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Encyclopedia Brittanica

Volume 5, Part 1: Cast-Iron to Cole

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Samuel De Champlain_2
Champlain, Samuel De (1567-1635), French Ex Plorer, Colonial Pioneer And First Governor Of French Canada, Was Born At Brouage On The Bay Of Biscay. His Father Was A Sea Cap Tain, And The Boy Was Early Skilled In Seamanship And Navigation. He Entered The Army Of Henry Iv., And Served ...

Schools Of Play
Schools Of Play Chess Has Developed Various Schools Of Play From Time To Time. The Theory Of The Game, However, Did Not Advance In Proportion To The Enormous Strides In Its Popularity. Formerly The Theory Of Play Had Been Enriched By Such Enthusiasts As Dr. Max Lange, Louis Paulsen, Professor ...

Scope Of Census Narrowed
Scope Of Census Narrowed Competent Discussion Between 1890 And 190o Fastened On This Point, And Under The Law Of 1899 The Scope Of The Census Of 1900 Was Greatly Narrowed. This Was Secured Not By Abandoning Any Of The Numerous Inquiries Which Had Overloaded The Two Preced Ing Censuses, But ...

Sebastien Roch Nicolas Chamfort
Chamfort, Sebastien Roch Nicolas (1741 ' 794), French Wit And Man Of Letters, Was Born At A Little Village Near Clermont In Auvergne, The Son Of A Grocer Named Nicolas. Educated As A Free Scholar At The College Des Grassins, He Lived From Hand To Mouth In Paris Mainly On ...

Sir Edwin Chadwick
Chadwick, Sir Edwin (1800-189o), English Sanitary Reformer, Was Born At Longsight, Near Manchester, Jan. 24, 1800, And Was Educated For The Bar. His Essays In The Westminster Review (mainly On Different Methods Of Applying Scientific Knowl Edge To The Business Of Government) Introduced Him To The Notice Of Jeremy Bentham, ...

Sir Francis Child
Child, Sir Francis (1642-1713), English Banker, Was A Wiltshire Man Who Became A London Goldsmith In 1664. In 1671 He Married Elizabeth Wheeler And With His Wife's Step Father. Robert Blanchard (d. 1680, Took Over About The Same Time The Business Of Goldsmiths Hitherto Carried On By The Wheelers. This ...

Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey
Chantrey, Sir Francis Legatt English Sculptor, Was Born On April 7, 1781, At Norton, Near Shef Field. After Receiving Lessons In Carving And Painting, Chantrey Went To Try His Fortune In Dublin And Edinburgh, And Finally (1802) In London. He Exhibited Pictures At The Academy For Some Years From 1804, ...

Sir George Cathcart
Cathcart, Sir George English Soldier, Third Son Of The I St Earl Cathcart, Was Born In London On May I2, 1794. He Was Educated At Eton And Edinburgh University. In 1810 He Entered The Army, And In 1812 Accompanied His Father To Russia As Aide-de-camp. He Served With The Russian ...

Sir George Tomkyns Chesney
Chesney, Sir George Tomkyns English General, Brother Of Col. C. C. Chesney, Was Born At Tiver Ton (devon), On April 3o, 183o. Educated At Blundell's School, Tiverton, And At Addiscombe, He Entered The Bengal Engineers As Second Lieutenant In 1848. After Some Years In The Pubic Works Department He Earned ...

Sir John Chandos
Chandos, Sir John (d. 1370), English Soldier, Fought At The Siege Of Cambrai (1337), At Crecy In 1346, And At Poitiers, Where He Saved The Life Of The Black Prince. For These Services Edward Iii. Gave Him The Lands Of The Viscount Of Saint Sauveur In Cotentin, And Appointed Him ...

Sir John Chardin
Chardin, Sir John (1643-1713), French Traveller, Was Born In Paris In 1643. In 1665 He Set Out For Persia And India. He Returned In 167o And Published Recit Du Couronnement Du Roi De Perse Soliman Iii: In 1 671 . In Aug. 1671 He Left Again For Persia, Going By ...

Sir John Cheke
Cheke, Sir John English Classical Scholar, Was One Of The Founders Of Greek Learning At Oxford. At St. John's College, Cambridge, Where He Became A Fellow In 1529, He Adopted The Principles Of The Reformation. In 154o, On Henry Viii.'s Foundation Of The Regius Professorships, He Was Elected To The ...

Sir John Child
Child, Sir John (d. 1690), Governor Of Bombay, And In Fact If Not In Name The First Governor-general Of The British Settle Ments In India, Was Born In London. He Was Sent As A Little Boy To His Uncle, The Chief Of The Factory At Rajapur, And In 1682 Was ...

Sir Joseph Amable Thomas
Chapais, Sir Joseph Amable Thomas (1858 ), Canadian Lawyer, Statesman And Historian, Was Born At St. Denis-de-la-bouteillerie, Quebec, On March 23, 1858, Son Of Senator J. C. Chapais, One Of The "fathers Of Confederation." Chapais Was Educated At St. Anne's College, Laval University, And Was Called To The Quebec Bar ...

Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain
Chamberlain, Sir (joseph) Austen (1863 1937), The Eldest Son Of Joseph Chamberlain (q.v.) And Of His First Wife, Harriet Kenrick, Was Born At Birmingham On Oct. 16, 1863. He Was Educated At Rugby And Trinity College, Cambridge, And Afterwards Studied In Paris And Berlin. During The Early Stages Of The ...

Sir Josiah Child
Child, Sir Josiah (163o-1699), English Merchant, Economist And Governor Of The East India Company, Was Born In London In 1630, The Second Son Of Richard Child, A London Mer Chant Of Old Family. After Serving His Apprenticeship In The Busi Ness To Which He Succeeded, He Started On His Own ...

Sir Neville Bowles Chamberlain
Chamberlain, Sir Neville Bowles (182o 5902), British Field-marshal, Was Born At Rio De Janeiro Jan. 10, 1820, The Son Of Henry Chamberlain, Consul-general And Chargé D'affaires In Brazil. He Entered The East India Company's Army In 1837 And Served In The First Afghan War (1839-42), In The Gwalior Campaign Of ...

Sir Philip Walhouse Chetwode
Chetwode, Sir Philip Walhouse ), British Soldier, Was Born On Sept. 21, 1869, And In Nov. 1889 Was Commissioned To The 19th Hussars From The Militia. He Saw Ac Tive Service In Burma And South Africa, And Later Became Assist Ant Military Secretary To Sir John French At Aldershot. Promoted ...

Sir Pierre Louis Napoleon
Cavagnari, Sir Pierre Louis Napoleon (1841-1879), British Military Administrator, The Son Of A French General By His Marriage With An Irish Lady, Was Born At Stenay, Meuse, On July 4, 1841. He Obtained Naturalization As An Eng Lishman, And Entered The Military Service Of The East India Com Pany. He ...

Sir Proby Thomas Cautley
Cautley, Sir Proby Thomas Eng Lish Engineer And Palaeontologist, Was Born In Suffolk In 1802. After Some Years' Service In The Bengal Artillery, Which He Joined In 1819, He Was Engaged On The Reconstruction Of The Doab Canal. He Had Charge Of The Completed Canal For 12 Years (1831-43) In ...

Sir Thomas Chaloner
Chaloner, Sir Thomas, The Elder (1521-1565), Eng Lish Diplomatist And Poet, The Son Of Roger Chaloner, A Mercer Of London, Was Educated At Oxford And Cambridge. In 1540 He Went As Secretary To Sir Henry Knyvett, To The Court Of Charles V., Whom He Accompanied In His Expedition To Algiers ...

Sir William Cavendish
Cavendish, Sir William (c. Founder Of The English Noble House Of Cavendish, Was The Younger Brother Of George Cavendish (q.v.) . His Father, Thomas, Was A Descendant Of Sir John Cavendish, The Judge, Who In 1381 Was Murdered By Jack Straw's Insurgent Peasants At Bury St. Ed Munds. Of William's ...

Sir William Chambers
Chambers, Sir William (1726-1796), British Archi Tect, Was The Grandson Of A Rich Merchant Who Had Financed The Armies Of Charles Xii., But Was Paid In Base Money, And Whose Son Remained In Sweden Many Years Endeavouring To Obtain Re Dress. In 1728 The Latter Returned To England And Settled ...

Sir William Watson Cheyne
Cheyne, Sir William Watson, 1st Bart. (1852— 1932), British Surgeon, Was Born In The Shetland Islands On Dec. 14, 1852, And Was Educated At Edinburgh, Where He Took His De Grees In Surgery And Medicine In 1875. He Also Studied At Vienna, Paris And Strasbourg. In 188o He Was Appointed ...

St Charles
Charles, St., Called The Good (le Bon), Or The Dane (c. 1084-1127), Count Of Flanders, Was The Only Son Of St. Canute Or Knut Iv., King Of Denmark, By Adela, Daughter Of Robert The Frisian, Count Of Flanders. On The Assassination Of Canute In His Widow Fled To Flanders, With ...

Susanna Centlivre
Centlivre, Susanna (c. 1667-1723), English Dra Matic Writer And Actress, Married At 16 The Nephew Of Sir Stephen Fox, And On His Death Within A Year She Married An Officer Named Carroll, Who Was Killed In A Duel. Left In Poverty, She Began To Support Herself By Writing For The ...

The Catholic Apostolic Church
Catholic Apostolic Church, The, A Religious Community Often Called "irvingites," Though Neither Actually Founded Nor Anticipated By Edward Irving (q.v.). Irving's Relation To This Community Was, According To Its Members, Somewhat Sim Ilar To That Of John The Baptist To The Early Christian Church, I.e. He Was The Forerunner And ...

The Central Railroad Company
Central Railroad Company Of New Jer Sey, The. This American Railway Had Its Beginning In The Elizabethtown And Somerville Railroad, Incorporated In New Jersey In 1831, And In The Somerville And Easton Railroad, Incorporated In 1847. By A Supplementary Act The Name Was Changed, On April 23, 1849, To The ...

The Chase National Bank
Chase National Bank, The, Of The City Of New York Was Founded On Sept. 12, 1877. Its First Published Balance Sheet (dec. 27, 1877) Showed Total Resources Of $1,042,009.25. The Statement For September 30, 1935, Showed Total Resources Of ; Preferred Capital Stock Of $50,000,000.00; Common Capital Stock Of $100,270,000.0o ...

The Chicago Academy Of
Chicago Academy Of Sciences, The, An Insti Tution Organized At Chicago, Ill., On Jan. 13, 1857, "to Promote And Diffuse Scientific Knowledge," And One Of The Oldest Scholarly Bodies Existing In Illinois. The Collections Of The Academy, Con Sidered At The Time Among The Most Valuable In America, Were In ...

The Childrens Aid Society
Children's Aid Society, The, An American Char Itable Organization Located In New York City. The First Children's Aid Society In America Was Founded In 1853 By Charles Loring Brace, "to Improve The Condition Of Poor And Destitute Children In The City Of New York And In The State Of New ...

The Fat Charles Iii
Charles Iii., The Fat (832-888), Roman Emperor And King Of The West Franks, Was The Youngest Of The Three Sons Of Louis The German, And Received From His Father The Kingdom Of Swabia (alamannia). After The Death Of His Two Brothers In Succession, Carloman (881) And Louis The Young (882), ...

The Gaseous State
The Gaseous State General Characteristics.—matter In The Gaseous State Is Dis Tinguished By Its Tendency To Occupy All The Space At Its Disposal. This Tendency May Be Counteracted By External Forces, And The Fact That The Earth's Gaseous Atmosphere Is Confined Within Definite Limits Is To Be Attributed To The ...

The Kings Chamber
Chamber, The King's, The Camera Regis, Was, In The Later Middle Ages, An Important Financial Office. In Origin It Was The King's Bedroom, With Cupboards And Chests For Clothes And Valuables. The Servants In Charge Of This Room, The King's Cham Berlains As They Were Called (see Chamberlain), Were In ...

The Liquid State
The Liquid State If The Temperature Of A Gas Is Below A Certain Limiting Value And The Pressure Is Gradually Increased, The Gas Condenses To A Liquid. This Process Involves A Discontinuity In The Relation Be Tween The Pressure And The Volume. On A P—v Diagram, The Con Densation Is ...

The Openings
The Openings In A Short Article It Is Impossible To Give Even An Attempt At An Adequate Description Of The Various Openings, For On Almost Every One Of Them A Book Might Be Written. We Give Below A Necessarily Very Brief Résumé Of The Most Important Openings. For Further Details ...

The Solid State
The Solid State General Characteristics.—over A Long Period It Was Cus Tomary To Speak Of Crystalline And Amorphous Solids, But The Grounds On Which This Distinction Was Made Are Now Regarded As Unsatisfactory. Newer Methods Of Analysis Have In Fact Shown That Many Apparently Amorphous Substances Are Definitely Micro Crystalline, ...

Theodore Cha Sseriau
Cha Sseriau, Theodore (1819-1856), French Painter, Was Born In The Antilles On Sept. 20, 1819, And Died In Paris On Oct. 8, 1856. He Studied Under Ingres At Paris And At Rome, Subsequently Falling Under The Influence Of Paul Dela Roche. In His Short Life He Produced Little. There Are ...

Theory Of Phlogiston
Theory Of Phlogiston The Theory Of Phlogiston First Proposed By Becher And Greatly Advanced By Stahl Went Back To The Old Idea Of Jabir That Com Bustible Bodies Lost Something When They Burnt. Becher's Terra Pinguis Became Stahl's Phlogiston, Which Was Not Fire Itself But The Material Of Fire. Metals ...

Thesiger
Thesiger, 1st Viscount (1868-1933), British Administra Tor, Born On Aug. 12, 1868, Was The Eldest Son Of Frederick Au Gustus, 2nd Baron Chelmsford. He Was Educated At Winchester And Magdalen College, Oxford, And Held A Fellowship At All Souls From 1892 To 1899. Having Been Called To The Bar He ...

Thomas Cavendish Or Candish
Cavendish Or Candish, Thomas The Third Circumnavigator Of The Globe, Was Born In Trimley St. Martin, Suffolk, And Educated At Corpus Christi College, Cam Bridge. In 1585 He Accompanied Sir Richard Grenville To America. Soon Returning To England, He Undertook An Elaborate Imitation Of Drake's Great Voyage. On July 21, ...

Thomas Chalmers
Chalmers, Thomas (178o-1847), Scottish Divine, Was Born At Anstruther, Fifeshire, On March 17, 1780. In 1799 He Was Licensed By The St. Andrews Presbytery. After Further Study At Edinburgh He Became Assistant To The Professor Of Mathematics At St. Andrews, And Was Ordained As Minister Of Kilmany, Fife Shire. In ...

Thomas Charles
Charles, Thomas Welsh Nonconformist Divine, Was Born At Longmoor, Cartharthenshire, On Oct. 1755, And Educated At Jesus College, Oxford, For The Church. He Was Ordained Priest In 1782, And Held Some Curacies In Somersetshire, But He Resigned These In 1783 And Returned To Wales. He Had Fallen Under The Influence ...

Thomas Chatterton
Chatterton, Thomas ,1752-1770), English Poet, Was Born At Bristol On Nov. 20, 1752, Three Months After The Death Of His Father, Who Had Been Master Of The Pile Street Free School, At Bristol. In 176o Chatterton Was Sent To The Colston Free School Where He Stayed For Eight Years. But ...

Thomas Chenery
Chenery, Thomas (1826-1884), English Scholar And Editor Of The Times, Was Born At Barbados And Educated At Eton And Caius College, Cambridge. Having Been Called To The Bar. He Went Out To Constantinople As The Times Correspondent Just Before The Crimean War, And It Was Under The Influence There Of ...

Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin
Chamberlin, Thomas Chrowder American Educator And Geologist, Was Born At Mattoon, Ill., On Sept. 25, 1843. He Graduated At Beloit College In 1866 (a.b.) And Returned To The College In 1873 As Professor Of Geology, Serving Also As Assistant State Geologist Of Wisconsin Until 1876, When He Was Made Chief ...

Thomas Kelly Cheyne
Cheyne, Thomas Kelly (1841-1915), English Bib Lical Scholar, Was Born In London On Sept. 18, 1841. Educated At Merchant Taylor's School And Worcester College, Oxford, He Spent Some Time At Gottingen, Where He Heard Ewald Lecture, And Ac Quired An Outlook On Questions Of Biblical Criticism Then Quite New In ...

Tomasso Ceva
Ceva, Tomasso (1648-1736), Italian Mathematician, Was Born At Milan On Dec. 20, 1648. He Taught Mathematics At The Jesuit College In Milan, And Was A Member Of The Order. While At The Brera College He Co-operated With Saccheri In A Number Of Mathematical Researches. In 1678 Ceva Published Some Work ...

Tscheng Or Tschiang Cheng
Cheng, Tscheng Or Tschiang (ger. Scheng), An Ancient Chinese Wind Instrument In The Nature Of A Primitive Portable Organ, Containing The Principle Of The Free Reed Which Found Appli Cation In Europe In The Accor Dion, Concertina, And Harmonium. In Shape The Cheng Resembles A Closed Teapot To The Top ...

Ultimate Organic Analysis
Ultimate Organic Analysis The Limited Number Of Elements (carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulphur, Halogens And Occasionally Phosphorus And Some Metals) Employed By Nature In Building Up Her Vast Store Of Organic Compounds Would Suggest That The Analyses Of Such Substances Are Simple Operations, And This Is True In So Far ...

Ulysse Chevalier
Chevalier, Ulysse French Bibliog Rapher, Was Born At Rambouillet On Feb. 24, 1841. He Published A Great Number Of Documents Relating To The History Of Dauphine, E.g., The Cartularies Of The Church And The Town Of Die (1868), Of The Abbey Of St. Andre-le-bas At Vienne (1869), Of The Abbey ...

United States
United States. New York, Amer. Inst. Of Chemists; Chemists Club (1898), Percolator, Yearbook; Amer. Leather Chemists Assoc. (1903), Journ.; Amer. Electrochem. Soc. (1902), Bull. (monthly) ; Ann Arbor, Mich. Amer. Soc. Of Biolog. Chem. (1906), Bourn. Of Biol. Chem. Brooklyn, Soc. Of Chem. Indust. (1894), Chemistry And Industry; Ann. Rept. ...

University Of Chicago
Chicago, University Of, An American University, In Chicago, Opened In 1892, Privately Endowed, Co-educational, Non-sectarian, Although One-third Of Its 3o Trustees Must Be Baptists. Its Presidents Have Been William Rainey Harper (sept. 16, 189o—jan. 1o, 1906), Harry Pratt Judson (feb. 20, 1907—jan. 9, 1923), Ernest Dewitt Burton (july 12, 1923—may ...

Varsity
Varsity (spelled Staccato) Var-si-t ', Rah, Rah, Rah ! The Cheer Of The United States Naval Academy Is An Imitation Of A Nautical Syren. The Amherst Cheer Is: Besides The Cheers Of Individual Institutions There Are Some Common To All, Generally Used To Compliment Some Successful Athlete Or Popular Professor. ...

Vincenzo Di Biagio Catena
Catena, Vincenzo Di Biagio (c. Venetian Painter, A Descendant Of An Old Venetian Family, And Not The Same Person As The Artist Vincenzo Da Treviso, With Whom He Was At One Time Erroneously Identified. Catena Probably Studied In Giovanni Bellini's Studio In Venice During The Last Decades Of The 15th ...

War Censorships
War Censorships The Outbreak Of The World War In 1914 Necessitated Censor Ships From A Purely Military Point Of View In All Belligerent Coun Tries, To Deal With (1) Postal Communications; (2) Telegrams And Wireless Communications; (3) Printed Publications. With (3) We Have Already Dealt Above. ...

Way
Way, An American Railroad Extending From Chicago Westward And Southward. It Dates From A Special Act Of The Illinois State Legislature, Approved Feb. 27, 1847, And Amended Jan. 27, 1851. Construction Began In Chicago Oct. 1, 1851, And The First Train Ran From Chicago To Joliet, Ill., A Distance Of ...

Willa Sibert Cather
Cather, Willa Sibert ), American Author, Was Born At Winchester, Va., On Dec. 7, 1876 And As A Child Of Eight Or Nine Was Taken To A Nebraska Ranch. After Her Graduation From The University Of Nebraska In 1895, She Taught English In The Allegheny High-school, Worked On The Pittsburgh ...

William Cave
Cave, William English Divine, Was Born At Pickwell, Leicestershire. He Was Educated At St. John's Col Lege, Cambridge, And Successively Held The Livings Of Islington (1662), Of All-hallows The Great, Thames Street, London And Of Isleworth In Middlesex (1690). Dr. Cave Was Chaplain To Charles Ii. And In 1684 Became ...

William Caxton
Caxton, William (c. 1422-1491), The First English Printer, Was Born Somewhere In The Weald Of Kent. The Name, Which Was Apparently Pronounced Cauxton, Is Identical With Causton, The Name Of A Manor In The Parish Of Hadlow. The Date Of Caxton's Birth Was Arbitrarily Fixed In 1748 By Oldys As ...

William Chamberlayne
Chamberlayne, William English Poet, Died On July Ii, 1679. Nothing Is Known Of His History Ex Cept That He Practised As A Physician At Shaftesbury In Dorset Shire, And Fought On The Royalist Side At The Second Battle Of Newbury. His Works Are: Pharonnida (1659), A Verse Romance In Five ...

William Channing
Channing, William Ellery(178o-184 2) , Can Divine And Philanthropist, Was Born In Newport (r.i.), April 7, 1780. Channing Seemed To Have Inherited From His Father Sweetness Of Temper And Warmth Of Affection, And From His Mother That Strong Moral Discernment And Straightforward Rectitude Of Purpose And Action Which Formed Striking ...

William Chappell
Chappell, William (18o9-1888), English Writer On Music, A Member Of The London Musical Firm Of Chappell And Co., Was Born On Nov. 20, 1809, Eldest Son Of Samuel Chappell (d. 1834), Who Founded The Business. William Chappell Deserves Remembrance For Having Started The Musical Antiquarian So Ciety In 1840 And ...

William Cheselden
Cheselden, William English Surgeon, Was Born At Somerby, Leicestershire, On Oct. 19, 1688. He Studied Anatomy In London Under William Cowper (1666-1709), And In 1713 Published His Anatomy Of The Human Body. He Became Surgeon At St. Thomas's And St. George's Hospitals, London. Cheselden Is Famous For His "lateral Operation ...

William Chillingworth
Chillingworth, William English Divine And Controversialist, Was Born At Oxford In Oct. 1602. In June 1618 He Became A Scholar Of Trinity College, Oxford, And Was Made A Fellow Of His College In June 1628. He Was Persuaded By A Jesuit Propagandist To Embrace Catholicism And Went To Study At ...

William Merritt Chase
Chase, William Merritt American Painter, Was Born At Franklin, Ind., On Nov. 1, 1849. He Was A Pupil Of B. F. Hays In Indianapolis, Of J. O. Eaton In New York And Of A. Wagner And Piloty In Munich. In New York He Estab Lished A School Of His Own, ...

William Of Champeaux
Champeaux, William Of (c. 1070-1121), French Scholastic, Was Born At Champeaux Near Melun. After Studying Under Anselm Of Laon And Roscelin, He Taught In The Cathedral School Of Paris, Where He Opposed Roscelin And Had Abelard As A Pupil. In 1103 He Became A Canon Of Notre Dame, But In ...

William Schaw Cathcart Cathcart
Cathcart, William Schaw Cathcart, 1st Earl (1755-1843), English Soldier And Diplomatist, Was Born At Petersham Sept. And Died At His Estate Near Glasgow June 16, 1843. In 1868 He Went To St. Petersburg, Where His Father, The 9th Baron Cathcart (1721-76), Was Ambassador. Suc Ceeding To The Barony In 1776 ...

Ysis
Ysis; And Hydrogen Ions, Determination Of.) Neutralization Of Acids By Bases.—in The Neutralization Of An Acid By The Gradual Addition Of A Base, The Essential Reaction Consists In The Combination Of Hydrogen Ions With Hydroxyl Ions Until The Concentration Of Both Reaches The Value For Pure Water, Viz., Gram-equivalents Per ...

Zachariah Chandler
Chandler, Zachariah American Politician, Was Born At Bedford, N.h., On Dec. 1o, 1813. In He Removed To Detroit, Mich., Where He Became A Prosperous Dry-goods Merchant. He Took A Prominent Part As A Whig In Politics, And, Impelled By His Strong Anti-slavery Views, Actively Furthered The Work Of The "underground ...