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Encyclopedia Britannica

I Area Of Trapezette
I. Area Of Trapezette In Terms Of Ordinates 7. A Trapezette Is A Figure Of The Kind With Which We Are Familiar As The Graph Of A Continuously Varying Positive Function. It Is Bounded By A Base, Two Sides, Called The Bounding Ordinates, And An Upper Boundary Which Is A ...

I Mole
Mole, (i) A Small Animal Of The Family Talpidae (see Below), (2) A Mark, Or Stain, And Particularly A Dark-coloured Raised Spot On The Human Skin. This Word, O.e. Mcil, Is Probably Cognate With Lat. Maculus, Spot. Its Meaning Of Stain Is Seen In The Cor Rupted Form "iron-mould," Properly ...

I The Origins Of
I. The Origins Of Mass Production In Origin Mass Production Is American And Recent ; Its Earliest Notable Appearance Falls Within The First Decade Of The 20th Cen Tury. The Mere Massing Of Men And Materials Is A Procedure As Old As The Pyramids. Basic Industries, Like Weaving, Domestic Baking, ...

Icle
I.c.l.e.) Which Was Formed In 1921 With A Large Capital Sub Scribed By Italians At Home And Abroad To Finance Italian Settle Ment In Foreign Countries. The Japanese Government Subsidizes Emigration Societies And Assistance Towards Migration Is Also Af Forded Or Is In Contemplation By The Governments Of Some Of ...

Ii Modern Medicine
Ii. Modern Medicine The Dawn Of Modern Medicine.—the Factors That Produced The Progressive Medicine Of The 16th Century Were Excessively Complex. Among Them Were Certainly The Invention Of Printing, The Enlargement Of The World By Exploration, The Revived Knowl Edge Of Greek, The Questioning That Arose Through Religious Differences. All ...

Ii Moments Of Trapezette
Ii. Moments Of Trapezette 20. The Moments Of A Trapezette With Regard To A Line L Parallel To Its Ordinates Are Defined On The Same Principle As The Moments Of A Lamina. Let L Be At A Distance X From The Axis Of U. We Suppose The Area To Be ...

Ii Transport Of Materiel
Ii. Transport Of Materiel Lorries Are Not Specialized For The Transport Of Materiel. The Same Type Is Employed As For Troops, And Therefore The Organiza Tion Is Similar. A Lorry-group Capable Of Moving A Battalion Of Infantry Can Alternatively Move I Oo Tons Of Materiel. Experience In The World War ...

Iii Intensive Traffic On
Iii. Intensive Traffic On The Roads The Route Gardee.—for The Organized Employment Of Auto Mobiles On The Roads, Like That Of Railway Trains, The Essential Condition Is To Be Master Of The Road. If All And Sundry Are Per Mitted To Put Columns Of Troops Or Vehicles On A Road, ...

Iii The Baghdad Offensive
Iii. The Baghdad Offensive Great Developments Took Place On The Anglo-indian Line Of Communications, And At The Base, During The Summer. A Reason Able Amount Of Heavy Artillery Was Gradually Accumulated. An Additional Division Arrived From India. Landing Facilities At The Ports Were Vastly Improved. A Change, Moreover, Took Place ...

Iii The Effects Of
Iii. The Effects Of Mass Production But It Is Not The History And Principle Of Mass Production Which Provoke The Widest Discussions ; The Effects Of It Have Been Placed Under Scrutiny. What Have Been The Effects Of Mass Production On Society? (1) Beginning With Management, Where Unquestionably Mass Production ...

Il 1494 1554 Moretto
Moretto, Il (1494-1554), Italian Painter Of The Brescian School. His Real Name Was Alessandro Bonvicino. He Was Probably Born At Brescia, And Was A Pupil Of Fiorante Ferramola, A Bres Cian Follower Of Foppa. It Has Been Said That Moretto's Works Display The Influence Of Titian, Of Raphael, And Of ...

Il The Principles Of
Il The Principles Of Mass Production As To Shop Detail, The Keyword To Mass Production Is Simplicity. Three Plain Principles Underlie It : (a) The Planned Orderly And Continuous Progression Of The Commodity Through The Shop; (b) The Delivery Of Work Instead Of Leaving It To The Workman's Initia Tive ...

Illuminating Apparatus And Methods
Illuminating Apparatus And Methods Of Illumination The Methods Of Illumination Commonly Used Are Very Varied; Each Method Requires The Proper Apparatus For Its Convenient Ap Plication. The Principles Involved In Some Of The Most Impor Tant Of These, Together With The Apparatus Needed, Are Here Dis Cussed. Aberrations. Immersion Condensers ...

Important Museums And Art
Important Museums And Art Galleries A Short Account Of The Collections, Special Exhibits And Educa Tional Activities Of The More Important Art Museums Of The World Is Given Below. British Museum, The, London, Eng., Has Two Main Divisions— The Library And The Departments Of Antiquities. The Library Of Printed Books ...

Increase 1639 1723 Mather
Mather, Increase (1639-1723), American Congre Gational Minister And Author, Was The Youngest Son Of Richard Mather (q.v.). Born In Dorchester On June 21, 1639, He Gradu Ated At Harvard In 1656. Took His M.a. Degree At Trinity College, Dublin, In 1658, And Ministered To Congregations At Great Tor Rington, Devonshire, ...

Independent Mexico
Independent Mexico Mexico Has Had A Turbulent Existence Since Independence. In 1823 The Monarchy Was Repudiated In Favour Of A Republic. From 1823 Until 186o A Bitter Contest Was Waged Between Adherents Of Federalism And Centralism. A Federal Republic Was Definitely Es Tablished In 1857 But Federalism Was On The ...

Inner Structure Of Metals
Inner Structure Of Metals: Problems Of Elastic Failure And Of Fatigue 72. Advances In Experimental Technique Have Made Great Changes In Our Outlook On The Problems Of Elastic Failure And Of Fatigue. In Tests Made For Engineering Purposes, We Have Seen That Resultant Effects, Observed In A Specimen Of Considerable ...

Ivan Mestrovic
Mestrovic, Ivan (1883– ), Yugoslav Sculptor, Was Born At Vrpolje In Slavonia, The Son Of Croatian Peasants. The Rudiments Of His Art Were Taught Him By His Father And At The Age Of 13 He Was Apprenticed To A Marble Cutter At Split (spalato), And Three Years Later Entered The ...

Ivan Stepanovich Mazepa Koledinsky
Mazepa-koledinsky, Ivan Stepanovich (1644?-1709), Hetman Of The Cossacks, Belonging To A Noble Orthodox Family, Was Born Possibly At Mazeptsina, Either In 1629 Or 1644, The Latter Being The More Probable Date. He Was Edu Cated At The Court Of The Polish King, John Casimir, And Com Pleted His Studies Abroad. ...

Jacques De Molay
Molay, Jacques De (d. 1314), Last Grand Master Of The Knights Templars, Was Born At Molay (haute-saone), About The Middle Of The 13th Century. He Entered The Order In 1265 At Beaune In The Diocese Of Autun, And Set Out For The East To Take Part In The Defence Of ...

Jacques Paul 1800 1875 Migne
Migne, Jacques Paul (1800-1875), French Priest And Publisher, Was Born At St. Flour, Cantal, On Oct. 25, I800. He Studied Theology At Orleans, Was Ordained Priest In 1824 And Placed In Charge Of The Parish Of Puiseaux, In The Diocese Of Orleans. In 1833 He Went To Paris, And Started ...

Jakob Ludwig Felix 1809 1847
Mendelssohn-bartholdy, Jakob Ludwig Felix (1809-1847), German Composer, Grandson Of Moses Mendelssohn (q.v.) Was Born In Hamburg On Feb. 3, 1809. His Father, Abraham Mendelssohn, Caused Felix, With His Brother And Two Sisters, To Be Baptized As Lutheran Christians ; And During The French Occupation Of Hamburg The Family Migrated To ...

James 1758 1831 Monroe
Monroe, James (1758-1831), Fifth President Of The United States, Was Born On Monroe's Creek, In Westmoreland County, Virginia, On April 28, 1758. His Father, Spence Monroe, Was Of Scottish, And His Mother, Elizabeth Jones, Of Welsh Descent. At The Age Of 16 He Entered The College Of William And Mary, ...

James 1773 1836 Mill
Mill, James (1773-1836), Historian And Philosopher, Was Born On April 6, 1773, At Northwater Bridge, In The Parish Of Logie-pert, Forfarshire, The Son Of James Mill, A Shoemaker. His Mother, Isabel Fenton, Of A Good Family Which Had Suffered From Connection With The Stuart Rising Of 1745, Sent Him First ...

James Brander 1852 1929 Matthews
Matthews, (james) Brander (1852-1929), American Essayist And Dramatic Critic, Was Born At New Orleans On Feb. 21, 1852, And Educated At Columbia University (a.b., 1871; Ll.b., 1873; A.m., 1874; Ll.d., 1904). Though Admitted To The Bar He Never Practised But Turned To Writing And The Study Of Literature. He Was ...

James Clerk Maxwell
Maxwell, James Clerk British Physicist, Was Descended From The Well-known Scottish Family Of Clerk Of Penicuik, And Was Born At Edinburgh On Nov. 13, 1831. He Was Educated At The Edinburgh Academy The University Of Edinburgh (1847-5o), And At Cambridge. In 1854 He Took His Degree As Second Wrangler, And ...

James Graham Montrose
Montrose, James Graham, Marquess Of (1612 165o), Became 5th Earl Of Montrose (see Above) In 1626. He Was Educated At St. Andrews, And At 17 Married Magdalene Carnegie, Daughter Of Lord Carnegie (afterwards Earl Of Southesk). Not Long After The Outbreak Of The Scottish Troubles In 1637 He Joined The ...

James Scott Monmouth
Monmouth, James Scott, Duke Of Leader Of An Abortive Insurrection Against James Ii. In 1685, Was The Son Of Lucy Walters, Who Became The Mistress Of Charles Ii. During His Exile At The Hague. He Was Born At Rotterdam On April 9, 1649. Charles Always Recognized Him As His Son, ...

James Stuart Murray Or
Murray Or Moray, James Stuart, Earl Of (c. 1531-1570), Regent Of Scotland, Was An Illegitimate Son Of James V. Of Scotland By Margaret Erskine, Daughter Of The Earl Of Mar. In 1538 He Was Appointed Prior Of The Abbey Of St. An Drews In Order That James V. Might Secure ...

Jean Baptiste Massillon
Massillon, Jean Baptiste French Bishop And Preacher, Was Born At Hyeres On June 24, 1663, His Father Being A Royal Notary Of That Town. At The Age Of Eighteen He Joined The Congregation Of The Oratory And Taught For A Time In The Colleges Of His Order At Pezenas, And ...

Jean Francois 1814 1875 Millet
Millet, Jean Francois (1814-1875) , French Painter, Who Came Of A Peasant Family, Was Born On Oct. 4, 1814 In The Hamlet Of Gruchy, Near Greville (la Manche). His Boyhood Was Passed Working In His Father's Fields, But The Sight Of The Engravings In An Old Illustrated Bible Set Him ...

Jean Frederic Phelypeaux Maurepas
Maurepas, Jean Frederic Phelypeaux, Comte De (1701-1781), French Statesman, Was Born On April 9, 1701, At Versailles, The Son Of Jerome De Pontchartrain, Secretary Of State For The Marine And The Royal Household. Maurepas Suc Ceeded To His Father's Charge At 14, Began His Functions In The Royal Household At ...

Jean Gabriel Maurice Roques
Montgaillard, Jean Gabriel Maurice Roques, Comte De (1761-1841), French Political Agent, Was Born At Montgaillard, Near Villefranche (haute Garonne), On Nov. 16, 1761. He Was Educated At The Military School Of Soreze, Where He Attracted The Notice Of The Comte De Provence (after Wards Louis Xviii.). In 1789 He Was ...

Jean Louis Ernest Meissonier
Meissonier, Jean Louis Ernest French Painter, Was Born At Lyons On The 21st Of February 1815. He Studied In Leon Cogniet's Studio. He Paid Short Visits To Rome And To Switzerland, And Exhibited In The Salon Of 1831 A Picture Then Called "les Bourgeois Flamands" ("dutch Burgh Ers"), But Also ...

Jean Siffrein Maury
Maury, Jean Siffrein , French Cardinal And Archbishop Of Paris, The Son Of A Poor Cobbler, Was Born On June 26, 1746, At Valreas In The Comtat-venaissin. He Was Edu Cated At The Seminary At Avignon. In 1777 He Published Under The Title Of Discours Choisis His Panegyrics On St. ...

Jean Victor Marie Moreau
Moreau, Jean Victor Marie ) , French General, Was Born At Morlaix In Brittany On Feb. 14, 1763. As A Law Student At Rennes He Formed His Fellow-students Into An Armed Band, Which Took Part In Daily Affrays Between The Young Noblesse And Populace Of The Town. He Served Under ...

Joachim 1767 1815 Murat
Murat, Joachim (1767-1815), King Of Naples, Younger Son Of An Innkeeper At La Bastide-fortuniere (lot), Was Born On March 25, 1767. He Studied Canon Law At Toulouse, But Enlisted In A Cavalry Regiment, From Which He Was Dismissed In 1790 For Insubordination. Through The Good Offices Of J. B. Cavaignac, ...

Johann Tobias 1723 1762 Mayer
Mayer, Johann Tobias (1723-1762), German As Tronomer, Was Born At Marbach, In Wiirttemberg, On Feb. 17, 1723, And Brought Up At Esslingen. A Self-taught Mathematician, He Had Already Published Two Original Geometrical Works When, In 1746, He Entered J. B. Homann's Cartographic Establishment At Nuremberg. Here He Introduced Many Improvements ...

Johann Von 1829 1901 Miquel
Miquel, Johann Von (1829-1901), German States Man, Was Born At Neuenhaus, Hanover, On Feb. 19, 1829, Being Descended From A French Family Which Had Emigrated During The Revolution. He Studied Law At Heidelberg And Gottingen. The Writings Of Karl Marx Converted Him To Socialism; But Though He Entered Into Correspondence ...

Johannes Peter Muller
Muller, Johannes Peter German Physiologist And Comparative Anatomist, Was Born In Coblenz On July 14, 1801. He Studied At Bonn University, Where He Taught From 1824 Until 1833, When He Received The Chair Of Anatomy And Physiology At Berlin. He Died On April 28, 1858. The Appearance Of His Handbuch ...

Johannes Von 1752 1809 Muller
Muller, Johannes Von (1752-1809), Swiss His Torian, Was Born On Jan. 3, 1752, At Neunkirch, Near Schaffhausen, Where His Father Was Pastor. From 1774 To 1780 He Lived At Geneva Where He Produced His Allgemeine Geschichte, A Brilliant Study Of Universal History (not Published Till 1810). In 1780 He Completed ...

John 1838 1914 Muir
Muir, John (1838-1914), American Naturalist And Writer, Was Born At Dunbar, Scotland, April 21, 1838. His Boy Life There And On A Backwoods Farm In Wisconsin Is Delightfully Told In His Story Of My Boyhood And Youth (1913). Although Both Places Increased Muir's Inherent Love Of Nature, He Also Had ...

John Bassett Moore
Moore, John Bassett (186o— ), American Jurist, Was Born At Smyrna, Del., On Dec. 3, 186o. He Graduated At The University Of Virginia In 188o, Studied Law In An Office In Wilming Ton, Del., And Was Admitted To The Delaware Bar In 1883. Two Years Later He Entered The Department ...

John Fletcher Moul Ton
Moulton Of Bank, John Fletcher Moul Ton, Baron , British Lawyer, Was Born At Madeley, Salop, Nov. 18, 1844. Educated At Kingswood School, Bath, And St. John's College, Cambridge, He Was Elected A Fellow Of Christ's College, And In 1874 Was Called To The Bar. He Specialized In Patent Law, ...

John Frederick Denison 1805
Maurice, John Frederick Denison (1805 1872), English Theologian, Was Born At Normanston, Suffolk, On Aug. 29, 1805. He Was The Son Of A Unitarian Minister, And Entered Trinity College, Cambridge, In 1823, Though It Was Then Impossible For Any But Members Of The Established Church To Obtain A Degree. Together ...

John Hunt 1825 1864 Morgan
Morgan, John Hunt (1825-1864), American Confed Erate Soldier, Was Born In Huntsville, Ala., On June 1, 1825, And Was Brought Up Near Lexington, Ky. In The Mexican War He Was A First Lieutenant Of A Cavalry Regiment. On The Outbreak Of The Civil War He Joined The Confederate Army And, ...

John Lothrop Motley
Motley, John Lothrop American Historian, Was Born April 15, 1814, At Dorchester (now A Part Of Boston), Mass., And Graduated At Harvard In 1831. He Then Studied At Gottingen And Berlin, Becoming A Friend Of Bismarck At Gottingen, And After A Period Of European Travel Returned In 1834 To America, ...

John Masefield
Masefield, John, O.m. ), British Poet And Novelist, Was Born In Ledbury And Spent His Youth In Many Coun Tries And Occupations, Serving Before The Mast At Sea, And Earning A Living As Best He Could In America. The Activity Of These Years Was Reflected In His Work From The ...

John Michell
Michell, John English Natural Philosopher And Geologist, Was Born In 1724, And Educated At Queens' College, Cambridge He Was A Fellow Of His College, And Was Appointed Woodwardian Professor Of Geology In 1762, And In 1767 Rector Of Thornhill In Yorkshire, Where He Died On April 29, 1793. He Was ...

John Milton
Milton, John English Poet, Was Born In Bread Street, Cheapside, London, On Dec. 9, 1608. His Father, John Milton Of Bread Street, Scrivener, Was Himself An Interest Ing Man. He Was The Son Of A Staunch Roman Catholic, And Turned Protestant At Oxford, For Which He Was Disinherited. How He ...

In The Franco German War
Battles Around Metz, In The Franco-german War, 1870 Colombey–borny (august 14).—the French Army Under Marshal Bazaine Was In And About Metz. The German I. And Ii. Armies, On The March From The Saar, Were Heading For The Moselle Between Metz And Pont-a-mousson, And On The Morning Of Aug. 14 The ...