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Business Encyclopedia and Legal Adviser

Marine Store Dealers
Marine Store Dealers Are Interested, In Particular, In Certain Sections Of The Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, The Old Metal Dealers' Act, 1861, The Public Health Acts Amendment Act, 1907, And Cer Taintsections Of The Prevention Of Crimes Act, 1871. Section 538 Of The Merchant Ship Ping Act Defines A Marine ...

Market Gardeners
Market-gardeners Have Little Need, In A Work Like The Present One, For A Separate Treatment Of The Law So Far As It Relates To Their Particular Occupn.tion. Under Various Statutes, Such As The Public Health Act, 1875, The Agricultural Rates Act, 1896, And The Extraordinary Tithe Redemption Act, 1896, They ...

Market Overt
Market Overt Has Been Defined Tt.s "an Open, Public., And Legally Constituted Market," And To Such A Market Is Attached That Most Convenient Old Rule Of The Common Law Now Adopted By The Sale Of Goods (q.v.) Act, That A Bona Fide Buyer Therein Of Any Goods And Chattels Other ...

Markets And
Markets And Fairs.—no One Can Establish A Market Or Fair Unless He Has An Authority So To Do Derived From A Charter Or An Act Of Parliament. It Is Now Usual To Obtain A Special Act ; And Such An Act Generally Has Incorporated With It The Provisions Of The ...

Marriage
Marriage Is A Contract Made According To The Forms Prescribed By The Law Whereby A Man And Woman Mutually Agree To Live Together, In Con Jugal Union, During Their Joint Lives. It Is " The Voluntary Union For Life Of One Man And One Woman To The Exclusion Of All ...

Master And
Master And Relation Subsisting Between Master And Servant Is One Created By Contract ; The Master Agrees To Hire The Servant And To Pay Him Wages, And The Servant Agrees To Serve The Master. As A General Rule, Every Person Of The Full Age Of Twenty-one Years, And Not Under ...

Matches
Matches. See Appendix. Medals.—exhibition.—a Penalty Of 125 Is Incurred By Any Trader Who Falsely Represents That He Lias Obtained A Medal Or Certificate For The Exhibi Tions Of 1851 And 1862 In Respect Of Goods Or A Process For Which Medals Or Certificates Were Awarded At Those Exhibitions. For A ...

Medicine
Medicine Stamplicand Licences Are Primarily Imposed And Regulated By Four Several Stamp Acts Of The Reign Of Geor,re Iii., Of The Years 1802, 1803, 1804, And 1812 Respectively. A Licence, Accoihiling To Schedule A Of The Act Of 1804, Must Be Taken Out " By The Owner, Proprietor, Maker, And ...

Meetings Of
Meetings Of Companies.—there Are Six Distinct Classes Of Meet Ings Authorised And Required By The Companies Acts. Thesa Are The Three General Meetings Known As The Statutory, Ordinary, And Extraordinary (q.v.) Meetings Respectively, The Directors' Meetings, And The Meetings Of Creditors And Contributories During The Winding-up Of A Company. The ...

Memorandum Of
Memorandum Of Is The Name Given To The Deed Which, In Effect, Operates A.s Both The Creator And The Charter Of A Company Incorporated Under The Companies Acts. The Memorandum Is The Fundamental And (except In Certain Specified Particulars) The Unalterable Law Of Such A Company ; And The Latter ...

Menial
Menial Servant.—the Derivation Of The Word Menial Has Been Frequently Attempted In The Course Of Judicial Proceeding,s, But With Never A Very Satisfactory Result. A General Definition Of The Terin "menial Servant" Is Perhaps More Easily Arrived At, But An Exact Definition Would Seem To Be Almost Impossible. On The ...

Mercantile
Mercantile Term Is Applied To That Mode Of Regulating, Or Attempting To Regulate, The Foreign Commerce Of A Nation Upon The Principle That The Exports Should Exceed The Imports. The Theory Is That An Excess Of Exports Over Imports Creates A Balance Favourable To The Exporting Nation, Resulting In An ...

Merchandise Marks
Merchandise Marks Are The Subject Of Special Legislation In The Merchandise Marks Acts, 1887 And 1891, Which Have For Their Object The Protection Of Trade-marks And Trade Descriptions. The Two Latter Terms Have Received Precise Definition For The Purposes Of The Acts. Thus The Expression " Trade-mark " Means A ...

Merchants And Owners
Merchant's And Owner's Risk Is A Term Generally Used In Connection With Contracts Of Carriage By Sea, The Term Owner's Risk Beim,. Usually Confined To Contracts Of Carriage By Rail And Deposit With Warehousemen. It Is Introduced In These Contracts In Order To Relieve The Carrier Or Warehouseman From Responsibility ...

Metric System
Metric System Is The Name Given To The System Of Weights And Measures Based Upon The Metre, A French Word Meaning " Measure." Its Adoption In This Country In Place Of The Imperial System Has Had, For Many Years, The Support And Advocacy Of The Leading Interested Classes. The Chambers ...

Mineral Rights
Mineral Rights Duty.—this Duty, Introduced By The Finance (1909-10) Act, 1910, Is Levied On The Rental Value Of All Rights To Work Minerals And Of All Mineral Way-leaves. Itj Is Charged At The Rate Of 5 Per Cent., Or Is. For Every £1, Of That Rental Value. It Is Payable ...

Mines And
Mines And Minerals.—output.—in The United Kingdom During The Year 1908 The Total Output Of Coal Mines Was 261,528,795 Tons. In The Year 1901 The Output Was 219,046,945 Tons. The Average Output Of Mineral From Coal Mines Per Person Employed Anderground Tends To Decrease, The Main Cause Being Found In The ...

Mistake
Mistake Has Been Defined As An Unintentional Act, Omission, Or Error Arising From Ignorance, Surprise, Imposition, Or Misplaced Confidence. It Is Either A Mistake Of Fact Or A Mistake Of Law. As A General Principle The Court Will Not Relieve From The Consequences Of A Mistake If It Is One ...

Monetary
Monetary Latin Union Is Founded Upon A Convention Adhered To By France, Belgium, Greece, Italy, And Switzerland, The Object Being The Establishment Of A Mutual And Uniform Monetary Policy And The Maintenance Of A Uniform And Interchangeable Coinage Of Gold And Silver Based On The French Franc. This Object Is ...

Money Back
Money-back Trading.—a Form Of Trading Which Is Growing In Popularity, Particularly In The United States, Though It Has Not Been Gene Rally Adopted In England, Is Known As " Money-back Trading," The Idea Being That Any Dissatisfied Purchaser May Have The Money He Has Laid Out Refunded To Him Immediately ...

Monthly
Monthly The Words "monthly Statement" Cover A Vast Variety Of Statistics And Statements, Most Attention Is Paid, Commercially, To The Periodical Returns Of This Nature Which Are Submitted To Those Responsible For The Working Of Large Concerns, And Particularly Those Enjoying The Privilege Of Limited Liability. Approximate Balance Sheets May ...

Moses
Moses In Action And In Word Chose Means " Thing," And A Thing May Be Either In The Possession Of Its Owner, Or Out Of His Pos Session. A Sum Of Money Actually In The Possession Of Its Owner Is A Chose In Possession ; But When That Money Is ...

Most Favoured
Most-favoured Nation.—this Term Is Applied To A Clause Very Generally Inserted In Internatioual Commercial Treaties, By Which The Contracting Powers Bind Themselves To Grant To Each Other Whatever Privileges May Be Given By Either To Any Third Power. The Clause Is Found In Two Forms, Or If Not In So ...

Motor Cars
Motor Cars (see Also Article On Light Locomotives In Vol. Iv.).—the Pro Visions Of The Acts Of 1896 And 1903 Are Contained In This And The Previous Article. So, Too, Will Be Found Here The Registration Order, 1903, As To Registration And Licences ; Thelleavy Motor Car Order, 1904, In ...

Motor Delivery For Retailers
Motor Delivery For Retailers : The Use Of The Motor-car For Any Purpose Has Been Of Comparatively Recent Growth, And The Special Development Of Vehicles For Tradhig Purposes Has Been Delayed Owing To The Tendency To Make The Most Of The New Power For Purposes Of Pleasure. For Many Years ...

Motor Trade
Motor Trade : Its Prospects As A Career.—this Article Purposes To Deal With The Motor Trade Solely From The Point Of View Of The Man Who Proposes To Invest Money In It, Or Contemplates Going Into The Business As An Employee Or Salesman. At The Commencement Of The Industry A ...

Motor Vehicles And The
Motor Vehicles And The Commercial Traveller.— Writers On Motor Subjects Indicate The Day When Motor Vehicles Will Largely Solve The Difficulties Of The Commercial Traveller. In The Old Days The Commercial Traveller Did Much Of His Work On The Road, Taking His Samples Round In A Horse-drawn Vehicle, And Of ...

Municipal
Municipal Appointments.—municipal Appointments Are Greatly Sought After, As Are Appointments Under All Public Bodies, For The Reason That They Give Security Of; Tenure, Fair Working Conditions, And Substantial Stipends, And Generally Carry With Them A Superannuation Or Pension. To-day There Are Many Appointments Available In The Local Municipal Service, And ...

Musical Copyright
Musical 'copyright (see Also Article In Vol. Iv.).—owing To The Enormous In Crease In Pirated Music And The Difficulty In Stopping The Sale By Individual Prosecutions, The Law With Regard To Musical Copyright, As It Stood Prior To The Musical Copyright Act, 1906, Was Found Practically Ineffective And Useless. That ...

Musical And Dramatic
Musical And Dramatic Foundation Of The Law Of Copyright In Musical And Dramatic Compositions Was Laid In The Act 8 & 4 Will. Iv. C. 15, Known As Sir Bulwer Lytton's Act, And The Copyright Act, 1842 ; But Afterwards Were Passed The Copyright (musical Compositions) Act, 1882, The Musical ...

Name Day
Name Day Is A Stock Exchange Designation For The Day Preceding The Account Day. Where A Jobber Stands As A Purchaser Of Shares He Must Pass To The Broker, On Name Day, A Ticket Containing The Name Of Some Person, Or Several Persons As The Purchaser Or Purchasers Of The ...

National
National Is The Public Debt Of The Country, Or Rather The Debt Incurred And Owing By The State On Behalf Of The Nation Generally. The Feature Which Particularly Characterises The National Debt, As Distinguished From A Private Debt, Is That Generally The State Has At All Times The Right To ...

Negligence
Negligence May Be Considered As A Test Of Either Civil Or Criminal Liability. As A Test Of Criminal Liability It Need Only Be Pointed Out In This Article That A Gross And Vicious Disregard Of The Particular Interests Of Others Is Not Legally Distinguishable, As A General Rule, From A ...

Negotiable
Negotiable Instruments.—" A Negotiable Instrument," Writes His Honour Judge Willis In His Work On Negotiable Securities, "is One The Property In Which Is Acquired By Any One Who Takes It Bona Fide And For Value, Notwithstanding Any Defect Of Title In The Person From Whom He Took It ; From ...

Neutrality
Neutrality Is The Relation A Nation Bears To Other Nations Which Are At War One With The Other, And Consists Of The Entire Abstinence Of That Nation From Any Participation In The War, And An Impartiality Of Conduct Towards Each Belligerent. This Relation May Have A Material Effect Upon The ...

New
New Trial.—a Party To An Action In The High Court Who Is Dis• Satisfied With The Result May, In Certain Cases, Apply For And Obtain A New Trial. The Application Is To The Court Of Appeal, And Notice Of It Should Be Given To The Other Side Within Eight Days ...

Newspaper
Newspaper Representation.—newspaper Representation On The Outside Is A Field Of Activity Which Somehow Seems To Be Neglected. At All Events It Does Not Always Attract The Right Type Of Men. Newspaper Proprietors Are Constantly Bewailing The Difficulty Of Securing A Representative Who Can Do His Work Tactfully, And Can Be ...

Newspapers
Newspapers And Periodioals.—a Newspaper Is A Publication Containing A Narrative Of Recent Events And Occurrences, Published Regularly At Short Intervals From Time To Time. In The Newspaper Libel And Registration Act, 1881, The Word Newspaper Is Defined As Meaning "any Paper Containing Public News, Intelligence, Or Occurrences, Or Any Remarks ...

Next Friend
Next Friend Is The Name Given To The Person Who Prosecutes Legal Proceedings On Behalf Of A Litigant Infant, Lunatic, Or Other Person Not Sal Juris. He Requires No Order From The Court To So Act, Hut Before His Name Can Be Used In An Action In The High Court ...

Nominally
Nominally, At Least, Every Shop Pursues A Policy Of Always Endeavouring To Please Its Customers, And Although This Policy Is Not Always Carried Out With The Amount Of Enthusiasm That Might Be Desired, It Is Wise Occasionally To Send Out A Letter Asking Customers If There Is Any Complaint That ...

Novation
Novation Is A Term Derived From The Civil Law. It Is Applied When, There Being A Contract Already In Existence, Some New Contract Is Substituted For It,either Between The Same Parties Orbetweendifirent Parties; The Consideration Mutually Being The Discharge Of The Old Contract. Suppose, For Instance, That A. Owes B. ...

Nuisance
Nuisance Is A Les-al Term Signifying An Unlawful Act Or Omission Which Occasions Annoyance, Damage, Or Inconvenience To Others. Nuisances May Either Be Illegal Acts Or Omissions Of Legal Duties. They Are Of Two Kinds- Public Nuisances Which Affect All Persons, And Private Nuisances Which Injure Individuals. Among Public Nuisartces ...

Offensive Trades
Offensive Trades, And " Noxious" Ones, Are The Subject Of Statutory Restriction By The Public Health Act, 1875, A Trade Being Legally An Offensive One Only W Hen The Processes Involved In Its Exercise Are Necessarily Noxious And Are Injurious To Health, Unless It Is A Trade To Which This ...