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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 9, Part 1: Extraction to Gambrinus

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Fenugreek
Fenugreek, In Botany, Trigonella Foenum-graecum (so Called From The Name Given To It By The Ancients, Who Used It As Fodder For Cattle), A Leguminous Herb Similar In Habit And In Most Characters To Species Of Medicago. The Leaves Are Formed Of Three Obovate Leaflets, The Middle One Of Which ...

Feoffment
Feoffment, In English Law, During The Feudal Period, The Usual Method Of Granting Or Conveying A Freehold Or Fee (see Fief And Fee). The Essential Elements Were Livery Of Seisin (de Livery Of Possession), Which Consisted In Formally Giving To The Feoffee On The Land A Clod Or Turf, Or ...

Ferae Naturae
Ferae Naturae, The Name Given To Wild, As Dis Tinguished From Domestic Animals, Including Game, Deer, Etc. Which Are Not Regarded As Legal Property Unless Confined. A Per Son Having Such In His Possession Is Responsible For Any Damage Caused By Them. Certain Rights May Be Obtained By The Owner ...

Ferdinand Fabre
Fabre, Ferdinand (183o-1898), French Novelist, Was Born At Bedarieux, In Herault, A Very Picturesque District Of The South Of France, Which He Made Completely His Own In Literature. He Was Brought Up By His Uncle, The Abbe Fulcran Fabre, At Camplong Among The Mulberry Woods. Of His Childhood And Early ...

Ferdinand Foch
Foch, Ferdinand (1851-1929), French Marshal, Was Born At Tarbes On Oct. 2, 1851. His Father's Family Had Long Been Settled In The South Of France, Leaving The District Of Ariege In The I 7th Century To Establish Themselves As Woollen Manufac Turers In The Small Town Of Valentine Where They ...

Ferdinand I
Ferdinand I. (1793-1875), Emperor Of Austria, Eldest Son Of Francis I. And Of Maria Theresa Of Naples, Was Born At Vienna On April In His Boyhood He Suffered From Epilep Tic Fits, But As His Health Improved He Was Not Excluded From The Succession. In 183o His Father Caused Him ...

Ferdinand Ii
Ferdinand Ii. (1578-1637), Roman Emperor, Was The Eldest Son Of Charles, Archduke Of Styria (d. 1590), And A Grand Son Of The Emperor Ferdinand I. Born At Gratz On July 9, 1578, He Was Trained By The Jesuits, Finishing His Education At The Uni Versity Of Ingolstadt, And Became The ...

Ferdinand Iii
Ferdinand Iii. (1608-1657), Roman Emperor, Was The Elder Son Of The Emperor Ferdinand Ii., And Was Born At Gratz On July 13, 1608. Educated By The Jesuits, He Was Crowned King Of Hungary In December 1625, And King Of Bohemia Two Years Later, And Soon Began To Take Part In ...

Ferdinand Iii_2
Ferdinand Iii. (1199-1252), El Santo, Or "the Saint," King Of Castile, Son Of Alphonso Ix. Of Leon, And Of Berengaria, Daughter Of Alphonso Viii. Of Castile, Ranks Among The Greatest Of The Spanish Kings. The Marriage Of His Parents, Who Were Second Cousins, Was Dissolved As Unlawful By The Pope, ...

Ferdinand Iii_3
Ferdinand Iii. (1769-1824), Grand Duke Of Tuscany, And Archduke Of Austria, Second Son Of The Emperor Leopold Ii., Was Born On May 6, 1769. On His Father Becoming Emperor In 1790, He Succeeded Him As Grand Duke Of Tuscany. Ferdinand Was One Of The First Sovereigns To Enter Into Diplomatic ...

Ferdinand Ii_2
Ferdinand Ii. (1469-1496), King Of Naples, Was The Grandson Of The Preceding, And Son Of Alphonso Ii. Alphonso Abdicated In His Son's Favour In 1495, On The Approach Of Charles Viii. Of France. Ferdinand Was Unable To Defend The City, Where Viii. Of France. Ferdinand Was Unable To Defend The ...

Ferdinand Ii_3
Ferdinand Ii., King Of Leon Only (d. I188), Was The Second Son Of Alphonso Vii. And Of Berenguela, Of The House Of The Counts Of Barcelona. On The Division Of The Kingdoms Which Had Obeyed His Father (1157), He Received Leon, Which He Ruled For 3o Years. During The Minority ...

Ferdinand Ii_4
Ferdinand Ii. (1810-1859), Nicknamed King Bomba, King Of The Two Sicilies, Son Of Francis I., Was Born At Palermo On Jan. 12, 181o. In 1832 He Married Cristina, Daughter Of Victor Emmanuel I., King Of Sardinia, And Shortly After Her Death In 1836 He Took For A Second Wife Maria ...

Ferdinand Iv Iii
Ferdinand Iv. (iii. Of Sicily, And I. Of The Two Sicilies) (1751-1825), King Of Naples, Third Son Of Don Carlos Of Bourbon (afterwards Charles Iii. Of Spain), King Of Naples And Sicily, Was Born In Naples On Jan. 12, 5 1. When His Father Ascended The Spanish Throne In Ferdinand, ...

Ferdinand Iv
Ferdinand Iv., El Emplazado Or "the Summoned," King Of Castile (d. 1312), Son Of Sancho Iv., El Bravo, And His Wife Maria De Molina, Succeeded To The Throne When A Boy Of Six. His Minority Was A Time Of Anarchy. He Owed His Escape From The Violence Of Competitors And ...

Ferdinand I_2
Ferdinand I. Roman Emperor, Was Born At Alcala De Henares On March Io, 15o3, His Father Being Philip The Handsome, Son Of The Emperor Maximilian I., And His Mother Joanna, Princess Of Castile And Aragon. In April 1521 The Emperor Granted To Him The Archduchies And Duchies Of Upper And ...

Ferdinand I_3
Ferdinand I. (1373-1416), King Of Aragon, Called "of Antequera," Was The Son Of John I. Of Castile By His Wife Eleanor, Daughter Of The Third Marriage Of Peter Iv. Of Aragon. As Infante Of Castile Ferdinand Had Played An Honourable Part. When His Brother Henry Iii. Died At Toledo, In ...

Ferdinand I_4
Ferdinand I. , Also Called Don Ferrante, King Of Naples, The Natural Son Of Alphonso V. Of Aragon And I. Of Sicily And Naples, Was Born In 1423. He Succeeded His Father On The Throne Of Naples In 1458, But Pope Calixtus Iii. Declared The Line Of Aragon Extinct And ...

Ferdinand I_5
Ferdinand I. (1345-1383), King Of Portugal, Sometimes Referred To As El Genii! (the Gentleman), Son Of Pedro I. Of Portugal, Was Born On Oct. 31, 1345, At Coimbra And Succeeded His Father In 1367. On The Death Of Pedro Of Castile In 1369, Ferdinand, As Great-grandson Of Sancho Iv. By ...

Ferdinand I_6
Ferdinand I. (1865-1927), King Of Rumania, Was Born Aug. 24, 1865 At Sigmaringen, Prussia, The Second Son Of Prince Leopold Of Hohenzollern-sigmaringen. As Charles I. Had No Son It Was Decided That The Succession Should Be Continued In The Family Of Prince Leopold, And Prince Ferdinand, Charles's Nephew, Became Crown ...

Ferdinand I_7
Ferdinand I. (d. Io65), El Magno Or "the Great," King Of Castile, Son Of Sancho Iii. Of Navarre, Was Put In Possession Of Castile In L028, On The Murder Of The Last Count, As The Heir Of His Mother Elvira, Daughter Of A Previous Count Of Castile. He Married Sancha, ...

Ferdinand V
Ferdinand V. Of Castile And Leon, And Ii. Of Aragon ("the Catholic") (1452-1516), Was The Son Of John Ii. Of Aragon By His Second Marriage With Joanna Henriquez, Of The Family Of The Hereditary Grand Admirals Of Castile, And Was Born At Sos In Aragon On March Io, 1452. His ...

Ferdinand Vi
Ferdinand Vi., King Of Spain , Second Son Of Philip V., Founder Of The Bourbon Dynasty, By His First Mar Riage With Maria Luisa Of Savoy, Was Born At Madrid On Sept. 23, 1713, And Succeeded His Father In 1746. His Father's Second Wife, Elizabeth Farnese, Looked Upon Her Stepson ...

Ferdinand Vii
Ferdinand Vii., King Of Spain (1784-1833), Eldest Son Of Charles Iv., King Of Spain, And Of His Wife Maria Luisa Of Parma, Was Born At The Palace Of San Ildefonso Near Balsam In The Somosierra Hills, On Oct. 14, 1784. On March 17, 1808 He Suc Ceeded To The Throne ...

Ferdinand
Ferdinand Elector And Archbishop Of Cologne, Son Of William V., Duke Of Bavaria, Was Born On Oct.' 7, He Was Educated By The Jesuits At The University Of Ingol Stadt, And In 1595 Became Coadjutor Archbishop Of Cologne. He Became Elector And Archbishop In 1612 On The Death Of His ...

Ferdinando Fair Fax Fairfax
Fairfax Of Cameron, Ferdinando Fair Fax, 2nd Baron (1584-1648), English Parliamentary General, Was Born On March 29, 1584, Son Of. Thomas Fairfax Of Denton (156o-164o), First Baron Fairfax Of Cameron (c. 1627). He Was M.p. For Boroughbridge During The Six Parliaments Which Met Between 1614 And 1629 And Also During ...

Ferdinand_2
Ferdinand, Duke Of Brunswick (1721—i 792) , Prussian General Field Marshal, Was The Fourth Son Of Ferdinand Albert, Duke Of Brunswick, And Was Born At Wolfenbiittel On Jan. 12, 1721. In His Twentieth Year He Was Made Chief Of A Newly-raised Brunswick Regiment In The Prussian Service. He Was Present ...

Ferentino
Ferentino, A Town And Episcopal See Of Italy, Province Of Frosinone (anc. Ferentinum, To Be Distinguished From Ferentum Or Ferentinum In Etruria), 48 M. E.s.e. By Rail From It. Pop. 6,487 (town) 14,622 (commune). It Is Picturesquely Situated On A Hill 1,290 Ft. Above Sea-level, And Still Possesses Considerable Remains ...

Ferentum Or Ferentis
Ferentum Or Ferentis, An Ancient Town Of Etruria, About 6 M. N. Of Viterbo And 31 M. E. Of The Via Cassia. It Was The Birthplace (a.d. 32) Of The Emperor Salvius Otho, Was De Stroyed In The 11th Century, And Is Now Entirely Deserted. It Occupied A Ridge Running ...

Feretory
Feretory, In Architecture, The Enclosure Or Chapel Within Which The Shrine Or Bier-shaped Tomb Was Placed. Ferghana, (i) A Range Of Mountains In Asiatic Russia, Branching Off About Lat. 41° N. And Long. 75° E. From The Tian Shan Range, And Rising To Altitudes Of 12,000 Feet Or More. (2) ...

Fergus Falls
Fergus Falls, A City Of Western Minnesota, U.s.a., 170m. N.w. Of Minneapolis, On The Red River Of The North; The County Seat Of Otter Tail County. It Is Served By The Great Northern And The Northern Pacific Railways, And By Motor Bus Lines. The Population Was 7,581 In 1920 (7o% ...

Feringhi Or Feringhee
Feringhi Or Feringhee, An Asiatic Term For A European Originally Used In A Purely Geographical Sense (persian, Farangi, Frank) But Now Generally Carrying A Hostile Significance. The Combatants On Either Side During The Indian Mutiny Called Each Other Feringhies And Pandies. ...

Fermanagh
Fermanagh, A County Of Ireland, In The Province Of Ulster, Bounded North-west By Donegal, North-east By Tyrone, East By Monaghan, And South To West By Cavan And Leitrim. The Area Is 417,912 Ac., Or About 653 Sq. Miles. The County Lies Chiefly In The Basin Of The Erne, Which Divides ...

Fermats Last Theorem
Fermat's Last Theorem, A Statement Which Is Famous In The History Of Mathematics, Namely That There Do Not Exist Integers X, Y And Z, None Of Which Being Zero, Which Satisfy X"-+-y'z=z" (i) A Being A Given Integer > 2. It Was First Given By Fermat Who Wrote, About The ...

Fermentation
Fermentation. Fermentation Seen In The Making Of Bread, In Wine Making And Brewing Is The Classical Example Of The Change Brought About In Materials Containing Starch Or Sugar, By The Action Of Yeast. In The Case Of Wine Making, Brewing And The Making Of Bread, The Fundamental Chemical Changes Are ...

Fermo
Fermo, A Town And Archiepiscopal See Of The Marches, Italy (anc. Firmum Picenum), Province Of Ascoli Piceno, On A Hill With A Fine View, 1,046 Ft. Above Sea-level, On A Branch From Porto S. Giorgio On The Adriatic Coast Railway. Pop. (1931) (commune). The Summit Of The Hill Was Occupied ...

Fermoy
Fermoy, Market Town Of Co. Cork, On The River Blackwater, 21 M. N.e. Of Cork By Road. Pop. Of Urban District (1926), 4,510. It Is A Centre For Salmon And Trout Fishing. Trade Is In Flour And Agricultural Produce. The Glen Of Araglin Was Once Noted For Its Ironworks. ...

Fern
Fern, A Name Often Used To Denote The Whole Botanical Class Of Pteridophyta, Including Both The True Ferns, Filicales, By Far The Largest Group Of This Class In The Existing Flora, And The Fern Like Plants, Equisetales, Lycopodiales, Etc. (see Pteridophyta). Fernald, Merritt Lyndon ), Ameri Can Botanist, Was Born ...

Fernandina
Fernandina, A City Of Florida, U.s.a., 36m. N.e. Of Jacksonville, On Amelia Island (22m. Long By I To *n. Wide) ; A Port Of Entry And The County Seat Of N Assau County. It Is Served By The Seaboard Air Line Railway And By Steamers. The Population Was 3,078 In ...

Fernando De Noronha
Fernando De Noronha (fernao De N.), An Island In The South Atlantic, 125m. From The Coast Of Brazil To Which Country It Belongs, In S., 32°25' W. It Is About 7m. Long And 12m. Wide, And Some Other Islets Lie Adjacent To It. Its Surface Is Rugged, And It Contains ...

Fernando Po Or Fernando
Fernando Po Or Fernando Poo, A Spanish Island On The West Coast Of Africa, In The Bight Of Biafra, About 20 M. From The Mainland, In 3° I 2' N. And 8° 48' E. It Is Of Volcanic Origin, Related To The Cameroons System Of The Adjacent Main Land, Is ...

Fernie
Fernie, A Town In The East Kootenay District Of British Columbia. Pop. (1931) 2,732. It Is On The Crow's Nest Branch Of The Canadian Pacific Railway And On The Canadian National Railway At The Junction Of Coal Creek With The Elk River, And Has Extensive Coal Mines. There Are About ...

Ferozepur Or Firozpur
Ferozepur Or Firozpur, A Town And District Of British India, In The Punjab. The Town Is A Railway Junction, And Is Situated About 4 M. From The Present South Bank Of The Sutlej. Pop. (1931) 64,634. The Arsenal Is The Largest In India, And Ferozepur Is The Headquarters Of A ...

Ferozeshah
Ferozeshah, A Village In The Punjab, India, Notable As The Scene Of One Of The Chief Battles In The First Sikh War. The Battle Immediately Succeeded That Of Mudki, And Was Fought On Dec. 21 And 22, 184 5. During Its Course Sir Hugh Gough, The British Commander, Was Over-ruled ...

Ferrabosco Or Ferabosco
Ferrabosco Or Ferabosco, The Name Of A Family Of Musicians Of Italian Origin Settled In England In The 16th Century. The Father, Domenico Maria (1513-1574) Was Choirmaster At Bologna And At The Basilicana Vaticana, Rome, And Then A Singer In The Papal Chapel. He Wrote Madrigals And Motets. His Son ...

Ferrara
Ferrara, A City And Archiepiscopal See Of Emilia, Italy, Capital Of The Province Of Ferrara, 3o M. N.n.e. Of Bologna, Situated 3o Ft. Above Sea-level On The Po Di Vomano, A Branch Channel Of The Main Stream Of The Po, Which Is 31 M. N. Pop. (town), 115,883 (commune). The ...

Ferrels Law
Ferrel's Law Is To The Effect That "if A Body Moves In Any Direction On The Earth's, Surface, There Is A Deflecting Force Arising From The Earth's Rotation, Which Deflects It To The Right In The Northern Hemisphere And To The Left In The Southern Hemisphere." This Law Was Enunciated ...

Ferrers
Ferrers, The Name Of A Great Norman-english Feudal House, Derived From Ferrieres-st.-hilaire, To The South Of Bernay, In Normandy. Its Ancestor Walkelin Was Slain In A Feud During The Conqueror's Minority, Leaving A Son Henry, Who Took Part In The Conquest And Held A Great Fief In The Midlands. He ...

Ferret
Ferret, A Domesticated Breed Of The Wild Polecat (putorius Foetidus), Which It Resembles In Size, Form And Habits, And With Which It Interbreeds. It Differs In The Colour Of Its Fur, Which Is Usually Yellowish-white, And Of Its Eyes, Which Are Pinky-red. He "polecat-ferret" Is A Brown Breed, Apparently The ...

Ferroconcrete
Ferroconcrete. Ferro-concrete Or Reinforced Con Crete Is A Combination Of Fine Concrete With Embedded Steel Bars Adapted To Structural Purposes. The Concrete Element Is An Arti Ficial Stone-like Material Of Excellent Durability Which Offers Great Resistance To Crushing Or Compressive Stress, But Has Relatively Small Tensile Strength. Mild Steel Bars, ...

Ferrol
Ferrol, A City Of North-west Spain, Province Of Corunna; 41 M. By Rail N.e. Of The City Of Corunna; On The Bay Of Ferrol, An Inlet Of The Atlantic Ocean. Pop. Ferrol Ranks With Cartagena And San Fernando, Near Cadiz, As One Of The Principal Naval Stations Of Spain. The ...

Ferromagnetism
Ferromagnetism, The Kind Of Magnetism Associated With Iron, Nickel, Cobalt, Alloys Of These Metals, Some Compounds Of Iron, And Some Compounds And Alloys Of Manganese. These Substances Are The Ferromagnetic Substances And Exhibit Marked Magnetic Properties; E.g., They Are Easily Magnetized; They Acquire A High Value Of Magnetization In Extremely ...

Ferrule
Ferrule, A Small Metal Cap Or Ring Holding Parts Of A Rod, Etc., Together, Or Giving Strength To Weakened Materials, Or Espe Cially, When Attached To The End Of A Stick Or Umbrella, For Pre Venting Wearing Or Splitting (fr. Virole From Lat. Diminutive Viriae, Bracelets, Cf. Also Lat. F ...

Ferry
Ferry, A Place Where Boats Ply Regularly Across A River Or Arm Of The Sea For The Conveyance Of Goods And Persons. In Law The Right Of Ferrying Persons Or Goods Across A Particular River Or Strait, And Of Exacting A Reasonable Toll For The Service, Belongs, Like The Right ...

Fertility And Fecundity
Fertility And Fecundity. Fertility Is The Power To Beget Living Offspring; Fecundity That Of The Individual To Pro Duce Functional Gametes (marrying Cells, Sex-cells, In The Higher Animals' Ova And Sperms). The Reproductive Rate Of A Mating Or Of A Generation Is Determined Both By The Fecundity Of The Indi ...

Fertilization
Fertilization. Before The Eggs Of Most Animals And Plants Can Begin Their Development It Is Necessary That They Should Unite With Specialized Cells Derived From The Body Of A Male Organism. This Union Is The Essential Characteristic Of Ferti Lization. In All Higher Animals And In All Flowering Plants The ...

Fertilizers
Fertilizers. The Words Fertilizer And Manure Denote Any Substance That Increases The Productiveness Of The Soil, But In Scientific Agricultural Literature The Word Fertilizer Is Confined To Materials Prepared Artificially That Supply Nutrients To The Plant, The Word Manure Being More Generally Applied To Sub Stances Like Farmyard Manure And ...

Fescennia
Fescennia, An Ancient City Of Etruria, Probably Imme Diately North Of The Modern Corchiano, 6 M. N.w. Of Civita Castellana (see Falerii). At Corchiano Itself, However, Etrus Can Walls May Be Traced, And The Site Is Strong—a Triangle Be Tween Two Deep Ravines, With The Third Side Cut Off By ...

Fescennine Verses
Fescennine Verses, Fescennini Versus, Carmina Fes Cennina, A Native Italian Form Of Poetry. At Vintage (virgil, Georg., Ii. 385) And Harvest (horace, Epp., Ii. 1, 139), Probably At Other Rustic Festivals Also (cf. Tibullus, Ii. 1, 51), Masked Dan Cers Sang Jocular Dialogues In Verse. Similar Songs Were In Use ...

Fescue
Fescue, The Name Given To The Numerous And Widely Dis Tributed Perennial Grasses Of The Botanical Genus Festuca, Found Chiefly In Temperate And Cold Regions, Among Which Are Several Pasture And Fodder Grasses Of Agricultural Importance. The Most Important Of These Is The Tall Or Meadow Fescue (f. Elatior) Common ...

Fessa
Fessa, A Town And District Of Persia In The Province Of Fars. The Town Is Situated In A Fertile Plain In 29° N. And 90 M. From Shiraz. The District Comprises Forty Villages And Extends About 4o M. North-south From Runiz To Nasirabad And 16 M. East-west From Vasilabad To ...

Fesse
Fesse, One Of The Ordinaries In Heraldry Consisting Of A Hori Zontal Band Across The Centre Of The Shield. See Heraldry. ...

Festiniog Or Ffestiniog
Festiniog Or Ffestiniog, A Town Of Merionethshire, North Wales, Beautifully Situated At The Head Of The Festiniog Valley, 600 Ft. Above Sea Level. Pop. Of Urban District There Are Important Slate Quarries In The Neighbourhood, Especially At Blaenau Festiniog, The Junction Of The L.m.s. And G.w.r. With A Narrow-gauge Line ...

Festoon
Festoon, An Ornament Developed From The Representation Of A Garland Of Leaves, Fruit Or Flowers, Cloth Or Ribbon, Supported At Two Or More Points And Hanging In Curves Between. The Festoon Appears Occasionally In Late Greek Work, Particularly As A Decora Tion For Hellenistic Altars, But It Was The Romans ...

Festus
Festus (? Rufus Or Ruf Rus), One Of The Roman Writers Of Breviaria (epitomes Of Roman History). The Fact That He Refers To The Defeat Of The Goths At Noviodunum (a.d. 369) By Valens, But Is Unaware Of The Con Stitution Of Valentia As A Province (which Took Place In ...

Fete Nationale
Fete Nationale, An Annual National Holiday In France Held On July 14 In Commemoration Of The Fall Of The Bastille. A Second Fete Nationale Is Held On Sept. 22, Commemorating The Establishment Of Republican Government. ...

Fetishism
Fetishism, An Ill-defined Term, Used In Many Different Senses: (a) The Worship Of Inanimate Objects, Often Regarded As Peculiarly African; (b) Negro Religion In General; (c) The Worship Of Inanimate Objects Conceived As The Residence Of Spirits Not Inseparably Bound Up With, Nor Originally Connected With Such Objects; (d) The ...

Fettercairn
Fettercairn, Burgh Of Barony And Parish, Kincardine Shire, Scotland, 42 M. N.w. Of Laurencekirk. Pop. Of Parish 1,087. The Market Cross Originally Belonged To The Ex Tinct Town Of Kincardine. There Is A Large Distillery Near The Town. Balbegno Castle, Dating From 1509, Contains A Lofty Hall Of Fine Proportions. ...

Fetters And Handcuffs
Fetters And Handcuffs, Instruments For Securing The Feet And Hands Of Prisoners Under Arrest, Or As A Means Of Punishment. The Old Names Were Manacles, Shackbolts Or Shackles, Gyves And Swivels. Until Within Recent Times Handcuffs Were Of Two Kinds, The Figure-8 Ones Which Confined The Hands Close To Gether ...

Feu De Joie
Feu De Joie. French, Meaning Literally A Bonfire, Or Fire Of Joy. A Discharge Of Musketry Into The Air, With Blank Am Munition, Made In Honour Of Some Great Occasion And Usually Forming Part Of A Salute. It Is Carried Out By Men Firing In Rapid Succession Along A Line ...

Feu
Feu, In Scotland, The Common Mode Of Land Tenure. The Word Is The Scots Variant Of "fee" (q.v.). The Feudal System Still Dominates Scots Conveyancing, But Its Forms Are Now Extensively Modified By The Titles To Land (consolidation) (scotland) Act 1868, The Conveyancing (scotland) Act 1874, The Conveyancing (scotland) Act ...

Feud
Feud, Animosity, Hatred, Especially A Permanent Condition Of Hostilities Between Persons, And Hence Applied To A State Of Private Warfare Between Tribes, Clans Or Families, A "vendetta." ...

Feudalism
Feudalism (from Late Lat. Feodum Or Feudum, A Fee Or Fief ; See Fee). In Every Case Of Institutional Growth In History Two Things Are To Be Distinguished From The Beginning For An Understanding Of The Process And Its Results. One Of These Is The Change Of Conditions In The ...

Feuilleton
Feuilleton, Originally A Kind Of Supplement Attached To The Political Portion Of French Newspapers. Its Inventor Was Ber Tin The Elder, Editor Of The Debats. It Was Usually Separated From The Political Part Of The Newspaper By A Line, And Printed In Smaller Type. In French Newspapers It Consists Chiefly ...

Fever
Fever, A Term Generally Used For Conditions In Which The Normal Temperature Of The Animal Body Is Raised For Any Length Of Time. This Normal Varies In Different Animals, And In Man Is 98.4°. When The Temperature Reaches Io6° In Man The Term Hyperpyrexia (excessive Fever) Is Applied. The Patient's ...

Fez
Fez (fas), Capital Of Northern Morocco. Its Historical Im Portance As Much As The Numbers And The Wealth Of Its Population Entitle Fez To Be Called The Real Centre—religious, Political And Economic—of The Shereefian Empire. It Lies In 34° 6' 3" N., 4° 38' 15" W., About 23o M. N.e. ...

Fezzan
Fezzan (the Ancient Phazania, Or Country Of The Gara Mantes) (see Ghadames), A Region Of The Sahara, Forming Nomi Nally The Southern Part Of The Italian Colony Of Tripolitania, Though It Is Not Yet Effectively Occupied. The General Form Of The Country Is Determined By The Ranges Of Hills, Including ...

Fiars Prices
Fiars Prices, In The Law Of Scotland, The Average Prices Of Each Of The Different Sorts Of Grain Grown In Each County, As Fixed Annually By The Sheriff, Usually After The Verdict Of A Jury; They Serve As A Rule For Ascertaining The Value Of The Grain Due To Feudal ...

Fiasco
Fiasco, Originally A Flask Or Bottle, And By Derivation, Prob Ably In The Sense Of Breaking, Used Figuratively Of A Breakdown Or Failure In A Dramatic Performance Or Other Undertaking. ...

Fiat Fabbrica Italiana Automobili
Fiat (fabbrica Italiana Automobili To Rino), Italian Motor Car Company Was Founded In The Original Car Was Specially Designed To Cope With Mountain Condi Tions In Northern Italy, And Gave Great Satisfaction In This Con Nection For Reliability And Durability. The Fiat Cars Subsequently Won Numerous Successes In Road And ...

Fiat Money
Fiat Money, Irredeemable Money Issued And Made Legal By Government Order (fiat) But Not Secured By A Gold Or Silver Or Other Adequate Reserve. It Is Usually Paper But May Also Con Sist Of Coins Of Baser Metals Whose Metallic Content Is Worth Far Less Than Their Face Value. The ...

Fibres
Fibres, The General Term For Certain Structural Components Of Animal And Vegetable Tissue Utilized In Manufactures, And In Respect Of Such Uses, Divided For The Sake Of Classification Into Textile, Paper-making, Brush And Miscellaneous Fibres. ...

Fichtelgebirge
Fichtelgebirge, A Mountain Group Of Bavaria, Form Ing The Centre From Which Various Mountain Ranges Radiate—the Elstergebirge, Linking It To The Erzgebirge, In A North-east, The Frankenwald In A North-west, And The Bohmer Wald In A South East Direction. The Streams Which Rise Here Are The Eger And The Saale, ...

Ficksburg
Ficksburg, A Town In The Orange Free State, Near The Caledon River And Basutoland Border; Altitude 5,347 Ft.; Pop. 1921), 2,027 Whites, 1,295 Natives. It Is Situated On The Main Railway Line From Natal To Bloemfontein. The Town Does A Large Trade With Basutoland. The Surrounding District Of Ficksburg Is ...

Fiddle
Fiddle, A Popular Term For The Violin, Derived From The Names Of Certain Of Its Ancestors. The Word Has First Been Traced In 1205 In Layamon's Brut (7002), "of Harpe, Of Salteriun, Of Fithele And Of Coriun." In Chaucer's Time The Fiddle Was Evidently A Well-known Instrument : For Him ...

Fideicommission
Fideicommission, The Name Given In Roman Law To A Provision Made By A Testator Directing His Heir Or Legatee To Enter On The Inheritance And Subsequently Denude Wholly Or Partially In Favour Of A Third Party. It Was Introduced Formally In The Time Of Augustus, Previously Having Had No Legal ...

Fidenae
Fidenae, An Ancient Town Of Latium, Situated About 6 M. North Of Rome On The Via Salaria. It Was For Some While The Frontier Of The Roman Territory And Was Often In The Hands Of Veii Being Of Importance Owing Both To Its Command Of The Road, And To The ...

Fidentia
Fidentia, Formerly Borgo San Donnino, A Town And Episcopal See Of Emilia, Italy, Province Of Parma, 14 M. N.w. By Rail From That Town. Pop. (1931) Town, 10,071; Commune, 17,154. It Occupies The Site Of The Ancient Fidentia, On The Via Aemilia And Resumed Its Name Very Recently. Here M. ...

Fiduciary Accounting
Fiduciary Accounting, That Branch Of Accounting Pertaining To The Accounts Of One Who Undertakes To Act In A Fiduciary Capacity, And, In General, Any Trustee Who Manages The Affairs Of A Beneficiary. The Fiduciary Must Account To A Court Of Competent Jurisdiction In The Form And Manner Prescribed, If Any. ...

Fiduciary Issue
Fiduciary Issue. This Term Refers To That Portion Of A Note Issue, Whether That Of A Government Or Of A Bank, Which Is Not Protected By A Specific Backing Of Metal Or Coin Or Assets Capable Of Being Converted Into Coin Or Bullion On Demand. Thus, Where No Metallic Reserve ...

Fiduciary
Fiduciary, A Term Derived From Roman Law And Used In Those Foreign Codes Which Have Been Chiefly Influenced Thereby. The Idea, But Hardly The Law, Corresponds With The English Trustee. (see Trust.) Many Relations Give Rise To Fiduciary Obligations, And Are Even Treated As Occasioning Trust Obligations; E.g., Parent And ...

Fief
Fief, A Feudal Estate In Land, Land Held From A Superior (see Feudalism). The Word Is The French Form, Which Is Represented In Mediaeval Latin As Feudum Or Feodum, And In English As "fee" Or "feu" (see Fee) . The A.fr. F Eo Ff Er, To Invest With A Fief ...

Field Artillery
Field Artillery, Light Guns Suitable For Active Opera Tions In The Field (o.fr. Artiller, To Arm). Field Artillery Forms The Bulk Of The Artillery With An Army; Its Main Tasks Are To Assist The Other Arms, Such As Infantry And Tanks, To Close With The Enemy, To Give Covering Fire, ...

Field Day
Field Day, A Name Given In The United States To A Group Picnic Organized By Large Institutions. City Schools, Trade Organ Izations, Corporations Employing A Large Number Of Workers And City Departments Such As The Police, Make A Practice Of Devoting A Part Or The Whole Of A Day In ...

Field Of The Cloth
Field Of The Cloth Of Gold, The Name Given To The Place Between Guines And Ardres Where Henry Viii. Of Eng Land Met Francis I. Of France In June 152o. Before The Castle Of Guines A Temporary Palace, Covering An Area Of Nearly 12,000 Sq. Yd., Had Been Erected For ...

Field
Field, Open Country As Opposed To Woodland, And Partic Ularly Land For Cultivation Divided Up Into Separate Portions By Hedges, Banks, Stone Walls, Etc. (ger. Feld, Dutch Veld, From The Gr. Root Rxaros, Broad). The Word Is Applied To A Region With Particular Reference To Its Products, As Oil-field, Gold-field, ...

Fieldfare
Fieldfare, Furdus Pilaris, One Of The Thrushes And A Com Mon Winter Visitor To The British Isles. In Spring It Nests In Scandinavian And Russian Birch-forests, Migrating To Southern Europe, Western Asia And Northern Africa In Winter. It Is Gre Garious In Habit And Somewhat Resembles The Missel Thrush (t. ...

Fieldmouse
Fieldmouse (apodemus), The Designation Of Such Mouse Like British Rodents As Are Not True Or "house" Mice. (see Mouse And Vole.) ...

Fiesco De
Fiesco (de' Fieschi), Giovanni Luigi (c. 1523— 1547), Count Of Lavagna, Was Descended From One Of The Greatest Families Of Liguria, First Mentioned In The Loth Century. He Married Eleonora Cibo, Marchioness Of Massa, In 1540, A Woman Of Great Beauty And Family Influence. The Fiesco Belonged To The French ...

Fiesole
Fiesole (anc. Faesulae, Q.v.), A Town And Episcopal See Of Tuscany, Italy, Province Of Florence; It Is 3 M. N.e. Of The Town Of That Name By Electric Tramway. Pop. (1931) Town, 5949. Commune 11,433. It Is On A Hill With Two Summits 97o Ft. Above Sea-level, And Commands A ...