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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 7, Part 2: Damascus to Education in Animals

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Sir Howard Douglas
Douglas, Sir Howard, Bart. British General, Younger Son Of Admiral Sir Charles Douglas, Was Born At Gosport In 1776. He Was Commissioned Second Lieutenant In The Royal Artillery In 1794. In 1795 He Was Shipwrecked While In Charge Of A Draft For Canada, And Lived With His Men For A ...

Sir James Douglas
Douglas, Sir James (1803-1877), Canadian Adminis Trator, Was Born On June 5, 1803, In Lanarkshire, Scotland, Where He Was Educated. In 182o He Went To Canada, And Four Years Later Became The Organizer Of The Property Of The Hudson's Bay Com Pany West Of The Rockies. In 1830 He Was ...

Sir James Eric Drummond
Drummond, Sir James Eric ), First Secretary-general Of League Of Nations, Half-brother Of The 15th Earl Of Perth, Was Educated At Bedford Grammar School And Eton, And Entered The British Foreign Office In April 1900. Later He Became Private Secretary To The Prime Minister, Mr. Asquith, To Sir Edward Grey, ...

Sir John Thomas Duckworth
Duckworth, Sir John Thomas British Admiral, Was Born At Leatherhead, Surrey, On Feb. 28, 1748, And Entered The Navy In 1759. He Shared In The Three Days' Naval Engagement In Which The Brest Fleet Was Defeated (june I, 1794), And Received A Gold Medal And The Thanks Of Parliament. In ...

Sir Robert Dudley
Dudley, Sir Robert (1573-1649), Titular Duke Of Northumberland And Earl Of Warwick, English Explorer, Engineer And Author, Was The Son Of Robert Dudley, Earl Of Leicester (q.v.), The Favourite Of Queen Elizabeth. His Mother Was Lady Doug Las Sheffield, Daughter Of Thomas, First Baron Howard Of Effing Ham. Leicester, Who ...

Sir Robert Kennaway Douglas
Douglas, Sir Robert Kennaway English Orientalist, Was Born In Devon. In 1858 He Became At Tacked To The Chinese Consular Service. Seven Years Later He Returned To England And Was Made Assistant In Charge Of The Chinese Library In The British Museum And, In 1893, Keeper Of The Oriental Books ...

Sir Rufane Shaw Donkin
Donkin, Sir Rufane Shaw British Soldier, Son Of Robert Donkin (d. 1821), Joined The Army At The Age Of 14. He Was Divisional Commander In Hastings' Operations Against The Mahrattas (1817-18), Receiving The K.c.b. As His Reward. From 182o To 1821 He Administered The Cape Of Good Hope With Success, ...

Sir William Drury
Drury, Sir William 2 7-15 79 ), English Statesman And Soldier, Was A Son Of Sir Robert Drury Of Hedgerley, Bucks., And Grandson Of Another Sir Robert Drury (d. 1536), Who Was Speaker Of The House Of Commons In 1495. He Was Born At Hawstead, Suffolk, On Oct. 2, 1527, ...

Sir William Dugdale
Dugdale, Sir William (1605-1686), English Anti Quary, Was Born At Shustoke, Near Coleshill, Warwickshire, On Sept. 12, 1605. He Married At 17, And Lived With His Wife's Family Until His Father's Death In 1624, When He Went To Live At Fillongley, Near Shustoke, An Estate Formerly Acquired For Him By ...

Sir William Of Douglas
Sir William Of Douglas (d. I298), Called "le Harai," Archi Bald's Grandson, First Formally Assumed The Title Of Lord Of Doug Las. He Gave A Grudging Allegiance To John De Paliol, And Swore Fealty To Edward I. In 1291; But When The Scottish Barons Induced Baliol To Break His Bond ...

Sir Wyndham Rowland Dunstan
Dunstan, Sir Wyndham Rowland (1861 ), C.m.g. (1913), K.c.m.g. (1924), English Scientist, Was Born At Chester On May 24, 186 I . He Was Director Of The Imperial Institute, London, From 1903 To 1924. Dunstan Wrote Many Chem Ical Papers, Notably On The Pharmacology Of The Alkaloids, And On The ...

Stanislas Charles Henri Laurent
Dupuy De Lome, Stanislas Charles Henri Laurent (1816-1885), French Naval Architect, The Son Of A Retired Naval Officer, Was Born At Ploemeur, Near Lorient, On Oct. 15, 1816. He Entered The Ecole Polytechnique In 1835, And In 1842 Was Sent To England To Study And Report On Iron Ship Building. ...

Stephen Arnold Douglas
Douglas, Stephen Arnold Ameri Can Political Leader, Was Born In Brandon, Vt., On April 23, 1813. Left In Infancy To The Care Of A Widowed Mother And A Bachelor Uncle, He Became A Cabinet-maker's Apprentice In Middlebury And Brandon. He Attended Schools At Brandon And Canandaigua, N.y., And Began The ...

Studies And Tests
Studies And Tests Pupil-administration Is One Of The Fields In Which This Science Has Been Productive. It Was Discovered That A Great Many Pupils Make Progress Through The School More Slowly Than Is Normally To Be Expected. If Pupils Enter The First Grade Of The Elementary School At Six Years ...

Sun In The
Sun In The 20th Century A.d. We Omit Those Eclipses Which Are Visible Only In Polar Regions Or Are Of Excessively Short Duration. The First Column Gives The Date Of The Eclipse, The Next The Duration Of Totality, The Third The Node Near Which The Eclipse Occurs And The Number ...

Synod Of Dort
Dort, Synod Of. An Assembly Of The Reformed Dutch Church, With Deputies From Switzerland, The Palatinate, Nassau, Hesse, East Friesland, Bremen, Scotland And England, Called To Decide The Theological Differences Existing Between The Arminians (or Remonstrants) And The Calvinists (or Counter-remonstrants), Was Held At Dort Or Dordrecht (q.v.) In 1618 ...

Synthetic Dyes
Dyes, Synthetic. Synthetic Or Artificial Dye-stuffs, Also Known As Coal-tar Dye-stuffs, Artificial Colouring Matters, Ani Line Dyes, Like Those Of Natural Origin, Are Complex Compounds Of Carbon In Association With Other Elements, More Especially With Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen Or Sulphur. They Belong To The Class Of Organic Substances Included In ...

Tary Education
Tary Education). Since The Beginning Of The Present Century There Has Been Great Development In Elementary Education, And Consolidation Of The Whole System. Teachers' Salaries Have Been Placed On A Satis Factory Basis And Pensions Put On A Proper Footing; The Whole Curriculum Has Been Modernized And Rendered More Elastic, ...

Tem
Tem). Microscopically The Spleen,hias A Fibro-elastic Coat In Which In Voluntary Muscle Is Found (fig. 2) . This Coat Sends Fine Trabeculae Into The Organ, Subdividing It Into Minute Compartments, In Which The Red, Highly Vascular, Spleen Pulp Is Contained. This Pulp Con Tains Small Spherical Masses Of Adenoid Tissue ...

Tering
Tering, Part Of The Penalty Anciently Ordained In England For Treason. Until 187o The Full Punishment For The Crime Was That The Culprit Be Dragged On A Hurdle To The Place Of Execution ; That He Be Hanged By The Neck But Not Till He Was Dead ; That He ...

The Age Of The
The Age Of The Earth The Only Theory Of The Origin Of The Earth That Has Hitherto Survived Quantitative Test Is The Tidal Theory. (see Cosmogony.) This Implies That The Earth Condensed From A Filament, Newly Ejected From The Sun Under The Gravitational Attraction Of A Large Star Passing Close ...

The Duke Endowment
Duke Endowment, The, An American Charity Fund Established By James B. Duke By Indenture Dated Dec. 11, 1924. The Administration Of The Fund Is Vested In A Self-perpetuating Board Of 15 Trustees. The Initial Gift By Duke Somewhat Exceeded $40,000,00o In Value. Of This Amount Up To $6,000,000 Was To ...

The Dukeries
Dukeries, The, A District In The North-west Of Notting Hamshire, England, Forming Part Of Sherwood Forest (q.v.). The Name Was Taken From The Existence Of Several Adjacent Demesnes Of Noblemen, And The Character Of The Forest Is To Some Extent Preserved Here. On The North Is The Lincoln, Retford, Worksop, ...

The Dutch East India
Dutch East India Company, The (oostindisc/ie Vereenigde Maatschappij), A Body Founded By A Charter From The Netherlands States-general On March 20, 1602. It Had A Double Purpose : First To Regulate And Protect The Already Considerable Trade Carried On By The Dutch In The Indian Ocean, And Then To Help ...

The Dutch West India
Dutch West India Company, The (de Wes Tindisciie Compagnie), A Company Founded By Letters-patent From The Netherlands States-general Dated June 3, 1621. The Purpose For Which The Company Was Formed Was To Regulate And Protect The Contraband Trade Already Carried On By The Dutch In The American And African Possessions ...

The Earth Inductor Compass
Earth Inductor Compass, The, Is Related To The Ordinary Magnetic Compass (q.v.) Only In Its Use Of The Earth's Magnetic Lines As The Directive Force. There Is No Physical Simi Larity Between The Two Types Of Compass. The Earth Inductor Com Pass Comprises Three Principal Units. That Which Reacts With ...

The Earths Thermal History
The Earth's Thermal History The Primitive Earth Was Presumably Very Thoroughly Stirred Up. But The Heavy Metallic Constituents Refused To Mix With The Rocky Ones And Quickly Settled To The Centre To Form The Core. At Some Stage During The Solidification The Granitic And Basaltic Layers Sep Arated From The ...

The Eastern Question
Eastern Question, The. The Expression Used In Di Plomacy From About The Time Of The Congress Of Verona (18 2 2) To Comprehend The International Problems Involved In The Impending Dissolution Of The Turkish Empire. Its Use In This Narrow Sense Is Due To The Conditions In Which It Was ...

The Factors Which Affect
The Factors Which Affect Animals So Far We Have Considered The Surroundings Of Animals From A Broad Point Of View, In Order To Reach A General Orientation About Them. It Is Necessary Now To Go A Stage Farther And Try To Analyze These General Habitats (e.g., "the Alpine Zone," "an ...

The Letter E Of
The Letter E Of The Alphabet. The Fifth Letter Of The Alphabet, Answers To Semitic %, Greek F Or ' , Latin E. Forms In Use At Corinth Were Or B. The Lydian Form Was A And There Was An Alternative Form I I In Use In The Faliscan And ...

The Modern National Drama
The Modern National Drama The Literary Influence, Which Finally Transformed The Growths Noticed Above Into The National Dramas Of Europe, Was That Of The Renaissance. Among The Remains Of Classical Antiquity Which Were Studied, Translated And Imitated, Those Of The Drama Neces Sarily Held A Prominent Place. They Now Became ...

The Requirements Of A
The Requirements Of A Drawing Even More Practice And Observation Are Necessary To Catch The Movement Which Is Also One Of The Fundamental Appeals Of Good Draughtsmanship. First It Must Be Understood That There Is Movement In Everything. Trees, When Well Drawn, Seem To Show How Through Years They Have ...

The Structure Of Animal
The Structure Of Animal Communities An Enormous Amount Of Work Has Been Done Upon The Food Habits Of Animals, But Scarcely Half-a-dozen Pieces Of Research Upon The Food-relations Of A Whole Community. The Complete Food Cycle For A Community Has Only Been Worked Out In One Or Two Cases (very ...

The Thymus Gland
The Thymus Gland The Thymus Is A Light Pink Gland, Consisting Of Two Unequal Lobes, Which Lies In Front Of The Pericardium And Great Vessels ; It Also Extends Up Into The Root Of The Neck To Within A Short Distance Of The Thyroid Gland. It Continues To Grow Until ...

The Thyroid Gland
The Thyroid Gland The Thyroid Body Or Gland Is A Deep Red Glandular Mass Consist Ing Of Two Lobes Which Lie One On Each Side Of The Upper Part Of The.trachea And Lower Part Of The Larynx; These Are Joined Across The Middle Line By The Isthmus Which Lies In ...

The United States Bureau
Education, The United States Bureau Of, Established By Congress As An Independent Department Of The Gov Ernment In 1867 And In 1869 As A Bureau In The Department Of The Interior, Is The Principal Agency In The United States For Educa Tional Research, Statistics, Investigation And General Dissemination Of Information ...

Theodore Dreiser
Dreiser, Theodore (1871 ), American Author, Was Born At Terre Haute, Ind., On Aug. 27, 1871. He Attended The Public Schools At Warsaw, Ind., And For A Brief Period Indiana University. He Then Went Into Newspaper Work In Chicago, St. Louis And Pittsburgh. He Began Writing For Various Periodicals, Engaged ...

Theodore William Dwight
Dwight, Theodore William (182 ), Amer Ican Jurist And Educator, Cousin Of Theodore Dwight Woolsey And Of Timothy Dwight, Was Born July 18, 1822, In Catskill, New York. He Graduated At Hamilton College In 184o And Studied Law For One Year At Yale. After Tutoring At Hamilton And Teaching Law ...

Theophilus Eaton
Eaton, Theophilus (c. 1 S9o-1658), English Colonial Governor In America, Born At Stony Stratford, Buckinghamshire, About 1 S9o, Settled In London, Where He Joined The Puritan Con Gregation Of The Rev. John Davenport. The Pressure Upon The Puritans Increasing, Eaton, Who Had Been One Of The Original Patentees Of The ...

Thomas Alva Edison
Edison, Thomas Alva (1847-1931), American In Ventor, Born At Milan, O., Feb. I 1, 1847, Of Dutch Ancestry On His Father's Side And Scottish On His Mother's. His Education Was Limited To Three Months In The Public School Of Port Huron, Mich. At 12 He Became A Railroad Newsboy And ...

Thomas Cochrane Dundonald
Dundonald, Thomas Cochrane, Ioth Earl Of (1775-1860), British Admiral, Was Born At Annsfield, Lanarkshire, On Dec. 14, 1775. He Was The Son Of Archibald Cochrane, 9th Earl A Most Ingenious, But Also Most Unfortunate, Scientific Speculator And Inventor, Who Was Before His Time In Sug Gesting And Attempting New Processes ...

Thomas Drummond
Drummond, Thomas (1797-1840), British Inventor And Administrator, Was Born At Edinburgh, On Oct. Io, 1797, And Was Educated At The High School There. He Was Appointed To A Cadetship At The Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, In 1813 ; And In 1815 He Entered The Royal Engineers. In 1820 He Received ...

Thomas Dudley
Dudley, Thomas (15 76-j 653 ), British Colonial Gover Nor Of Massachusetts, Was Born In Northampton, England, In 1576, Possibly A Member Of The Elder Branch Of The Family To Which Robert Dudley, Earl Of Leicester, Belonged. He Was The Son Of A Country Gentleman Of Some Means And High ...

Thomas Duncan
Duncan, Thomas (1807-1845), Scottish Portrait And Historical Painter, Was Born At Kinclaven, Perthshire, On May 24, 1807, And Died At Edinburgh, May 25, 1845. He Was A Pupil Of Sir William Allan. His Most Famous Pictures Are : "prince Charles Edward And The Highlanders Entering Edinburgh After The Battle Of ...

Thomas Grey
Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess Of Dorset (145 Ii 50 0) , Was The Elder Son Of Sir John Grey, 7th Lord Ferrers Of Groby (1432-61), By His Wife, Elizabeth Woodville, Afterwards Queen Of Edward Iv. He Fought For Edward At Tewkesbury; In He Was Created Marquess Of Dorset. After The ...

Thomas Grey_2
Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess Of Dorset (1477-1530), The Eldest Son Of The Ist Marquess, Fled To Brittany With His Father In 1484. He Spent Some Years In Prison Under Henry Vii., But Was Highly Favoured By Henry Viii., Who Gave Him Command In France In 1512, And In 1523 Made ...

Timothy I Dwight
Dwight, Timothy (i 7 5 7) , American Divine, Writer, And Educationalist, Was Born At Northampton (mass.), May 14, 17 5 2. His Father, Timothy Dwight, A Merchant, Was A Graduate Of Yale ; His Mother, Mary, Was The Third Daughter Of Jonathan Edwards. After His Graduation From Yale In ...

Toru Dutt
Dutt, Toru (1856-1877), Indian Poetess, Was Born In Calcutta On March 4, 1856, And Died There Of Tuberculosis On Aug. 3o, 1877. She Was The Youngest Child Of Govin Chunder Dutt, Member Of A Distinguished Christian Family In Bengal Who Were Noted For Their Poetical Gifts. Toru Visited Europe With ...

Training Of Nurseryschools
Schools ; Universities ; Elementary Education ; Secondary Education ; Classical Education ; Polytechnics ; Physical Culture; Commercial Education ; Education And Industry; Technical Education ; Workers' Education ; Adult Educa Tion ; Examinations ; Teachers, Training Of ; Nursery Schools ; Kindergarten ; Montessori System ; Co-educa Tion ; ...

Treaty Of Dover
Dover, Treaty Of. A Secret Treaty Concluded On May 22, 167o Between Charles Ii. Of England And Louis Xiv. Of France, Whereby Charles Ii. Agreed To Embrace The Roman Catho Lic Faith And The King Of France To Assist Him In This With A Large Sum Of Money And The ...

Tubulidentata
Tubulidentata To The Order Tubulidentata Belongs The Aard-vark (q.v.) Or African Ant-bear, Orycteropus, Representing The Family Oryctero Podidae, Which Was Formerly Associated With The American Eden Tates And The Scaly Ant-eaters Because, Feeding On Termites, It Has A Longish Snout, A Long, Extensile Tongue, A Small Gape, No Teeth In ...

United States
United States Educational Associations Of Teachers For Mutual Improvement And For The Advancement Of The Profession Were Formed Very Soon After Education Became An Established Policy Of The United States And A System Of Training Instituted Through The Interest And Vision Of Such Leaders As Horace Mann And Henry Barnard. ...

Urbanization Depopulation
Depopulation, Urbanization, Housing, Usury, Cost Of Living, Luxury, Trade Cycle, Profiteering. There Is A Group Of Articles Relating To Industrial And Commercial Combinations Under The Headings Trusts, Combines, Combina ...

Vagrancy Law
Law, Vagrancy, Workhouse, Charity, Unemployment, Ing System, Slum And Poverty Line. Under Insurance Arti ...

Victor Henri Joseph Brahain
Ducange, Victor Henri Joseph Brahain (1783-1833), French Novelist And Dramatist, Was Born On Nov. 24, 1783, At The Hague, Where His Father Was Secretary To The French Embassy. Dismissed From The Civil Service At The Restora Tion, Victor Ducange Became One Of The Favourite Authors Of The Liberal Party, And ...

Viscount
Viscount (c. 1649-1689), Scottish Soldier, Was The Elder Son Of Sir William Graham And Lady Madeline Carnegie. Educated At St. Andrews University, He Served As A Volunteer In France And Holland, Returning To England In 1677. In 1678 He Became A Lieutenant, And Soon Afterwards Captain Of A Troop, In ...

Wilhelm Heinrich Guillaume Henri
Dufour, Wilhelm Heinrich (guillaume Henri) (1787-1875), Swiss General, Was Born At Constance, Of Genevese Parents Temporarily In Exile, On Sept. 15, 1787. He Studied At The Ecole Polytechnique In Paris, Served In The French Army, And Returned To Switzerland After 1815. He Became Chief Instructor At The Military School At ...

William Drummond
Drummond, William (1585-1649), Called "of Haw Thornden," Scottish Poet, Was Born At Hawthornden, Near Edin Burgh, The Son Of John Drummond, First Laird Of Hawthornden. Drummond Received His Early Education At The High School Of Edinburgh, And Graduated In July 1605 As M.a. Of The Recently Founded University Of Edinburgh. ...

William Du Bois Duddell
Duddell, William Du Bois British Electrical Engineer, Was Born In 1872. Because Of His Delicate Health Duddell Was Educated At Cannes, And As A Child He Showed Signs Of Great Mechanical Ingenuity. He Served His Apprenticeship As An Engineer At Colchester. In 1893 He Went To The City And Guilds ...

William Dunbar
Dunbar, William (c. 1460c. 152o), Scottish Poet. He Became M.a. At St. Andrews In 1479 And Afterwards Joined The Order Of Observantine Franciscans, At St. Andrews Or Edin Burgh, Proceeding To France As A Wandering Friar. He Spent A Few Years In Picardy, And Was Still Abroad When, In 1491, ...

William Dyce
Dyce, William (1806-1864), Scottish Painter, Was Born Sept. 19, 1806, In Aberdeen, Where His Father, A Fellow Of The Royal Society, Was A Physician Of Some Repute. He Attended Marischal College, Aberdeen, Took The Degree Of M.a. At 16 Years Of Age, And Studied In The School Of The Royal ...

William Eaton
Eaton, William (1764-1811), American Soldier, Was Born In Woodstock, Conn., On Feb. 23, 1764. He Was A School Teacher For Several Years, Graduated At Dartmouth College In 179o, And In 1792 Entered The Army As A Captain, Later Serving Against The Indians In Ohio And Georgia. In 1797 He Was ...

William Henry Drummond
Drummond, William Henry Cana Dian Poet, Was Born At Mohill In Co. Leitrim, Ireland, The Son Of An Officer In The Royal Irish Constabulary, Who Emigrated With His Family To Canada In About 1864. In 1869 Drummond Obtained Work As A Telegraph Operator At Bord-a-plouffe On The Riviere Des Prairies ...

Wills Hill Downshire
Downshire, Wills Hill, 1st Marquess Of (1718 ), Son Of Trevor Hill, 1st Viscount Hillsborough, Was Born At Fairford In Gloucestershire On May 3o, 1718. He Became A Member Of Parliament In 1741. In 1751 He Was Created Earl Of Hillsborough In The Irish Peerage, And In 1756 A Peer ...

Wyatt Eaton
Eaton, Wyatt (1849-1896), American Portrait And Figure Painter, Was Born At Philipsburg, Canada, On May 6, He Was A Pupil Of The Schools Of The National Academy Of De Sign, New York, And In 1872 Went To Paris, Where He Studied In The )?cole Des Beaux-arts Under J. L. Gerome. ...