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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 23

Radziwill
Radziwill, Radsze-vil, Ancient, Very Wealthy Lithuanian-polish Family, Descended From Nicholas I (1366-1446), Voivode Of Vilna. Its Members Became Princes Of The Empire In 1556. Among Its Most Famous Members Are: (1) Nicholas Vi The Black, Son Of John The Bearded And Palatine Of Vilna (1515-65), From Whom The Modern Radziwills ...

Raeburn
Raeburn, Ra'bern, Sir Henry, Scottish Portrait Painter: B. Stockbridge, Near Edin Burgh, 4 March 1756; D. There, 8 July 1823. He Was Left An Orphan At An Early Age And Was Apprenticed To A Goldsmith, Who, Perceiving His Talent For Drawing, Encouraged Him In His Am Bition To Be An ...

Raft
Raft, A Floating Platform, Usually Com Posed Of Wooden Logs Or Planks, Fastened To Gether By Nails, Spikes Or Cordage, And Used Either As A Vehicle Of Travel And For The Carriage Of Goods, Or More Generally For The Purpose Of Transporting By River, Lake Or Sea The Materials Composing ...

Ragueneau
Ragueneau, Paul, French Mis Sionary And Explorer: H. Paris, 1608; D. There, 3 Sept. 1680. He Joined The Jesuit Order, And Went To Canada In 1636 To Work Among The Indians, First Visiting The Hurons. In 1640 He Made An Unsuccessful Attempt To Secure The Re Lease Of French Prisoners ...

Ragusa
Ragusa, Ra-goo'sa (slavic, Dunamic), A Seaport Town Of Southern Dalmatia, Jugo Slavia, On The Adriatic. It Lies At The Foot And On The Slopes Of Monte San Sergio And Its Streets Rise In Terraces From The Corso, The Principal Thoroughfare, Which Traverses The Centre Of The City. There Are Old ...

Rahl
Rahl, Ral, Karl, Austrian Painter: B. Vienna, 13 Aug. 1812; D. There, 9 July 1865. At 19 He Won A Prize At The Vienna' Academy And Then Started On His First Tour Among The Art Centres Of Germany, Hinisiari Graf:14w: Me Made His Home In The Last-ntimed Country Front 1836 ...

Raid Of Ruthven
Raid Of Ruthven, A Mysterious Event In Scottish History, Which Took Place In August 1600. John Ruthven, Earl Of Gowrie, And His Brother, Alexander, Then Resided On The Former's Estate At Perth. The Earl Was Bitter Against James Vi (later James I Of England) Who Had Put The Earl's Father ...

Railroad And Other Land
Railroad And Other Land Grants. Grants For Railroad And Other Pur Poses Were The Subject Of Vigorous Discussion From An Early Period Of Our History, Many Boidr' Ing That The Federal Government Had No Author Ity To Grant Subsidies For Internal Improvements. The Decision Reached Was In Favor Of Such ...

Rails And Rail Shooting
Rails And 'rail Shooting. • Any Birds Belonging 'to The Typical Genera Of The Family Rallsde Are Popularly Called Rails, Prob.. Ably In Reference To Their Harsh Rattling Cries, But The Name Is More Particularly Applied To Certain Species, Other Being Known As Marsh Hens; Crakes, Etc. 'the Family Is ...

Rails And Structural Shapes
Rails And Structural Shapes, Manufacture'•of. One Of The Most Important Branches Of The Iron And Steel Industry Is The Manufacture Of Rails. Up To About 1855, All Rails Were Made Of Wrought Iron. In England Beginning About 1767, Various Forms Of Cast-iron And Wrought-iron Rails Were Employed, The First Being ...

Railway Cars
Railway Cars. Passenger And Passenger Cars On The Earlist Rail Ways Usually Had Small Bodies Of The Stage Coach Type Mounted On Frames. In 1833, However, Cars Long Enough To Seat 60 Pas Sengers And Having The Body Carried By A Pair Of Four-wheeled Swiveling Trucks Were Designed And Built ...

Railway Consolidation
Railway 'consolidation. The Consolidation—or As The English Say, The Amal Gamation—of Railways Consists Either (a) In' Uniting Connecting Lines Into One Continuous Line, Or (b) In Uniting Parallel Or Competing Lines Into A System. Railways In The United States Were Originally Built For The Most Part In Short, Disassociated Lines ...

Railway Engineering And Construction
Railway Engineering And Construction. In Railway Engineering The Railway Track More Than Any Other Part Of The Railway Machine Had A Crude Beginning And Has Reached Its Present Condition Of Ex Cellence By A Continuous Series Of Improvements. In The First Stages Of Construction, Tracks Of Numerous Designs Were Built, ...

Railway Shops And Machin
Railway Shops And Machin Ery. Railway Buildings And Machinery Are Required For The Maintenance And Repair Of Loco Motives And Cars And For Their Cleaning, Inspec Tion And Storage. Few Railways Build Locomo Tives On A Large Scale, Although Their Engineers Design Them. Many Railways Build Freight Cars And Sometimes ...

Railways
Railways, Government Control Of. The Government's Obligation To Maintain An Equitable Relationship Between The Public And Carriers Is A Continuing One, Although The Prob Lem Has Assumed A Different Form From Time To Time And Is Merged To Some Extent With The Problems Of The Public Control Of Corporations. In ...

Railways
Railways, Elevated. Elevated Railways Presented One Of The First Potent Factors For The Solution Of The Problem Of Adequate Transporta Tion For Passengers Between Points In Great Cities. The Street Railway Was An Earlier Fac Tor, But It Met The Growing Inconvenience Of Congested Streets In Only A Partial Degree, ...

Railways Of The United
Railways Of The United States. The Aggregate Length Of The Rail Ways Of The United States On 31 Dec. 1917 Was Approximately 265,000 Miles, Or About 50,000 Miles More Than The Total Mileage Of European Railways And About Two-fifths Of The Total In The Entire World. Excluding Switching And Terminal ...

Raimondi
Raimondi, Ri-mlinsde, Marc Antonio (mmtcarroxio), Italian Copper-plate Engraver: B. Bologna, About 1480; D. There, About 1534. He Acquired The Goldsmith's Art In France And Was Especially Successful In Niello, Btit Finidly Gave All His Attention To Engraving On Copper. In 1505 He Went To Venice And Attracted Tion By His ...

Raimund De Sabunde
Raimund De Sabunde, Ri'moond Si-boon'di, Scholastic Philosopher: B. Barcelona. In 1436 He Appears At Toulouse As A Teacher Of Medicine, Philosophy And Theology, And He Labored Especially To Reconcile The Apparent Con Tradictions Between Nature Or Reason And The Bible, An Undertaking Which Led Him Into The Realm Of Mysticism. ...

Rainbow
Rainbow. The Rainbow Is The Best Known Of All Optical Meteorological Phenomena, Consisting Of A Colored Arch Formed Opposite The Sun On Falling Raindrops, And Visible When Ever The Necessary Conditions Of A Passing Shower On One Side And A Clear And Not Too High Sun On The Other Occur. ...

Rainbow Arch
Rainbow Arch, Utah, A Superb Natural Arch Of Red Sandstone Spanning Bridge Canyon On The North Slope Of Navajo Mountain In The Southeastern Corner Of The State, At A Point Four Miles Above Where That Canyon Empties Into The Colorado River 16 Miles Below The Mouth Of The San Juan ...

Rainbow Trout
Rainbow Trout, A Freshwater Fish (sohn° Irrideus) Indigenous To The Mountain Streams And Rivers Of The Pacific Coast Of The United States, But Widely Introduced Into Eastern Waters. From The Eastern Brook-trout (salvelinus Fontitutiis) It May Be Easily Dis Tinguished By Its Colors And The Presence Of Teeth On The ...

Rainbow_2
Rainbow (42d) Division, The. For A Number Of Years Before The World War Dis Cussions Have Periodically Taken Place In Our Newspapers Whether Our National Guard Was Sufficiently Efficient To Be Of Real Use To The Nation. Ile Rainbow (42d) Division Seems To Be A Very Decisive Answer And Emphatically ...

Rainfall
Rainfall. Rainfall Or Precipitation, The Generic Term Applied To The Condensation Of Aqueous Vapor Into Cloud, Fog Dew, Rain, Snow, Frost And Hail, Varies Greatly In The Several Zones And In The Successive Seasons And At Dif Ferent Altitudes. Temperature, By Which Is Meant The Temperature Of The Air At ...

Rainier
Rainier, Ra'nee, Mount. An Old Volcanic Cone In Central Western Washington Named From Admiral Rainier Of The 13rifish Navy Hy Vancouver The Navigator, Who Saw It From Puget Sound In 1793. It Is Also Known By The Indian Name Of Tacoma Peak And Rises About 56 Miles Southwest Of The ...

Raisin Industry
Raisin Industry, The American, Is Confined Almost Wholly To California. The Raisin Crop Comes From The Great San Joaquin Valley And From Several Counties In Southern California. The California Raisin Grape Culture Began To Be Of Commercial Importance In 1874, When The Output Was 9,000 Boxes, Or 180,000 Pounds Of ...

Raleigh
Raleigh, Sin Walter, English Military And Naval Commander, And Author: B. Hayes Barton, A Farmstead In The Parish Of East Bud Leigh, Devonshire, About 1552; Beheaded, Lon Don, 29 Oct. 161& He Was The Son Of Walter Raleigh By His Third Wife, Katharine, Daughter Of Sir Philip Champernowne Of M.odbury, ...

Rales
Rales, Sounds Heard In The Respiratory Passages, Due To Certain Modifications In The Normal Structure Of The Bronchi Or Alveoli, Or Both. That Originate In The Pleural Cavity Are Distinguished As Friction Sounds. Riles Are New Sounds, Not Common To Healthy Lungs, And Are Created Either In The Bronchi, Bronchioles, ...

Ralpel Roistbr Doister
Ralpel Roistbr Doister, A Play By Nicholas Udall. It Was The •first English Comedy,' Althornth Not Printed Until 1556, And Probably Written About '1540. At This Time Its Author Was Heed Master Of Eton, And The Comedy Was Written For The Schoolboys, 'whose Custom It Was To Act A Latin ...

Ramadan
Ramadan, Ra-ma-din', Or Ram-a-dan', The Ninth Month In The Mohammedan Calendar, Has 30 Days. Since The Mohammedan Year Is A Lunar One, Ramadan Comes At All The Seasons, Being Eleven Days Earlier Each Year. In About 33 Years The Month Has Made A Complete Cycle Of The Year. Ramadan Is ...

Ramayana
Ramayana,. Ra-ma':ya-na. Like Almost All Hindu Masterpieces The Ramayana Also Is Very Lengthy. It Has 24,000 Distichs. It Is Well Authenticated That Valmiki„ The Poet, Wrote The Chief Part Of This Epic; Minor Additions Arc By Unknown Authors. The Theme Treats Of Rama. It Tells At Great Length Of The ...

Rambler
Rambler, The, Though No Longer Read With The Enthusiastic Admiration Formerly Ac Corded It, Johnson's 'rambler> Has At Least Re Tained The Respect Of The Thoughtful Student Of The History Of English Literature. The Essays Were Distinctly Of Their Day And, Like All John Son's Writings, Distinctly Of Their Author. ...

Rammohun Roy
Rammohun Roy, Ram-ma-hun' Rot, Hindu Religious Reformer : B. Burdwan District, Province Of Bengal, India, 1772; D. Stapleton Park, Near Bristol, England, 27 Sept. 1833. He Was A Brahman Of Strict Education, Hut Early Renounced The Polytheism Of Brahminic The Ology. For Five Years He Was Dewan, Or Prin Cipal ...

Ramsay
Ramsay, Rim'zi, Allan, Scottish Poet: B. Leadhills, Lanarkshire, 15 Oct. 1686; D. Edinburgh, 7 Jan. 1758. The Death Of His Father In Early Life Forced Him To Seek A Means Of Livelihood In The Scottish Capital. There He Became Bound As An Apprentice To A Wig-maker, Which Occupation He Continued ...

Randall
Randall, Samuel Jackson, American Statesman: B. Philadelphia, 10 Oct. 1828;• D. Washington, D. C., 12 April 1890. Educated In The Schools Of His Native City, He Began Life As A Silk Merchant's Clerk And Later Entered Into Partnership In A Firm Of Wholesale Iron Met.. Chants.. But Politics Was More ...

Randolph
Randolph, Edmund Jennings, Amer Ican Statesman: B. Williamsburg, Va., 10 Aug. 1753; D. Clarke County, Va., 13 Sept. 1813. He Was Educated At William And Mary College And Afterward Admitted To The Bar. He Was Vir Ginia's First Attorney-general, Was Member Of Congress, 1779-82 And Governor Of Virginia, 1786-88. He ...

Randolph Macon System Of Colleges
Randolph-macon System Of Colleges And Academies, A Group Of Five Institutions In Virginia, Compris Ing (1) Randolph-macon College At Ashland, A College For Men; (2) Randolph-macon Academy At Bedford City, And (3) Randolph Macon Academy At Front Royal, Preparatory Schools For Boys ; (4) Randolph-macon Woman's College At Lynchburg; (5) ...

Randolph_2
Randolph, John, Of Roanoke, American Statesman: B. Cawsons, Chesterfield County, Va., 2 June 1773; D. Philadelphia, 24 June 1833, He Was Of An Old And Wealthy Virginia Family And ,claimed To Be A Descendant Of Pocahontas. His Father Died Young, And His Mother Mar Ried St. George Tucker, Who Directed ...

Rank
Rank, In The Army And Navy, Is Officially Described.as °that Character Or Quality Bestowed On Military Parsons Which Marks. Their Station And Confers 'eligibility •to Exercise Command Or Authority In The 'military Service Within The Limits Prescribed By Law.* It Is Divided Into Degrees Or Grades. Which Mark The Relative ...

Ranke
Ranke, Ran'ke, Leopold Von, German His Torian: B. Wiehe, Thuringia, 21 Dec. 1795; D. Berlin, 23 May 1886. His Preliminary Educa Tion At Donndorf And Sculpforta Was Followed By Courses In Theology And Philology In Leipzig. From 1818 To 1825 He Taught Classics In The Gymnasium At Frankfort, And Then ...

Rapahannock Station
Ra)pahannock Station, Battle Of. In The Fore Part Of October 1863 General Lee Maneuvered The Army Of The Potomac, Un Der General Meade, From The Rappahannock River Back To Centreville. Meade Resumed The Offensive 19 October, And In Several Encounters Pressed Lee Back To The Rappahannock, Lee Crossing To The ...

Rapin De Thoyras
Rapin De Thoyras, Rd-pan De Toi-ri, Paul, French Historian : B. Castres, Languedoc, 1661 ; D. Wesel, Duchy Of Cleves, 1725. He Studied At The Protestant Academy Of Saumur, And Was Admitted An Advocate In 1679. The Revocation Of The Edict Of Nantes, However, Drove Him To England In 1686 ...

Raspail
Raspail, Res'pa'y' Friuscoie Vincent, French Politician And Scientist: B. Carpentras, 29 Jan. 1794; D. Arcueil, 7 Jan, 187& He Went In 1816 To Paris. He Took Part In The July Revolution Of 1830, -and Later -establiahed A Journal, Le Riformatenr, ,which -in 1834 Was Suppressed By The Government, While In ...

Raspberry
Raspberry, A General Name For Those Shrubs Of The Genus Rubus, Whose Fruits Sep Arate From The Receptacle Upon Attaining Ma Turity. They Are Natives Of The North Tem Perate Zone And Are Especially Numerous In Europe And America. They Are Characterized By Their Perennial Underground Parts, Usually Biennial Spiny ...

Rasselas
Rasselas; The Name 'usually Given Io A Moral Story With An Oriental Setting Written By The Famous Lexicographer And Essayist, Dr. Samuel Johnson, And Published In The Spring Of 1759, In Two Volumes, Under The Title Of (the Prince Of Abyssinia: A Tale.) It Reached A Second Edition The Same ...

Rastatt
Rastatt, Raetat, Or Rastadt, A Town Of Baden, Germany, On The River Murg, About Four Miles From The Rhine And About 15 Miles Southwest Of Karlsruhe. It Was Formerly A Fortress Of The First Rank But In.1892 The Forti Fications Were Dismantled. The Town Has Manufactures Of Lace, Tobacco And ...

Rationalism
Rationalism, In Its More General Sig Nification, Denotes A Tendency Or Attitude Of Thought, Either On The Part Of An Individual Or An Age, To Demand That Prevailing Beliefs, Cus Toms And Institutions Shall Be Subjected To Critical Examination, And Be Required To Justify Themselves Before The Court Of Reason. ...

Raton
Raton, Ra-ton', N. Mex., City, County-seat Of Colfax County, On The Atchison, Topeka And Santa Fe Railroad, About 130 Miles Northeast Of Santa Fe And Eight Miles South Of The North Ern Boundary Of The State. In The Vicinity Are Extensive Coal Fields. It Is The Commercial And Industrial Centre ...

Rattazzi
Rattazzi, Rat-tat'se, Marie Studolmine De So1ms, French Novelist: B. Waterford, Ire Land, 1833; D. Paris, February 1902. She Was The Daughter Of Sir Thomas Wyse, British Am Bassador To Greece, And Letitia, Eldest Daughter Of Lucien Bonaparte. She Was Married To Frederic De Solms, A Rich Native Of Alsace In ...

Rattlesnake
Rattlesnake, A Distinctively Ameri Can Group Of Poisonous Serpents Characterized By A Peculiar Horny Rattle Appended To The Tail. They Belong To The Suborder Solenoglypha, All The Members Of Which Are Poisonous And Have The Fang-bearing Maxillary Bones Erectile. To This Suborder Belong The Old World Families Of Viperide (vipers) ...

Rattray
Rattray, Died", William Jordan, Cana Dian Journalist : B. London, England, 1835; D. Toronto, Canada, 26 Sept. 1883. He Went To Canada With His Parents In 1848, Was Gradu Ated From The University Of Toronto In 1858 And Engaged In Journalism As An Editorial Writer On The Toronto Mail. He ...

Rauch
Rauch, Rowcn, Christian Daniel, Ger Man Sculptor: B. Arolsen, Western Germany, 2 Jan. 1777; D. Dresden, 3 Dec. 1857. In Arol Sen He Received His First Instruction In Art From The Sculptor Valentin, Under Whom He Executed Ornamental Work Chiefly. Going To Cassel He Became A Pupil Of Kuhl, The ...

Raven
Raven, A Typical Species (corms Corax) Of The Crow Family (corvidcr), Of Which, As Indeed Of All Passerine Birds, It Is The Largest Representative. The Size Is Quite Variable, But Is Generally About Two Feet In Length And Four Feet In Expanse. Plumage, Bill And Feet Are All Black, The ...

Raven_2
Raven, The. 'the By Edgar Allan Poe Is The One Of His Poems Which Is Most Inseparably Connected With His Name In Common Recollection. It Is Entirely Expressive Of The Dominant Sentiment Of His Life, The Long Ing And Regret For Beauty Which He Had Once Known; It Is An ...

Ravenna
Ravenna, Ra-ven'a, Capital Of The Ital Ian Province Of The Same Name, In The Corn Partimento Of Emilia, About 45 Miles East Of Bologna. It Is Situated On Marshy Ground Which Was, Within Historic Times, A Lagoon And The Scenes Of Extensive Maritime Movement. The Cursini Canal And The Two) ...

Rawlinson
Rawlinson, Ri'lln-sen, George, Eng Lish Orientalist: B. Chadlington, Oxfordshire, 23 Nov. 1815; D. London, 6 Oct. 1902. Educated At Oxford, He Took Orders And Was Made A Fellow And Tutor Of Exeter College In 1840. In 1845 He Became Sub-rector, Delivered The Hampton Lectures In 1859, And In 1861 Was ...

Rawlinson_2
Rawlinson, Sin He Creswicke., English Diplomatist And Orientalist: B. Chad Lington, Oxfordshire, 4 Nov. 1810; D. London, 5 March 1895. He Went To Bombay In 1827 As A Military Cadet In The Service Of, The East India Company, At Once Applied Himself Assidu Ously To The Study Of The Oriental ...

Rawson
Rawson, Edward Kirk, American Edu Cator: B. Albany, N. Y., 21 Feb. 1846. He Was Graduated From Yale In 1868, From Andover Theological Seminary In 1872. And Was Ordained In The Congregationalist Ministry. In 1871-90 He Was Chaplain In The United States Navy, Serv Ing At The Naval Academy From ...

Raymond
Raymond, Henry Jarvis, American Journalist: B. Lima, N. Y, 24 Jan. 1820; D. New York, 18 June 1869. He Was Graduated ',from The University Of Vermont In 1840, Went To New York, Studied Law, And Contributed To The New Yorker, A Literary Weekly Published By Horace Greeley Upon The Establishment ...

Raymond_2
Raymond, Battle Of. After The Battle Of Port Gibson (q.v,). 1 May 1863. The Con Federates Fell Back Beyond The Bayou Pierre And Destroyed The Bridges. General Grant Followed On The 2d, Occupied Port Gibson, And The Same Evening The Confederates Continued Their Retreat Across Big Black River, At Hankinson's ...

Raynauds
Raynaud's (ra-nerz') Disease, A Va Somotor Affection, Occurring Mostly In Children And Young Adults, And Characterized By Coldness And Whiteness Of The Toes, The Tips Of The Fingers, The End Of The Nose And Sometimes Of The Lobes Of The Ears. It May Exist With Other Functional Nervous Disorders, Such ...

Raynouard
Raynouard, Rd-noo-ir, Francois Just. Marie, French Poet And Philologist: B. Brig Noles, Department Of Var, 18 Sept. 1761; D. Passy, 27 Oct. 1836. He Studied For The Bar At Aix And Practised Law At Draguignan With Great Success. Elected A Deputy To The Legisla Tive Assembly In 1791, He Attached ...

Razor
Razor, The Well-known Keen-edged In Strument For Shaving Off The Beard Or Hair. Razors Seem To Have Been In Use At A Very Early Period Of The World's History. They Acre Used By The Ancient Egyptians. The Levitical Code Expressly Forbade The Shaving Of The Beard, And Many Jews In ...

Razorback
Razorback, One Of The Large Whales Of The Genus Balarnoptera, Called Also Finbacks And Rorquals. (see Finback ; Whale). The B. Mstsculas, The Common Rorqual Or Razorback, Is 60 To 70 Feet Long, Black Above And Brilliant White Below. The B. Rostrata, Or Lesser Rorqual, Resembles The Other, But Is ...

Re8aca
Re8aca, Ri-ea-kil, Battle Of. While The Armies Of Generals Thomas And Schofield Were Threatening An Advance From The North On Dal Ton, Ga. (q.v.), General Sherman Ordered Gen Eral Mcpherson, Commanding The Army Of The Tennessee, To Move Southward Through Snake Creek Gap And Interpose Between Dalton And Resaca. Mcpherson ...

Reaction Time
Reaction Time. One Of The Cardinal Problems Of Psychophysics Is The Measurement Of The Duration Of Mental Processes. The Men Tal Processes Themselves Are Always Inaccessible To Direct Temporal Measurement, But Certain Physiological-psychological Complexes Are Easily Available. These Consist In The Entire Aggregate Of Phenomena Which Occur Between The Recep ...