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Cyclopedia of India, Volume 2

Indo Scythi
Indo-scythi And Indo-scythian Are Terms Employed To Designate Races Who Became Early Occupants Of N.1v. India. The Yuchi, Established In Bactria And Along The Jihun Eventually Bore The Name Of Jeta Or Yetan, That Is To Say, Gates. Their Empire Subsisted A Long Time In This Part Of Asia, And ...

Indore
Indore, A City On The Left Bank Of The Katki, In Malwa, In Lat. 22° 42' N., And Long. 74° 54' E., And 1998 Feet Above The Sea. It Is The Capital Of The Dominions Of The Maharaja Holkar. The State Has An Area Of 8075 Square Miles, And Popula ...

Indra
Indra, The Hindu God Of Thunder, A Personifi Cation Of The Sky, The Chief Of The Devata Or Sum, The Name Being From The Sanskrit Root Id, To Be Glorious (vide Devata). The Attributes Of Indra Correspond To Those Of The Jupiter Pluvius And .lnpitcr Tonans Of The Greeks And ...

Indraprastha
Indraprastha, An Ancient Town Of Pan Dava, Kaurava, And Yadava Times. Its Ruins Are Pointed Out Half-way Between Dehli And The Kutub. Indraprastha, And Dehli Were About Five Miles Apart, The One On The Junaim, And The Other On A Rocky Hill To The S.w. Ini The Interior. In Draprastha ...

Indus
Indus. Sam-po-ho, . . . Chin. Sind'hu, The Adjective Sin-tow, . . . „ Saind'hava, . Sansk. Sinthus, . . . Gr. Sing-ge-chu Or Lion Tsang-po, . . Ladakh. River, . . Tibetan. Aba-sin, . . . . „ Sinh-ka-bab Or Lion's Sindus, . . . . Lat. I Mouth-descended, ...

Induvansa
Induvansa, Also Known As The Lunar Race; A Race Who, In Pre-historic Times, Were Dominant In Northern India. In The Raj Tarringini And Rajaoli, The Induvansa Family Are Shown To Be Descendants Of Pandu, Through His Eldest Son Yudishthra. These Works, Celebrated In Rajwara As Collections Of Genealogies And Historical ...

Infanticide
Infanticide. Kindermord, . . Ger. 1 Infanticidio, . . It., Se. Down To Comparatively Recent Historic Times, The Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Arammans, Syrians, Babylonians. And Even Israelites, And Their Neigh Bours On Both Sides Of The Jordan, Sacrificed Their Children With The Hoped-for Object Of Averting Any Great And Serious Misfortune. ...

Inga Xylocarpa D C
Inga Xylocarpa D. C. Iron-wood. Mimosa Xylocarpa, Brat). Acacia Xylocarpa, Xylia Dolabriformis, Benth. Pyen-ka-do, . . Burn. Jamboo, . . . Hind. Yerool, . . Can., Mans. Eruvaln, . . . Tam. Jamba, . . „ „ Malei Averei, . .. „ ?? Partridge Wood, . . Eng. Tangedu, . ...

Ingouletz
Ingouletz. On Leaving Its Banks And Travel Ling Eastward Over The Steppe, Are To Be Observed Innumerable Tumuli, Which Vary Greatly In Size ; And One Of Unusual Magnitude Is Generally Sur Rounded By Several Of Smaller Dimensions. There Can Be No Doubt That The Larger Tumuli Are Raised Over ...

Inlaid Work
Inlaid Work Is An Art Which Dates From A Remote Period. It Has Been Carried On In Bombay Since The Commencement Of The 19th Century, Having Been Originally Introduced From Hyder Abad In Sind. It Is Said To Have Been Intro Duced Into Sind About Twenty Years Earlier From Persia ...

Inscriptions
Inscriptions. Aufschrift, . . Ger. I Inscripcion, . . . Sr. Inscrizione, . . . . It. We Read In The Old Testament Of Writings, Engravings, Pens, And Books,—in Exodus Xxiv. 7, Xxv. 16, And Mail. 15, 16, At Least 1500 N.c.; In Job Xiii. 26, Xix. 23, 24, Perhaps ...

Insectivora
Insectivora, An Order Of Mammals Which In India Is Represented By Genera Of The Families, Talpidm, Sorecidm, And Erinaceidm. Talpa Mic Rura, Macrura, And Leucura Of Nepal, Sikkim, Sylhet, Tenasserim, And Japan ; Urotrichus Tal Poides Of Japan •, Sorex Cmrulescens, Murinus, Nemorivagus, Griffithii, Serpentarius, Heterodon, Saturatus, Tytleri, Soccatus, Niger, ...

Inundations
Inundations Are Of Frequent Occurrence In India From Rainfalls And From Storm-waves, And Have Been Noticed Under The Headings 'floods' And Cyclones.' The Most Calamitous Have Been From Storm-waves Striking The Coromandel Coast And The Islands At The Delta Of The Ganges. The Cyclones Have Been Examined By Colonel Capper ...

Iran
Iran, A Region To The South - East Of The Caspian Sea, Which Extends For 1280 Miles From Sumeisat On The Upper Euphrates Eastward To Taxila On The Indus, And Nearly 000 Miles In Breadth From The Shores Of Gedrosia, In Rat. 25° N., To The Banks Of The Oxus ...

Iranian Races
Iranian Races, Called Also Indo-atlantics, Also Caucasians, Have Always Been Known For Their Refinement And High Civilisation, From Which Europe Borrowed Through The Byzantine And Greek Culture, And The Persians Have Long And Faithfully Retained The Features Of Its National Characteristics. Though Overrun By The Semitic And Turanian Races, The ...

Irawadi
Irawadi, The Principal River Of Burma And Pegu, Rises In The S. Slopes Of The Patkoi Moun Tains,—one Branch In Lat. 27° 43' N., Long. 25' E., And Another In The Same Hills A Few Days' Journey Farther Eastward. These Two, Known As The Myit-gyi Or Large River, And The ...

Iron
Iron. Mars Of The Alchemists. Ferrum, . . . Lat. Hedeed, . . . Arab. I3asi, Besi, . . Malay. Than, . . . . Bunn. Ahan, . . . . Pers. Tieh, Tee, . . Chin. Zelazo, Pol Jern, . . Dan., Sw. Aos-panah, . . Pusht. Yzer, Jizer, ...

Iron Wood
Iron-wood. Pya Of . . . Anyab. Lignum Ferreum, . Lat. Pieng, . . . „ Sideroxylon, . . „ Jerntraa, . . . . Dan. Pao De Ferro, . . Port. Yserhout, . . Dot. Tverdodrevnik, . . Rus. Bois De Fer, . . . Fr. Naw, . . ...

Irrigation
Irrigation. Wasserung, . . Ger. I Regamiento, . . . It. Befeuchtung, . . „ Generous As The Indian Soils Usually Are And Favourable As Arc The Seasons In The Plains And Valleys Of British India, The Amount Of The Rain Fall, One Year With Another, Varies By Fifty Per ...

Irular
Irular. At The Foot Of The Neilgherry Moun Tains, And For A Short Distance Within The Forests Extending From Their Base Into The Plains, Live A Race Commonly Known By The Name Of Irular. They Are In Two Classes,—one Called Urali, The Other Kurutalei. Iruli Means Unenlightened Or Barbarous, From ...

Isan1
Isan1. Colonel Tod Describes A Lofty Three Peaked Mountain, On Which Is A Temple Dedicated To Aya - Mata, Also Called Isani, The Tutelary Divinity Of The Kol. This And The Effigy Of The Horse Are There The Only Objects Of Adoration Among This Aboriginal Race. This Was The First ...

Isinglass
Isinglass. Loo-pa, . . . Chin. Hausblase, . . . Ger. Yu-kiau, ,; Hausenblase, . . . „ Husblas, . . Sw. Ichthyocolla, . . . Gr. Sounds, Swim, . Eng. Cola Di Peace, , . . It. Air-bag, . . . „ Palogpong . Malay. Swimming Bladder, . „ ...

Ismail
Ismail, Son Of Jafar Sadaq, Was The Seventh Imam Of The Shiah Muhammadan. The Shiah Sect Look On All As The First Rightful Leader Of The .muhamtnadans, And Say Him And His Wife Fatima, Mahomed's Daughter, Have Alone Sprung The Rightful Heirs To The Imamat. In This View, Abubakr, Umar, ...

Ismaili
Ismaili, Also Ismailiah, Are Shiah Sectarians, Who Take Their Name From The Imam Ismail, Son Of The Imam Jafar Sadaq. In Bombay They Are Known As The Khoja Sect. The Ismaili Are The Sect Of The Chief Known To The Crusaders As The Old Man Of The Mountain, The Shnikh-ul-jabl. ...

Isonandra Acuminata
Isonandra Acuminata. Isonandra Cullenii, Drury. I 13. Elliptical, Datzell. Eassia Acuminata, Beth!. Indian Gotta Tree, Eng. I Pashonti, . . Isialeal. Pachonti, . . Tam. Grows In The Forests Of Coorg, The Wyuad, Travancore, And In The Animallay Mountains. It Attains A Height Of 80 Or 90 Feet, And Furnishes ...

Isonandra Gutta
Isonandra Gutta. Hook. Didropsis Gotta, Benth. I Gutta-percha Tree, . Eng. Mazer Wood Tree, . Eng. Taban, Niato, . Malay. The Gutta-percha Tree Is A Native Of The Malay Archipelago, Sumatra, And Borneo. In 1842 The Discovery Was Made That Its Gum Was Suited For An Infinite Number Of Applications ...

It Uomo
Uomo , It. Adam, Turk. Hito, Jar. Zem, Zend. Man, A Derivative Root, Means To Think. From This We Have The Sanskrit Mann, Originally Thinker, Then Man. In The Later Sanskrit We Find Derivatives, Such As Manava, Mti-nusha, Manushya, All Expressing Man. In Gothic We Find Both Man And Mannisks, ...

Ivory
Ivory. Sin-u1-51, . . Arab. Hat'hi Dant, . . Hind. Siang-pi, Chin. Ebure, . . . . It. Filsben , Dan. Gading Banta, . Malay. Elpenbeen, . . Dim Dandan-i-fel, . . Fern. Ivoor, „ Marfim, . . . . Ivorie, . . . Fr. Slonovaza Kost, . Res. Elfenbein, ...

Ivory Carvings
Ivory Carvings Of Different Parts Of India Are Admired For The Elaborateness Of Detail And For The Truth Of Representation. A Set Of Chess Men From Berhampur At The Exhibition Of 1851, Carved From The Drawings In Layard's Nineveh, Were Excellent Representations Of What The Work Men Could Only Have ...

Ivory Palms
Ivory Palms. Palme De Marfil, . Span. I Homers, Indians Of Peru. Ta2,-ua, Indians Of Darien. Pullipunta „ . 91 The Ivory Palms Arc The Phytelephas Macro Carpa And I'. Microcarpa, Trees Of S. America, Between Lat. 9° N. And 8° S., And Long. 70° To 79° W., Inhabiting Damp ...

J Aggery
J Aggery. Kund, . . . . Ahab. Guda, Gura, . Sansk. Coompta Sugar, Bombay. Kara Vellam, . . Tau. Jagan, Cur, Ow., Hind. Nalla Bellum, . . Tel. Unrefined Sugar, Produced By Evaporating The Juices Of Palms, The Cocoanut, The Date, The Caryota Urens, The Nipa Fruticans, Palmyra, And ...

J Ak Un
J Ak Un. The Wild Tribes Inhabiting The Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, And A Few Of The Neighbouring Islands Are Divided Into Three Principal Classes, Which Are Subdivided Into Many Clans. The First Of These Divisions Includes The Bhatta, Who Inhabit The Interior Of Sumatra And A Few Neighbouring Islands. The ...

Jabal
Jabal- Ul - Juda, Aghri Dagh, Or Mount Ararat, The Ararat Of Modern Geographers, In The Province Of Erivan, Is In Height About 16,200 Feet. In The Last Volume Of Cosmos, Humboldt Records The Height Of Demavend At 19,715 Feet, Which Is 1785 Feet Under The Height Attributed To It. ...

Jabalpur Or
Jabalpur Or Jubbulpur, A Town And District In The Central Provinces, Lying Between Lat. 21° 12' And 23° 56' N., And Between Long. 40' And 35' E. During The Minority Of Prem Narain (1550?) The Gond Queen Durgavati Administered The Government; And Asof Khan, The Viceroy Of Kant Manikpur On ...

Jackal
Jackal. The Jackal Is Found In Syria, Arabia, Persia, In All India West Of The Brahruaputra, And Over S.e. Europe. Both The Jackal And The Hymna Are More Or Less Plentiful, Affecting Even The Mountainous Regions To Pretty High Altitudes. Along The Line Of The Ganges, In Lower Bengal, They ...

Jadabillay Tam
Jadabillay. Tam. A Woman's Head Ornament In The Tamil Country. See Jewellery. Jaddi. Maliii. Land Left To Grow Fodder. Jade. Yuh, Chin. I Yashm,sang-i•yashm,pces . . Moncol. Sootash, . . Turk. This Mineral, Called Also Nephrite And Axe-stone, Is Celebrated In China As The Yuh Or Gem Of Gems. It ...

Jaganath
Jaganath, Jaganatha, Vernacularly Jug Gurnath, From Yoganatlia, Lord Of The World, Is A Name Now Especially Applied To Vishnu In The Form In Which He Is Worshipped At The Temple Of Jaganath At Puri In Orissa. All The Land Within 20 Miles Round This Pagoda Is Considered Holy, But The ...

Jahad Arab
Jahad. Arab. A Religious War Of The Muhammadans ; Generally Used To Designate A War Against Other Religionists. It Is Described By The Arabs As Jahad-fi-sabil Allah, A War On The Path Of The Lord. Unprovoked War Is Contrary To The Letter And Spirit Of The Koran ; But War ...

Jahangir
Jahangir. Sam, Eldest Son Of The Emperor Akbar, Succeeded His Father As Emperor Of Dehli, October 1605, And Assumed The Title Of Jahangir, World's Conqueror. He Early Remedied Some Vexatious Laws Which Had Escaped Akhar's Notice, Forbade His Officers Opening Bales Of Merchandise Without The Merchants' Consent, Abolished The Punishments ...

Jain Or
Jain Or Jaina, A Sect. In British India Which Numbers 1,221,896. Their Founder Was A Hindu Named Rishaba Deva: Their Doctrines Differ From Buddhism In This; That They Recognise In The Jina Pati Or Adi Buddha. A Divine Personal Ruler Of All. They Differ From Hindus In Denying The Divine ...

Jaintia
Jaintia, A Tract Of Country In The Province Of Assam, Divided Into The Jaintia Hills And The Jaintia Plains. Indra Singh, The Last Raja Of Jaintia, Was A Petty Chief Whose Family Had Risen To Importance Amid The Ruins Of The Kachari Kingdom At The Close Of The 18th Century. ...

Jaipur Or
Jaipur Or Jeypore, The Capital Of A Rajput State Of The Same Name. It Is The Most Beautiful Of The Towns Of India, Situated In Lat. 26° 55' N., And Long. 75° 52' E., And The State Lies Between Lat. 25° 41' And 28° 27' N., And Between Long. 74° ...

Jaisalmir Or
Jaisalmir Or Jeysuhnir Is The Capital Of The Rajput State Of The Same Name, Situated In A Broad Belt Of Low Rocky Ridges, Lat. 26° 55' N., And Long. 70° 57' E. It Was Founded In The Year 1156 By Rawal Jaisal; Elphinstone Says A.d. 720. The State Lies Between ...

Jalalpur
Jalalpur, An Agricultural Village, In Lat. 32° 39' 30" N., And Long. 73° 27' E., Close To The Right Bank Of The Jhelum River. The Village Has Been Identified By General Cunningham With The Site Of The Ancient Bucephala, Built By The Great In Memory Of His Charger, Which Was ...

Jalandhar
Jalandhar, A Revenue Division In The Panjab, Comprising The Three Districts Of Jaland Har, Hoshiarpur, And Kangm, In Lat. 56' 30" To 59' N., And Long. 75° 6' 30" To 77° 49' 15" E. The Royal Family Of Jalandhar And Kangra Is One Of The Oldest In India, And Trace ...

Jalikat
Jalikat. Taal. A Sport In Madura In The South Of India. It Consists In Loosing, Either From A Large Pen Or From A Munber Of Stakes To Which They Are Tied, A Lot Of Cattle With Cloths Or Hand Kerchiefs Tied To Their Horns, Money Being Some Times Knotted In ...

James Horsburgh
Horsburgh, James, Whose Name Is Indis Solubly Connected With The History Of The Marine ,, Surveys Of India, Was A Native Of Scotland. He Began Life As A Cabin Boy, But Soon Rose To The Command Of A Vessel In The Eastern Seas, And Gave Rein To His Innate Love ...

Jamesqn
Jamesqn. Deputy Surg.-gen.. W. Jameson, C.i.e., Formerly Superintendent Of Botanical Gardens In The North-west Provinces, Died At Dehra Doon On March 13. Three Years After His Arrival In The Country, In 1841, He Was Sent To Re Port On The Geology Of The Himalayas With A View To The Discovery ...

Jang Tang Bhot
Jang Tang. Bhot. Uncultivated Pasture Lands ; The Uplands Of Tibet. The Janipha Manihot Plant Grows About Six Or Eight Feet High, With A Tuberous Root Weighing Up To Thirty Pounds. The Acrid Milky Juice, When Fresh, Is Poisonous, But The Roots Are Washed, Scraped, Ground, Or Grated Into A ...

Japan
Japan, In The Cast Of Asia, Is Occupied By 'a Mongoloid Race. Tho Total Area Of The Empire Is 148,456 Square Miles, And Population In 1883, The Number Of Heads Of Families Being 7,684,986. The Total Foreign Residents In The Same Year Was 6187. The Population Of The R Capital, ...

Jarasandha
Jarasandha, A Warrior King Of Magadha, Of A Turanian Dynasty, To Whom Various Deeds And Dates Are Assigned ; Perhaps Several Rulers Bore This Name. He Twice Waged War Against Mathura, The Behar Of The Present Day. Krishna Repulsed The First Invasion, But After The Second Invasion Krishna And The ...

Jashpur
Jashpur, A Tributary State Of Chutia Nag Pur, In The Bengal Presidency ; Area, 1947 Square Miles. Bounded On The North And West By The Tributary State Of Sirguja, On The South By Gangpur And Udaipur, And On The East By The Lohardaga District. The Population Consists Of The Orson, ...

Jasper
Jasper. Jaspis, . Dan., Dut., Sw. Diaspro, It. Jaspe, . Fr., Port., Sr. Jaspia, . . . Lat. Jaspiss, Ger Jaschma, . . . . Rus. Jasper, A Quartzose Mineral Of A Red And Yellow Colour. Jasper, Onyx, Common Opal, And Blood Stone Are Found In Abundance In Many Parts ...

Jataka
Jataka, The Tenth Division- Of The Sutra Pitaka, Or Second Book Of The Sacred Canon Of The Buddhists, Has Legends Relating To Sakya Muni, Or Buddha's Previous Existences, Which Ho Is Said To Have Related At Various Times To His Hearers, And In Which A Good Deal Of His Doctrine ...

Jataki
Jataki, In Baluchistan, A Language Spoken By The Rind, Talpur, Murree, Chandia, Jemali, And Laghari ; They Speak Either Jataki Or The Hill Tongue Of The Baluchi. The Jataki Is Also Called Siraiki, From Siro Or Upper Sind, Where It Is Commonly Spoken By The People ; But Also Baluchi ...

Jatamansi Hind
Jatamansi. Hind. The Cyperus Stoloni Fetus Of Heyne, Retz, And Wight, Contr., But The True Jatamansi Is The Nardostachys Jatamansi, D. C.; The Balch'haru Or Balchur, Hind.; Sanbal-ul-taib, Arab. ; And Sanbal-i-hindi, Pers. The True Plant Is Only Found At Great Elevations Beyond The Tropics, But In South India The ...

Java
Java, An Island In The Eastern Archipelago, The South Point Of Which Is In Lat. 47' S., And Long. 114° 29' 10" E. It Is The Chief Of The Islands Of Netherland India, The Head Ruler Being Styled The Governor - General Of Netherland India, Commander-in-chief Of All The Forces ...

Jaxartes
Jaxartes, The Jihiln Of The Arabs, The Syr Darya Or Head-river, Has Its Source In The Very Heart Of The Tian Shan. In Its Upper Course It Is Called The Narin, Which Has Its Chief Head-stream At The Foot Of The Petroo Glacier In The Ak Shiirak Hills. It Passes ...

Jayadeva
Jayadeva Is The Literary Name Of The Author Of The Pastoral Poem The Gita Govinda, And Also Of The Prasanna Raghava, A Drama Of Five Acts. His Real Name Is Unknown, And The Meaning Of His Pseudonym Is God Of Victory. He Was A Native Of Kenduli In Tirhut, And ...

Jazia Arab
Jazia. Arab. A Capitation Tax Authorized By The Muhammadan Law On All Nonconformists. It Was Abolished By Akbar In The Seventh. Year Of His Reign. In Persia, Firmans Have Been Issued That The Zoroastrians Should Henceforth Be Allowed Certain Privileges Which They Had Not Enjoyed Hitherto, Such As Allowing Them ...

Jerusalem
Jerusalem, An Ancient City Of The Hebrews, Frequently Styled In The Scriptures Tho Holy City (isaiah Xlviii. 2 ; Daniel Ix. 24 ; Nehemiah Xi. 1 ; Matthew Iv. 5 ; Revelation Xi. 2) ; And The Jews To This Day Never Call It By Any Other Appellation Than El ...

Jetwa
Jetwa, Gumli Or Bhumli, In Kattyawar, Is The Abpura Hill, The Old Seat Of The Jetwa. Murvi Is An Old Jetwa Capital. The Rana O Porbandar, Styled Puncheria, Represents The Jetwa, One Of The Four Ancient Rajput Races Still Extant In The Kattyawar Peninsula. In The Days Of Mahmud, All ...

Jewellery
Jewellery. Jauhar, Zewar, Hind. Work Ing In Gold Was Familiar To The Egyptians Before The Exodus Of The Israelites ; And Hindus Have Long Been Acquainted With Its Applications, As In The Hymns Of Rig Veda Golden Armour And Golden Chariots, And Decorations Of Gold And Jewels, Are Frequently Mentioned. ...