalkhill, John (fl. 1600?), English Poet. Two Songs By Him Are Included In Izaak Walton's Compleat Angler, And In 1683 Appeared "thealma And Clearchus. A Pastoral History In Smooth And Easie Verse. Written Long Since By John Chalkhill, Esq., An Acquaintant And Friend Of Edmund Spencer," Together With A Preface ...

John Rouse Merriott Chard
Chard, John Rouse Merriott British Soldier, Was Born At Boxhill, Near Plymouth, On Dec. 21, 1847, And In 1868 Entered The Royal Engineers. In 1878 Lieut. Chard Was Ordered To South Africa To Take Part In The Zulu War, And Was Stationed At The Small Post Of Rorke's Drift To ...

Joseph Chamberlain
Chamberlain, Joseph (1836-1914), British States Man, Third Son Of Joseph Chamberlain, Master Of The Cordwainers' Company, Was Born At Camberwell Grove, London, On July 8, 1836. His Father Carried On The Family Business Of Boot And Shoe Manufacture, And Was A Unitarian In Religion And A Liberal In Politics. Young ...

Kiu Chang Chun
Chang Chun, Kiu (1148-1227), Chinese Taoist Sage And Traveller, Was Born In 1148. In 1219 He Was Invited By Jenghiz Khan, Founder Of The Mongol Empire And Greatest Of Asiatic Conquerors, To Visit Him. Jenghiz' Letter Of Invitation, Dated May 15, 1219 (by Present Reckoning), Has Been Preserved, And Is ...

Konrad Celtes
Celtes, Konrad German Humanist And Latin Poet, Was Born At Wipfeld, Near Schweinfurt. After Study Ing At Heidelberg Celtes Led The Wandering Life Of A Scholar Of The Renaissance, Teaching In Various Universities, And Everywhere Establishing Learned Societies On The Model Of The Academy Of Pomponius Laetus At Rome. Among ...

La Celestina
Celestina, La, The Popular Alternative Title Attached From 1519 (or Earlier) To The Anonymous Comedia De Calisto Y Melibea, A Spanish Novel In Dialogue Which Was Celebrated Throughout Europe During The 16th Century. The Authorship Of The Celestina And The Date Of Its Composition Are Doubtful. An Anonymous Prefatory Letter ...

La Chaux De Fonds
Chaux De Fonds, La, An Industrial Town In The Swiss Canton Of Neuchatel, About 19m. By Rail N.w. Of Neuchatel, At A Height Of About 3,25oft. In A Valley Of The Same Name In The Jura. Pop. Mainly Protestant (27,306) And French Speaking; Of The Catholic Faith, The Majority Are ...

La Grande Chartreuse
Chartreuse, La Grande, The Mother House Of The Order Of Carthusian Monks (see Carthusians). It Is Situated In The French Department Of The Isere, About 12-1 M. N. Of Gre Noble, At A Height Of 3,205 Ft. Above The Sea, In The Heart Of A Group Of Limestone Mountains, And ...

Lake Champlain
Champlain, Lake. This Lake Is Chiefly In The United States, Between The States Of New York And Vermont, But Extends About 6m. Into The Province Of Quebec, Canada. It Is About 125m. Long, Covers An Area Of About 600sq.m., Varies In Width From 4m. To And In Depth From Iooft. ...

Lake Champlain_2
Champlain, Lake. This Lake Is Chiefly In The United States, Between The States Of New York And Vermont, But Extends About 6m. Into The Province Of Quebec, Canada. It Is About 125m. Long, Covers An Area Of About 600sq.m., Varies In Width From 4m. To 12m. And In Depth From ...

Laurence Chaderton
Chaderton, Laurence , Puritan Divine, Was Born At Lees Hall, Oldham, Lancashire, Was Educated At Christ's College, Cambridge, And On The Foundation Of Emman Uel College In 1584, Sir Walter Mildmay, The Founder, Chose Chaderton For The First Master. Chaderton Was One Of The Four Di Vines Appointed To Represent ...

Lento
Lento, A Town Of Emilia, Italy, Province Of Ferrara, 18m. S.e. Direct From The Town Of Ferrara, Soft. Above Sea-level; It Is Reached By Road (6m. To The West) From The Station Of S. Pietro In Casale, 15m. S.w. By W. Of Ferrara, And Also By A Steam Tram Way ...

Literature Cornish Language Welsh
Literature; Cornish Language; Welsh Language And Lit Erature And Scottish Literature. ...

Lord Hugh Richard Heathcote
Cecil, Lord Hugh Richard Heathcote ), English Politician, Youngest Son Of The 3rd Mar Quess Of Salisbury, The Prime Minister, Was Born On Oct. 14, 1869, And Was Educated At Eton And University College, Oxford, Where He Obtained A First Class In Modern History In 1891, And Was Elected A ...

Louis Eugene Cavaignac
Cavaignac, Louis Eugene French General, Born In Paris On Oct. 15, 1802, Belonged To A Family Famous In French Revolutionary Annals. He Was The Son Of Jean Baptiste Cavaignac (1762-1829), Who Was A Member Of The Convention, And Acted As Its Commissioner In The Repression Of The Opponents Of The ...

Lst Iron
Lst-iron. It Is Said That Cast-iron Was First Made In Sussex As Early As The Year 1350, But It Was Not Until The End Of The Tudor Period That The Practice Of Iron Founding Was Introduced Into England From The Continent Of Europe Where It Had Already Been Considerably Developed. ...

Lucius Cestius
Cestius, Lucius, Surnamed Pius, Latin Rhetorician, Was A Native Of Smyrna, A Greek By Birth. According To Jerome, He Was Teaching Latin At Rome In The Year 13 B.c. As An Orator In The Schools He Enjoyed A Great Reputation. As A Public Orator, On The Other Hand, He Was ...

Ludolpd Van Ceulen
Ceulen, Ludolpd Van (154o-161o), Dutch Mathe Matician, Was Born At Hildesheim On Jan. 28, 1540. His Name Also Occurs As Keulen Or Collen. He Was Professor Of Fortification At Leyden. Van Ceulen's Principal Work Was The Calculation Of :r To 35 Decimal Places. This Calculation Was Considered So Impor Tant ...

Luigi Palma Di Cesnola
Cesnola, Luigi Palma Di Italian American Soldier And Archaeologist, Was Born At Rivarolo, Near Turin, Italy, On July 29, 1832, Of An Ancient But Impoverished Family. Educated For A Military Career, He Served With Distinction Against Austria (1848-49) And In The Crimean War, And Going To New York In 186o, ...

Lydia Maria Child
Child, Lydia Maria (1802-188o), American Author And Reformer, Was Born At Medford, Mass., Feb. I1, 1802, And Died At Wayland, Mass., Oct. 20, 1880. One Of The Most Promi Nent Women Of Her Day, Mrs. Child's Present Claims To Remem Brance Are The Contemporaneous Popularity Of Her Stories Hobo Mok ...

Madame Celeste
Celeste, Madame (1815-1882), French Dancer And Actress, Was Born In Paris On Aug. 16, 1815. As A Little Girl She Was A Pupil In The Ballet Class At The Opera, And Made Her Debut At The Bowery Theatre, New York City, At 15. Going To England, She Ap Peared At ...

Marc Antonio Cesti
Cesti, Marc' Antonio (1618-1669), Italian Musical Composer, Was Born At Florence (or According To Some Authorities At Arezzo) In 1618. He Was A Pupil Of Carissimi, And Is Known Principally As A Composer Of Operas, Notable For The Pure And Delicate Style Of Their Airs, The Most Celebrated Of Which ...

Marcus Porcius Cato
Cato, Marcus Porcius (95-46 B.c.), Roman Philos Opher, Called Uticensis. On The Death Of His Parents He Was Brought Up In The House Of His Uncle, M. Livius Drusus. After Serving In The Ranks Against Spartacus (72 B.e.) He Acted As Military Tribune (67) In Macedonia. On His Return He ...

Marcus Porcius Cato_2
Cato, Marcus Porcius (234-149 B.c), Roman Statesman, Surnamed "the Censor" Or "the Elder," Was Born At Tusculum Of An Ancient Plebeian Family. He Was Bred To Agri Culture, But, Having Attracted The Notice Of L. Valerius Flaccus, He Was Brought To Rome, And Became Successively Quaestor (204), Aedile (199), Praetor ...

Mares
Mares (1682-1753), Was A Fine Actress In Both Tragedy And Soubrette Parts. She Made Her Debut At The Comedic Francaise In 1699, In La Grange Chancel's Oreste Et Pylade, And Was At Once Received As Societaire. She Retired In 1721. ...

Maria Luigi Carlo Zenobia
Cherubini, Maria Luigi Carlo Zenobia Salvatore (176o-1842), Italian Musical Composer, Was Born At Florence On Sept. 14, 1760, And Died On March 15, 1842 In Paris. His Father Was Maestro Al Cembalo At The Pergola Theatre, And Began To Teach Him Music When He Was Six. By The Time He ...

Marie Anne De Mailly
Chateauroux, Marie Anne De Mailly Nesle, Duchesse De , Mistress Of Louis Xv. Of France, Was The Fourth Daughter Of Louis, Marquis De Nesle. In 1740, Upon The Death Of Her Husband, The Marquis De La Tournelle, She Supplanted Her Sister, Madame De Mailly, As Titular Mistress In 1742. Directed ...

Marie Champmesle
Champmesle, Marie French Actress, Was Born In Rouen And Made Her First Appearance On The Stage At Rouen With Charles Chevillet (1645-1701), Who Called Himself Sieur De Champmesle, And They Were Married In 1666. By 1669 They Were Playing In Paris At The Theatre Du Marais. The Next Year, As ...

Marie Champmesle_2
Champmesle, Marie Nee Desmares, French Actress, Was Born In Rouen And Made Her First Appearance On The Stage At Rouen With Charles Chevillet (1645-1701), Who Called Himself Sieur De Champmesle, And They Were Married In 1666. By 166g They Were Playing In Paris At The Theatre Du Marais. The Next ...

Marie Joseph Blaise De Chenier
Chenier, Marie-joseph Blaise De (1764— Isi 1 ), French Poet, Dramatist And Politician, Younger Brother Of Andre De Chenier, Was Born At Constantinople On Feb. Ii, 1764. He Was Brought Up At Carcassonne, And Educated In Paris At The College De Navarre. After Two Years Spent In The Army He ...

Marie Joseph Chalier
Chalier, Marie Joseph , French Revo Lutionary, Became A Partner In A Business Firm At Lyons For Which He Travelled In The Levant, In Italy, Spain And Portugal. He Became The Orator And Leader Of The Jacobins Of Lyons, And Induced The Other Revolutionary Clubs And The Commune Of The ...

Marks And Beacons
Marks And Beacons Every Survey Must Have Fixed Objects Which Are First Plotted On The Sheets, Technically Known As "points." Natural Marks Of All Kinds Are Utilized, But These Must Be Supplemented By White Wash Marks, Cairns, Flags, Etc. On Low Coasts And Islets Flag Staffs Upwards Of Ioo Ft. ...

Martin Chemnitz Or Kemnitz
Chemnitz Or Kemnitz, Martin (1522-1586), Ger Man Lutheran Theologian, Was Born At Treuenibrietzen, Branden Burg, On Nov. 9, 1522, And Died In Brunswick On April 8, 1586. Educated At Magdeburg (1539-42) And At The Universities Of Frank Furt-on-oder And Wittenberg (1545), Chemnitz Became Interested In Mathematics And Astrology, And In ...

Matthias Alexander Castren
Castren, Matthias Alexander Finnish Ethnologist And Philologist, Was Born At Tervola, Kemi, Finland, On Dec. 2, 1813. In 1838 He Joined A Medical Fellow Student, Dr. Ehrstrom, In A Journey Through Lapland. In The Following Year He Travelled In Russian Karelia ; And In 1841 He Undertook, In Company With ...

Melchiore Cesarotti
Cesarotti, Melchiore Italian Poet, Was Born On 15, 1730, At Padua, Where He Held The Chair Of Rhetoric, And In 1768 The Professorship Of Greek And Hebrew. Cesarotti Is Best Known As The Author Of An Admirable Translation (2 Vols., 1763) Of Ossian, Which Raised Up Many Imitators Of The ...

Mexican Peoples
Mexican Peoples The Nahuatl-speaking Peoples.—in This Section The Centre Of Interest Is The Valley Of Mexico, Where Mexico City (tenoch Titlan) Was, At The Time Of The Conquest, The Seat Of Aztec Power. Excavation, Principally At Azcapotzalco, Has Demonstrated That The Earliest Remains Show Close Affinity With Those Of The ...

Michel Chamillart
Chamillart, Michel ), French Statesman, Minister Of Louis Xiv. In 1690 He Was Made Intendant Of Finances, And On Sept. 5, 1699, The King Appointed Him Controller General Of Finances, And On Jan. 7, 1700, Minister Of War. From The First Chamillart's Position Was A Difficult One. The Deficit Amounted ...

Michel Chasles
Chasles, Michel (1793-1880), French Mathematician, Was Born On Nov. 15, At Epernon. He Was Educated At Paris, And Engaged In Business, Which He Later Gave Up For The Study Of Mathematics. Chasles, Was Made Professor Of Geodesy And Mechanics At The Polytechnic School And Later Professor Of Higher Geometry At ...

Michel Chevalier
Chevalier, Michel (1806-1879), French Economist, Was Born At Limoges. In His Early Manhood, While Employed As An Engineer, He Became A Convert To The Theories Of Saint-simon; These He Ardently Advocated In The Globe, The Organ Of The Saint Simonians, Which He Edited Until His Arrest In 1832 On A ...

Michel Eugene Chevreul
Chevreul, Michel Eugene French Chemist, Was Born, On Aug. 31, 1786, In Angers, Where His Father Was A Physician. At About The Age Of 17 He Went To Paris And Entered L. N. Vauquelin's Chemical Laboratory, Afterwards Becom Ing His Assistant At The Natural History Museum In The Jardin Des ...

Miguel De Cervantes Saavedra
Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel De (1547 1616), Spanish Novelist, Playwright And Poet, Was Born At Alcala De Henares. He Was The Second Son Of Rodrigo De Cervantes, An Apothecary-surgeon, And Leonor De Cortinas. The Exact Date Of Cervantes' Birth Is Not Recorded; He Was Baptized On Oct. 9, In The Church ...

Milwaukee Chicago
Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul And Pacific Railroad Company, Successor (jan. 14, 1928) Through Reorganization To The Chicago, Milwaukee And St. Paul Rail Way Company (in Receivership After March 18, 1925) ; Owns And Operates One Of The Oldest And Largest Railroads North And West Of Chicago, Ill. The Predecessor Company ...

Monothelites
Monothelites). The Remaining Sessions Were Occupied With Matters Of Discipline, Episcopal Jurisdiction, Organization Of Diocese And Parish, Occupa Tions Of The Clergy And The Like ; And Confirmed The Third Canon Of The Second Oecumenical Council, Which Accorded To Constanti Nople Equal Privileges (iaa 7rp€aj3eza) With Rome, And The Sec ...

Morial Architecture Byzantineand
Morial Architecture ; Byzantine And Romanesque Architec Ture ; Gothic Architecture.) Dictionnaire Raisonne De L'architec Ture Francaise Du X I. Au X V I. Siecle (1854-68) ; A. K. Porter, Medi Aeval Architecture (1912) ; Sir T. G. Jackson, Gothic Architecture (t. F. H.) ...

Nautical Surveying
Nautical Surveying Naval Hydrographic Surveying Has Since The Termination Of The War In 1918 Steadily Progressed In Adopting The Latest Methods And Instruments Which Have Become Available To The Surveyor Ashore And Afloat. It Is Not Often Realized That The Hydrographic Surveyor Has To Combine The Work Of The Land ...

Nicholas Catinat
Catinat, Nicholas (1637-1712), Marshal Of France, Was Born On Sept. I, 1637, In Paris, Entered The Gardes Francaises At An Early Age, And Distinguished Himself At The Siege Of Lille In 1667. He Served With Great Credit In The Campaigns Of 1676-78 In Flanders, Was Employed Against The Vaudois In ...

Nicolas Anne Theodule Changarnier
Changarnier, Nicolas Anne Theodule French General, Was Born At Autun On April 26, 1793. Educated At St. Cyr, He Served For A Short Time In The Bodyguard Of Louis Xviii., And Entered The Line As A Lieutenant In January 1815. In 1830 He Entered The Royal Guard And Was Sent ...

Nicolas Toussaint Charlet
Charlet, Nicolas Toussaint French Designer And Painter, More Especially Of Military Subjects, Was Born In Paris On Dec. 20, 1792, And Died There On Oct. 3o, 1845. The Son Of A Dragoon In The Republican Army, He Was Educated At The Lycee Napoleon, And Served In The National Guard In ...

Nikolay Gavrildvich Chernyshevsky
Chernyshevsky, Nikolay Gavrildvich (1823-1889), Russian Writer And Political Leader, Was Born At Saratov. His First Works Dealt With Literary Criticism (the Aes Thetic Relations Of Art To Reality, 1855, And Studies Of The Age Of Gogol). In The Great Reform Movement Which Set In After The Crimean War, Chernyshevsky Took ...

North Caucasian Area
Caucasian Area, North. A Province In The Rus Sian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic. The Boundaries Are : West, The Ukraine, The Sea Of Azov And The Black Sea ; South, Abkhazia And Georgia ; East, Daghestan And The Kalmuck Area ; North-east, Stalingrad ; North-west, Voronezh. Area 28 7,41 Osq.km. ...

Optical Properties
Optical Properties Refractivity.—the Change In The Direction Of A Homogeneous Ray Of Light When It Passes From Air Into A Denser Medium Is Termed Refraction. This Property Of The Medium Is Suitably Measured By The Index Of Refraction Ba=sin I/sin R, In That The Fluence Of The Angle Of Incidence ...

Organic Chemistry
Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry, In Its Modern Sense, Is The Chemistry Of All Carbon Compounds. Carbon, Occupying A Position In The Periodic Table Between The Metals And Non-metals, Is Capable Of Combining With A Large Number Of Elements Having Widely Varying Chemical Properties, And, In Addition, Has The Special Property ...

Other Cements
Other Cements Rapid Hardening Cements.—the Necessity For Overcoming The Delay In Urgent Work Caused By The Comparatively Slow Harden Ing Of Portland Cement Has Resulted In A Demand For Rapid Harden Ing Cements. Such Cements Must Be Sufficiently Slow Setting To Allow Of The Concrete Being Placed In Position Before ...

Pafnutiy Lvovich Chebichev
Chebichev, Pafnutiy Lvovich After N. I. Lobachevskiy, The Most Distinguished Of Russian Mathematicians, Was Born At Borovsk On May 26, 1821. Educated At The University Of Moscow In 1859, He Became Professor Of Mathematics In The University Of St. Petersburg, A Position From Which He Retired In 1880. He Became ...

Paolo Moran Do Cavazzola
Cavazzola Or Cavazzuola, Paolo Moran Do (1486-1522), Italian Painter Of The Veronese School, A Pupil Of Domenico Morone. He Worked At Verona, Where He Decorated Many Churches With Frescoes (san Nazzaro E Celso, S. Anastasia, S. Chiara, S. Eufemia, S.m. In Organo). His Earliest Dated Work Extant Was Painted In ...

Pascual Cervera Y Topete
Cervera, Pascual Cervera Y Topete (1839 1909), Spanish Admiral, Was Born At Medina Sidonia. As A Sub Lieutenant He Took Part In The Naval Operations On The Coast Of Morocco During The Campaign Of 1859-60. Then He Was Engaged In Operations In The Sulu Islands And The Philippines, And After ...

Paul A M A
Challemel-lacour, Paul A M A N D 1896), French Statesman, Was Born At Avranches On May 19, 1827. Educated At The Ecole Normale Superieure, He Became Pro Fessor Of Philosophy At Pau And At Limoges, But Was Obliged To Leave France After The Coup D'etat Of 1851. He Settled In ...

Paul Cezanne
Cezanne, Paul (1839-1906), French Painter, Was Born At Aix, The Ancient Capital Town Of Provence, On Jan. 19, His Father Was A Banker. Paul Was Educated At The Lycee Of The Town, Where He Formed An Intimate Friendship With Tmile Zola, The Novelist. The Two Boys Were Both Inspired By ...

Paulus Castrensis
Castrensis, Paulus, An Italian Jurist Of The 14th Cen Tury. He Studied Under Baldus At Perugia, And Was A Fellow-pupil With Cardinal Zabarella. He Was Admitted To The Degree Of Doctor Of Civil Law In The University Of Avignon, But It Is Uncertain When He First Undertook The Duties Of ...

Petillius Cerealis Cerialis
Cerealis (cerialis), Petillius (1st Century A.d.), Roman General, A Relative Of The Emperor Vespasian. In A.d. 6r He Was In Britain As Legate Of The Ninth Legion, Which Was Over Whelmed By The Britons. In The Civil War Of 69 He Supported Vespasian, And In 7o, After Holding The Consulship, ...

Philarete Chasles
Chasles, Philarete (1798-1873), French Critic And Man Of Letters, Was Born At Mainvilliers (eure Et Loir). His Father, P. J. M. Chasles (1754-1826), Was A Member Of The Con Vention, And Brought Up His Son According To The Principles Of Rousseau's Emile. Philarete, After A Regime Of Outdoor Life, Followed ...

Philip Dormer Stanhope Chesterfield
Chesterfield, Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th Earl Of (1694-1773), Son Of Philip Stanhope, 3rd Earl (2673— 1726), And Elizabeth Savile, Daughter Of George Savile, Marquess Of Halifax, Was Born In London On Sept. 22, 1694. The Care Of The Boy Devolved Upon His Grandmother, The Marchioness Of Halifax. His Education, Began ...

Philippe De Chabot
Chabot, Philippe De, Seigneur De Brion, Count Of Charny And Buzancais Admiral Of France. The Chabot Family Was One Of The Oldest And Most Powerful In Poitou. Philippe Was A Cadet Of The Jarnac Branch. He Was A Companion Of Francis I. As A Child, And On That King's Accession ...

Philippe De Champaigne
Champaigne, Philippe De Belgian Painter Of The French School, Was Born At Brussels Of A Poor Family. He Was A Pupil Of J. Fouquieres ; And, Going To Paris In 1621, Was Employed By N. Du Chesne To Paint With Nicholas Poussin In The Palace Of The Luxembourg. His Best ...

Physical Chemistry
Physical Chemistry Physical Chemistry Is Concerned With The Dependence Of Phys Ical Properties On The Chemical Nature Of The Different Forms Of Matter And The Changes Which These Undergo. In The Description Of These Relations, A Convenient Basis Of Subdivision Is Afforded By The Three States Of Aggregation—gaseous, Liquid And ...

Pierre Adolphe Cheruel
Cheruel, Pierre Adolphe French Historian, Was Born At Rouen. His Most Important Work Was Done On The History Of France In The 17th Century. Among His Books Are Histoire De L'administration Monarcilique En France Depuis L'avenement De Philippe-auguste Jusqu'a La Mort De Louis Xiv. (1855); Dictionnaire Liistorique Des Institutions, Moeurs ...

Pierre Cauchon
Cauchon, Pierre, French Ecclesiastic, Was Born Near Reims And Became Bishop Of Beauvais In 142o. About Ten Years Later He Joined The English Faction In France, And His Chief Title To Fame Is That He Presided Over The Trial Of Joan Of Arc At Rouen. Recent Researches Show That He ...

Pierre Charles Chesnelong
Chesnelong, Pierre Charles French Politician, Was Born At Orthez, Basses Pyrenees. A Mem Ber Of The Chamber Of Deputies From 1865-76, With A Short Inter Val In 1870-72, He Was An Uncompromising Clericalist And, After 1870, A Legitimist. He Was The Soul Of The Reactionary Opposition That Led To The ...

Pierre Charlevoix
Charlevoix, Pierre Francois Xavier De (1682-1761), French Jesuit Traveller And Historian, Was Born At St. Quentin On Oct. 29, 1682. At 16 He Entered The Society Of Jesus; And At 23 Was Sent To Canada, Where He Remained For Four Years As Professor At Quebec. In 1720-22, Under Orders From ...

Pierre Charron
Charron, Pierre (1s11-1603), French Philosopher, Was Born In Paris. He Entered The Church, And Was Appointed Preacher In Ordinary To Marguerite, Wife Of Henry Iv. Of Navarre. At Bordeaux He Met Montaigne, Whose Intimate Friend He Became. In 1594 Charron Published (at First Anonymously, Afterwards Under The Name Of "benoit ...

Pierre De Bocsozel De
Chastelard, Pierre De Bocsozel De (1540 ), French Poet, Was Born In Dauphine, A Scion Of The House Of Bayard. His Name Is Inseparably Connected With Mary, Queen Of Scots. From The Service Of The Constable Montmorency, Chastelard, Then A Page, To The Household Of Marshal Dam Ville, Whom He ...

Pietro Cavallini
Cavallini, Pietro (c. 1259-1344), Italian Painter, Born In Rome, Was Taught Painting And Mosaic By Giotto While Employed At Rome; It Is Believed That He Assisted His Master In The Mosaic Of The Navicella Or Ship Of St. Peter, In The Porch Of The Church Of That Saint. He Also ...

Properties Of Mixtures
Properties Of Mixtures The Term Mixture Is Applied To A System In Which The Con Stituent Particles Are Directly Or Indirectly Distinguishable From One Another. When The Difference Can Be Recognized Directly Or By The Use Of Some Optical Magnifying Device, It Is Customary To Speak Of Mechanical Mixtures, Whilst ...

Publius Valerius Cato
Cato, Publius Valerius, Roman Poet And Gram Marian, Was Born About Loo B.c. He Was The Leader Of The "new" School Of Poetry (poetae Novi, As Cicero Calls Them). Its Followers Rejected The National Epic And Drama In Favour Of The Artificial Mythological Epics And Elegies Of The Alexandrian School. ...

Rator
Rator), Beside A Host Of Minor Officials. Under The Revolution The Constituent Assembly Empowered The Chatelet To Try Cases Of Lese-nation, And It Was Also Before This Court That Was Opened The Inquiry Following On The Events Of Aug. 5 And 6, 1789. It Was Suppressed By The Law Of ...

Remy Ceillier
Ceillier, Remy (1688-1761), Benedictine Monk Of The Lorraine Congregation Of St. Vannes, Was Born At Bar-le-duc On May 14, 1688. He Was The Compiler Of A Scholarly Patrology, Histoire Generale Des Auteurs Sacres Et Ecclesiastiques (23 Vols. Paris, 1729-63, Improved Edition, 14 Vols. Paris, 1858). His Apologie De La Morale ...

Richard Challoner
Challoner, Richard (1691-1781), English Roman Catholic Prelate, Was Born At Lewes, Sussex, On Sept. 29, 1691, And Educated At The English College At Douai, Where He Was Ordained A Priest In 1716, Took His Degrees In Divinity, And Was Appointed Professor In That Faculty. In 173o He Was Sent To ...

Richard Chancellor
Chancellor, Richard (d. 1556), English Seaman, Is Said To Have Been Brought Up By The Father Of Sir Philip Sidney. Nothing Is Known Of His Own Family Except That He Had Two Sons. In 1553 Sir Hugh Willoughby Fitted Out An Expedition In Search Of The North-west Passage To India, ...

Richard Chandler
Chandler, Richard (1738-181o), British Antiquary, Was Born At Elson In Hampshire. In 1759 He Published Fragments From The Greek Minor Poets, With Notes (elegiaca Graeca) ; And In 1763 A Fine Edition Of The Arunde Lian Marbles, Marmora Oxoni Ensia, With A Latin Translation, And Suggestions For Supplying The Lacunae. ...

Robert Caesar Childers
Childers, Robert Caesar English Oriental Scholar, Son Of The Rev. Charles Childers, English Chap Lain At Nice, Studied Pali During His Residence (186o-64) As A Civil Servant In Ceylon. In 1869 He Published The First Pali Text Ever Printed In England, And Began To Prepare A Pali Dictionary (2 Vols., ...

Robert Catesby
Catesby, Robert (1573-1605), English Conspirator, Son Of Sir William Catesby Of Lapworth, Warwick, Prominent Recusant, Was Born In 1573, And Entered Gloucester Hall (now Worcester College), Oxford, In 1586. In 1596 He Was One Of Those Arrested On Suspicion During An Illness Of Queen Elizabeth. In 1601 He Took Part ...

Robert Chambers
Chambers, Robert (1802-1871), Scottish Author And Publisher, Was Born At Peebles On July Io, 1802. A Small Circulat Ing Library In The Town, And A Copy Of The Encyclopedia Britannica Which His Father Had Purchased, Furnished The Boy With Stores Of Reading Of Which He Eagerly Availed Himself. Long Afterwards ...

Robert Charnock Or Chernock
Charnock Or Chernock, Robert (c. English Conspirator, Was Educated At Magdalen College, Oxford, Becoming A Fellow Of His College And A Roman Catholic Priest. When In 1687 The Dispute Arose Between James Ii. And The Fel Lows Of Magdalen Over The Election Of A President Charnock Fa Voured The First ...

Robert Erskine Childers
Childers, Robert Erskine Irish Politician, The Son Of Prof. Robert C. Childers Of London, Was Educated At Haileybury And Trinity College, Cambridge. From 1895 To 1910 He Was A Clerk In The British House Of Commons. He Served As A Trooper In The South African War In 190o And From ...

Robert William Cecil Salisbury
William Cecil ; Salisbury, Robert, 3rd Marquess Of ; Salis Bury, Robert Cecil, I St Earl Of ; Cecil, Lord Hugh ; Cecil Of Chelwood, Ist Viscount). ...

Roger Palmer Castlemaine
Castlemaine, Roger Palmer, Earl Of (1634 I 705), First Husband Of The Duchess Of Cleveland (see Cleve ...

Royal
Royal ; Du Cange, Glossarium, S. "camerarius" And "cambellanus"; Pere Anselme, Hist. Genealogique Et Chronologique De La Maison Royale De France, Etc. (3rd Ed. A. Luchaire, Manuel Des Institu Tions Francaises (1892) ; W. R. Anson, Law And Custom Of The Con Stitution (1896) ; Hinschius, Kirchenrecht, I. 405 (1869) ...

Saint Catherine
Catherine, Saint. The Roman Hagiology Contains Six Saints Of This Name. I. St. Catherine Of Alexandria, Virgin And Martyr, Whose Day Of Commemoration Recurs On Nov. 25. 2. St. Catherine Of Siena, 1347-80, Dominican Tertiary Whose Feast Is Observed On April 3o. 3. St. Catherine Of Sweden, Daughter Of St. ...

Saint Cecilia
Cecilia, Saint (d. C. 176), Patron Saint Of Music And Of The Blind, Is Commemorated On Nov. 22. She Was Supposed To Have Been A Noble Roman Who With Her Husband And Converts Suffered Martyrdom (c. 230), Under The Emperor Alexander Sever Us, But The Researches Of De Rossi (roma ...

Saint Chad Ceadda
Chad (ceadda), Saint (d. 672), Brother Of Cedd, Whom He Succeeded As Abbot At Lastingham, Was Consecrated Bishop Of The Northumbrians By Wine, The West Saxon Bishop, At The Re Quest Of Oswy In 664. On The Return Of Wilfrid From France, Where He Had Been Sent To Be Consecrated ...

Salmon Portland Chase
Chase, Salmon Portland American Statesman And Jurist, Was Born In Cornish, N.h., On Jan. 13, 1808. His Father Died In 1817, And The Son Passed Several Years (182o 24) In Ohio With His Uncle, Bishop Philander Chase The Foremost Pioneer Of The Protestant Episcopal Church In The West. He Graduated ...

Samuel Chandler
Chandler, Samuel (1693-1766), English Noncon Formist Divine, Was Born In 1693 At Hungerford, Berkshire. He Took A Leading Part In The Deist Controversies Of The Time, And Dis Cussed With Some Of The Bishops The Possibility Of An Act Of Corn Prehension. From 1716-26 He Preached At Peckham, And For ...

Samuel Chase
Chase, Samuel American Jurist, Was Born In Somerset County (md.), April 17, 1741. He Was Admitted To The Bar At Annapolis In 1761, And For More Than 20 Years Was A Member Of The Maryland Legislature. He Took An Active Part In The Resistance To The Stamp Act, And From ...

Samuel De Champlain
Champlain, Samuel De (1567-1635), French Ex Plorer, Colonial Pioneer And First Governor Of French Canada, Was Born At Brouage On The Bay Of Biscay. His Father Was A Sea Cap Tain, And The Boy Was Early Skilled In Seamanship And Navigation. He Entered The Army Of Henry Iv., And Served ...