RACES, Origins of Any discussion of race is handicapped by four points of obscur ity: firstly, there exists no very clear idea in the mind of many as to what constitutes race; secondly, the marks of differentiation which serve to set off one race from another are often Vaguely presented; thirdly, there seems to be no very reliable knowledge concernirw the num ber and the origin of races, and, finally, geo graphical location is not invariably clearly do fined. To produce type a certain set of elements must persist generation after generation and to trace this type is to go backwards to the very dawn of mankind's awakening and to inquire what beings existed on the globe at that time.
Geology supplies that there were roughly three great periods, called, respectively, the Mesozoic, Tertiary and Quaternary, and that these corresponded with the development of (1) reptiles and the rise of the flowering plants, (2) mammals and the appearance of modern plant life, and (3) man, that is, the prevalence of the Stone Bronze and Iron Ages, comprising the extinction of the great mammals and the dawn of mind, art and in dustry. These facts may in essence reflect the zoological division of zoophytes, molluscs, ar ticulata and vertebrate, the last named being divided into reptiles, fish bird and mammals, the crowning apex of which order is man.
Whether or not man is the ape himself, there stood, nevertheless, man (or many men, say the polygenists who conceive the world to have been peopled simultaneously at various spots on the earth's surface, thereby refuting the monogenists who hold to the (q3iblicaP original pair), with skull, stature, skin and hair, which elements are the foci upon which subsequent races and nations are to be differ entiated and determined. That concerning the time of the Rough Stone Age, when fauna and flora initiated their appearance, little is known of man but the formation of his skull, the only remainder that could have come down to the present over a bridge of more than 100,000 years is evidenced in the single fact of the skull being of the nature denoted by scientists of enlightened days Neanderthal, that is, Cro Magnon, dolichocephalic or long (the relation of the length of the head to its breadth is the formula upon which craniology orientates mod ern racial division). Yet even this fact of long-headedness among the olden men is not didactically vouched for. Archeology in giving the rough outline of those unknown ages which, under the name of Stone, Bronze and Iron, comprised early rudiments of human life, the transition to shelters, the correlation of animal existence as, for instance, the presence of the wooly mammoth, rhinoceros, reindeer and cave bear in successive waves of existence, can, after all, only rely upon scant evidence such as produced from cave; Icioldcen-moddings (kitchen leavings), and pile villages.
Early life was characterized by the very rudiments of human activity. Hunting and fishing must have been followed by agriculture, and all these occupations demanded tools. This demand set man's inventive energy to work to grapple with the making of tools, fire and the bow and arrow. Decorating, weaving, the mak ing of pottery and the domestication of animals were gradually learned. No division of labor could have occurred until after the formation of the state, however, for division is dependent upon organization and the centralization of a directive agency. The simplest and most iso lated industry must have preceded the institu tion of trade, but that the associative element of trade must soon have begun to make itself felt is proven by the early occurrence of fain. The making of homes presupposed some sort of marital condition necessary for the rearing of children, consequently promiscuous marriages, polygamy, polyandry and monogamy have vari ously characterized primitive family life. The importance of the family was indeed not to be gainsaid in early days, for to it can be traced the rudiments of state organization in such forms as the patriarchal family. In the pa tronymic grouping can also be detected the early beginnings of religious observances. The wor ship of an ancestor antedated the rise of a priestly cult. With settled life, religion, associ ated in the mind of a savage with nature wonder, took its first definable form. Slower to evolve but betokening a higher degree of specialization than industry or religion in primitive life is politics. The establishment of a state marks a climax in the transition of society from primitive to civilized form. It is the note of difference between tribal and civil society, where conditions of increasing wealth and population demand systematic cultivation of agriculture and organized social life. Rest lessness and lawlessness have to be overcome by the force of the state; a machine of gov ernment is organized and later towns grow up, considerations of citizenship and economic re lations make their appearance. Upon economic relations are based science, commerce and in vention and these relations become eventual lac. ton for differentiating kinds of states.