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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 25

Stone Age
Stone Age, The Name Given To That Pe Riod In The Development Of Prehistoric Man Kind When Stone, Bone, Shells And Wood Were The Only Materials Employed As Tools, Weapons, And Implements. The Term First Came Into Recognized Use By The Publication In 1865 Of (prehistoric Times,' Written By Sir ...

Stone Cutting And Dressing
Stone-cutting And -dressing. This Is The Art Of Shaping, Fitting, Smoothing And Finishing Quarried Stone, For Use In Masonry, Foundations Of Monuments, Arches, Etc. (for The Preliminary Steps Of Taking Out The Stone See Quarrying; Drill And Drilling, The Drill Being One Of The Most Important Machines Used In Quarrying ...

Stonehenge
Stonehenge, Ston'hznj, A Notable Ex Ample Of The Ancient Stone Circles, Situated In Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, England, About Seven Miles North Of Salisbury And Within Two Miles Of The Town Of Amesbury. The Structure Con Sists Of Two Concentric Circles Of Upright Stones Surrounding Two Concentric The Whole Surrounded By ...

Stonemans Macon Raid
Stoneman's Macon Raid. When General Sherman Was Operating Against Atlanta He Ordered All His Available Cavalry To Prepare For A Blow At The Macon Railroad, Simultane Ously With The Movement Of The Army Of The Tennessee Toward East Point. General Stone Man, With 5,000 Cavalry, Was To Move By The ...

Stonemans Raid From East
Stoneman's Raid From East Tennessee Into Southwestern Virginia. After The Defeat Of General Gillem's Union Brigade At Russelville, Tenn, (q.v.), 14 Nov. 1864, General Thomas, Com Manding The Military Division Of The Missis Sippi, Of Which East Tennessee Was A Part, Ordered General Stoneman To Concentrate His Forces In Kentucky ...

Stonemans Virginia Raid
Stoneman's Virginia Raid. When General Hooker Initiated The Campaign Finally Resulting In The Battle Of Chancellorsville (q.v.), He Ordered General Stoneman, Commanding The Cavalry Corps Of The Army Of The Potomac, About 10,000 Men And Four Batteries, To Move Quietly And Rapidly Up The Left Bank Of The Rap Pahannock, ...

Stoneware
Stoneware Is That Kind Of Earthen Ware (see Ceramics) Which Is Impervious To Water And Non-absorbent, Almost Non-porous, The Whole Substance Of The Paste Being Very Silicious, Either From The Original Nature Of The Clay Or From A Mixture With The Clay Of Some Natural Silex Such As Flint. A ...

Storks
Storks, A Family (ciconiide) Of Wading.. Birds Of The Order Herodiones. In This Family The Bill Is Very Stout At The Base, Longer Than The Head, Usually Straight But Occasionally Curved Either Up Or Down. The Nostrils Are Remark Able In Being Entirely Unprotected Either By A Scale Or Bristles; ...

Storm
Storm, Storm', Theodore, German Novel Ist, Poet And Short Story Writer: B. Husum, A Seaport And Manufacturing Town Of Schleswig, On The Coast Of The North Sea, 14 Sept. 1817; D. Hhdemarschen, 4 July 1888. He Studied Law At Kid And Berlin And Practised His Profession In His Native Town. ...

Storm_2
Storm, The ((groza)). In This Tragedy, Which Appeared In 1860, Ostrovski Has Given The Most Vivid Picture In Literature Of The Ful Consequences Of Domestic Despotism, Such As Formed The Foundation Of The Lives Of The Moscow Merchant Class. The Old Widow Anikha Believes In The Rule Of Terror And ...

Story
Story, Joseph, American Jurist: B. Mar Blehead, Mass., 18 Sept. 1779; D. Cambridge, Mass., 10 Sept. 1845. He Was Graduated From Harvard In 1798, And Afterward Studied Law. In 1808 He Entered Congress, In 1811 Became Speaker Of The Massachusetts State Legislature, And Soon After Was Appointed A Judge Of ...

Story Of
Story Of Gosta Berling, The, A Novel By Selma Lagerffif, Appeared About Christmas-time 1891. In The Summer Of 1890 A Swedish Magazine, The Idun, Had Offered A Prize For The Best Novel Of A Certain Length. Selma Lagerlaf Entered The Contest With A Few Chapters From
Stoves And Heating Appara
Stoves And Heating Appara Tus. Any System Of Heating Must Necessarily Include Three Things, The Combustion Of Fuel In A Fireplace, Stove, Furnace Steam Or Hot-water Boiler; A System By Which The Heat Is Trans Mitted To Its Destination With The Least Possible Loss; And A System Of Diffusion, By ...

Stowe
Stowe, Harriet Elizabeth Beecher, American Writer: B. Litchfield, Conn., 14 June 1811; D. Hartford, Conn., 1 July 1896. She Was A Daughter Of Rev. Lyman Beecher (q.v.) And Sister Of Henry Ward Beecher (q.v.). She Was Educated At Litchfield And Then At Hartford, Un Der Her Sister Catherine, Whom Shejoined ...

Strachan
Strachan, John, Canadian Bishop: B. Aberdeen, Scotland, 12 April 1778; D. To Ronto, Canada, 1 Nov. Was Edu Cated At Grammar School, Then (1793) At King's College, Aberdeen. While Continuing His Stud Ies At The College He Taught At Schools, Till He Was Graduated In 1797. In 1799 He Went ...

Strachey
Strachey, William, English Colonist And Historian: B. England, About 1585. Nothing Definite Is Known Of Him Before The Sailing Of A Party Of Colonists, 15 May 1609, Bound For Vir Ginia. He Sailed In The Sea Venture, Which Was Wrecked On The Bermudas In July. An Account Of The Wreck ...

Strafford
Strafford, Stre&rd, Thomas Went Worth, 1st Earl. Of, English Statesman: B. Lon Don, 13 April 1593; D. By Execution Tower Hill, 11 May 1641. Entered At Saint John's College, Cambridge, In 1607 He Became A Student Of The Inner Temple, And In 1611 Received The Honor Of Knighthood. He Was ...

Straight College
Straight College, An Educational Institution In New Orleans, La., Open To Pupils Of Both Sexes Without Regard To Race Or Nationality. It Was The Pioneer School In Louisiana To Provide Education' Privileges For The Negro Race. It Was Founded In 1869 By The American Missionary Association (congrega Tional), And Its ...

Strangulation
Strangulation, Violent Constriction Of The Neck, Involving Such Compression Of The Windpipe As To Close The Air-passages, Prevent Respiration, And Finally Cause Death. In Hang Ing, Which Sometimes Produces Strangulation, If Much Violence Is Used, Death May Be Caused By Direct Injury To The Upper Part Of The Spinal Cord ...

Strassburg
Strassburg, Stris'boorg, France, Capi Tal Of Alsace-lorraine, On The Ill, Two Miles West Of The Rhine, On The French Frontier, 350 Miles Southeast Of Paris. It Is Ranked As A Fortress Of The First Class. A Massive Inner Rampart And 14 Modern Forts Defend The City. It Is Cut By ...

Strategy
Strategy, The Science Of Directing, With Promptitude, Precision And Clearness, Masses Of Troops To Gain Possession Of Points Of Import Ance In Military Operations. Its Object Is To So Direct These Masses That Upon Reaching Any Designated Point, The Army Shall Have A Better Position Than That Held By The ...

Stratford Upon Avon
Stratford-upon-avon, I'von, England, A Market-town And Municipal Borough In Warwickshire, 94 Miles Northwest Of Lon Don, On The Avon. The Town Comprises An Old And A New Section, But Its Chief Points Of Interest Are Associated With The Name And Life Of Shakespeare. In Henley Street Stands An Unpretentious One-story ...

Strathcona And Mount Royal
Strathcona And Mount Royal, Donald Alexander Smith, 1st Baron, Cana Dian Statesman : B. Forres, Morayshire, Scot Land, 1820; D. 1914. After Education In The Preparatory Schools Of His Native Country, He Went To Canada In The Employ Of The Hudson's Bay Company In 1838, Where He Spent 13 Years ...

Straus
Straus, Nathan, American Merchant And Philanthropist: B. Rhenish Bavaria, 31 Jan. 1848, Brother Of Oscar Solomon And Isidor Straus (qq.v.) He Came To The United States In 1854 With His Family Who Settled In Tolbolton Ga., Where He Attended School. He Afterward Went To New York And Graduated At Packard's ...

Strauss
Strauss, Richard, German Musician And Composer: B. Munich, 11 June 1864. He Studied Music At Munich, Was Made Court Musical Di Rector There In 1886, And Became Court Kapell Meister Successively At Weimar (1889), Munich (1895) And Berlin (1898), With The Royal Opera. He Has Made Extensive Concert Tours Of ...

Strawberry
Strawberry, A Perennial Herb Of The Genus Fragaria (order Rosaces). The Species Are Natives Of The North Temperate Zone And Of The Andes Region Of South America. They Are Exceedingly Variable, Botanists Having Described About 130 Species, Which Are Considered Only Forms Of About 12 Species; And Even These Are ...

Streator
Streator, Ill., The Largest City In La Salle County, On The Vermilion Rivet', And On The Atchison, Topeka And Santa Fe, The Chi Cago, Burlington And Quincy, The Chicago And Alton, The Wabash, The New York Central, The Chicago, Ottawa And Peoria Railroads, 90 Miles Southwest Of Chicago. The City ...

Street
Street, George Edmund, English Archi Tect: B. Essex, 20 June 1824; D. 18 Dec. 1881. He Was Educated In Mitcham And Camberwell And Received Part Of His Professional Training Under Sir G. G. Scott, And Like Him Held The Gothic Style In Highest Favor, The Numerous Lec Tures And Papers ...

Street
Street (latin Strata, Anglo-saxon Strat, Road) An Open Way Or Thoroughfare Within The Corporate Limits Of A City Or Town. In The Rural Districts Streets Are Called Roads Or Highways. Very Primitive Cities Seem To Have Been Built Without Real Streets, Much After The Manner Of Indian Villages; But As ...

Street Cleaning
Street Cleaning, A Term Used To Include All Operations Of Municipal Departments Charged With Keeping The Streets Free From Litter Which Might Affect The Public Health Or Com Fort, Or Offend The Public Taste. In The Larger Cities Of The World The Work Consists Of The Daily Sweeping Of All ...

Streights Raid From Tuscum
Streight's Raid From Tuscum Bia, Ala. In The Spring Of 1863 General Rosecrans Organized An Expedition To Cut The Communications Of General Bragg's Army, Then At Tullahoma, Tenn. The Objective Point Was The Railroad South Of Dalton In Northwestern Georgia. For This Purpose Col. A. D. Streight, 51st Indiana, Who ...

Strelets
Strelets -(pl. Streltsi), Russian, Sharp Shooter, The Life-guards Of The Russian Tsars Until The Reign Of Peter The Great. They Were Instituted By Ivan The Terrible In The Latter Half Of The 16th Century As A National Guard; For 200 Years They Rendered Valuable Service To The Empire. They Amounted ...

Strength Of Materials
Strength Of Materials. The Relation Between Force And The Distortion It Produces In Materials Of Construction (metal, Stone, Timber, Etc.), The Harmful Effects Of Force, And The Proportioning Of Materials Safely To Re Sist Given Forces Are Studied Under This Title. For Brief Notes On The History Of The Subject ...

Stricture
Stricture, A Morbid Contraction Of A Mucous Canal Or Duct Of The Body, As The Urethra, Esophagus, Or Intestine. When The Affected Part Is Not Mentioned, And A Person Is Stated To Suffer From Stricture, It Is Always The Urethral Canal That Is Referred To. Contraction Of This Canal May ...

Strife
Strife, By John Galsworthy. Nothing Is More Striking In Galsworthy's Work As A Drama Tist Than The Skill With Which He Combines The Functions Of The Artist And The Social Critic Without Prejudice To Either. In All But Two Of His Plays He Has Chosen For His Theme Some One ...

Strikes And Lockouts
Strikes And Lockouts. A Strike Is A Cessation Of Work On The Part Of Working Men To Enforce Their Demands Against The Em Ployer Or To Resist Demands And Rules Made By The Employer ; A Lockout Is A Cessation Of Work On The Employer's Initiative To Enforce Demands Against ...

Strindberg
Strindberg, Strindurig, August, Swedish Novelist, Dramatist And Publicist: B. Stockholm, 22 Jan. 1849; D. Stockholm, 14 May 1912. In His Autobiographical Novel 'the Son Of A Servant' He Emphasizes The Dual Social Na Ture Of His Origin And Attempts To Derive His Con Flicting And Unstable Position On Many Ques ...

Strong
Strong, Frank, American Educator: B. Venice, N. Y., 5 Aug. 1859. He Was Graduated At Yale In 1884 And Was Admitted To The Bar In Rochester, N. Y., In 1886. Received Degrees Of A.m. And Ph.d. (yale), 1893 And 1897, Re Spectively. Received Degree Of Ll.d., (baker University, University Of ...

Strophanthus
Strophanthus, A Genus Of Trees, Shrubs Or Climbers, Belonging To The Family Apocynacea', And Found In Asia And Africa, Being Chiefly Tropical. The Leaves Are Feather Veined And Opposite, And The Cymose Inflores Cence Is Terminal. The Flowers Are Handsome, Ranging In Color From White, Through The Yel Low's And ...

Strychnine
Strychnine, Strik'nin,(latin Strych Nos, From Greek Of Same Form) Cni-inni02, An Alkaloid Existing In The Seeds Of The Strychnos Nux-vonuca, Saint Ignatius Bean, And The Other Species Of Strychnos. The Strychnos Nux-vomica Is A Tree Of Medium Size Growing In The East Indies. It Bears A Pulpy Fruit About The ...

Strychnos
Strychnos, A Genus Of The Family Loganiacete, Represented By Trees, Shrubs Or Vines Which Climb By Stiff Hooked Tendrils, And Are Mostly Tropical. 'the Leaves Are Opposite, Thin Or Coriaceous, And Prominently Three To Five Nerved. The Flowers Are Small And Whitish, Col Lected In Dense Axillary Or Terminal Cymes, ...

Stuart
Stuart, The Name Of A Royal Family Of Scotland And England, Also Written Stewart And, Less Frequently, Steuart. The Name Is De Rived From The Important Office Of Steward Of The Royal Household Of Scotland. The Founder Of The House Seems To Have Been A Norman Baron Named Alan (the ...

Stuart_2
Stuart, Arabella, Commonly Called The Lady Arabella : B. Chatsworth, 1575; D. Lon Don, 27 Sept. 1615. This Unhappy And Innocent Victim Of Jealousy And State Policy Was The Only Child Of Charles Stuart, Earl Of Lennox Younger Brother To Henry Lord Darnley, The Husband Of Mary Queen Of Scots. ...

Stuart_3
Stuart, Gilbert, American Painter: B. Narragansett, R. I., 3 Dec. 1755; D. Boston, 27 July 1828. He Was A Portrait Painter And Be Gan At The Age Of 13. In 1775 He Paid His Second Visit To England Where Benjamin West Recog Nized His Talent, Took Him Into His Home ...

Stuart_4
Stuart, Lames Ewell Brown, American Soldier: B. Patrick County, Va., 6 Feb. 1833; D. Richmond, Va., 12 May 1864. He Was De Scended On His Father's Side From Ancestors Distinguished During The Colonial And Revolu Tionary Periods, In The War Of 1812, And In Civil Life In Illinois, Missouri And ...

Student Life And Customs
Student Life And Customs. Student Life And Customs Have Varied So Much In Various Ages And Countries, And Have Differed So Greatly According To The School, Elementary, Secondary Or College, In Which The Students Are, That It Is Necessary To Divide And Subdivide The Subject For Effective Treatment. Consideration Must ...

Student Self Government
Student Self-government. Student Self-government As An Organized Sys Tem Is The Product Of Modern Times And Of Democratic Ideas. In Its Ideal Form It Must Not Be Confused With Systems Of Government Of One Group Of Pupils By An Older Pupil Set Over Them By An Appointment From A Teacher ...

Student Of Salamanca
Student Of Salamanca, The (
Stuhlweissenburg
Stuhlweissenburg, Boorg, Hungary (hungarian, Szekes Fejervar, Sielcesh-lehar-var ; Slavonic, Lite.tictian), Free City, Capital Of A County Of The Same Name, 30 Miles Southwest Of Buda. It Was Built In The I 1 Th Century, And During Five Centuries Was The Place Where The Kings Of Hungary Were Crowned. It Has ...

Sturgeon
Sturgeon, Stetion, A Family (acipen Seridce) Of Fishes, Now Generally Considered To Constitute, With Or Without The Paddle-fishes (polyodontidce) The Distinct Order Chondrostei. Formerly The Sturgeons Were Classified As Carti Laginous Ganoids, An Arrangement Which Ichthy Ologists No Longer Find Adequate. This Group Is Considered To Be One Of The ...

Sturluson
Sturluson, Snorri, Ice Landic Author And Politician: B. 1178; D. Reyk Holt, 22 Sept. 1241. He Was Well Educated In Scandinavian History, Mythology And Poetry. He Soon Rendered Himself Popular By His Brav Ery On The Field And Eloquence In The Assem Blies Of The People And Was Elected By ...

Stuttgart
Stuttgart, Stooegirt, Germany, Capital Of Wiirtemberg, In The Basin Of A Broad Valley, Enclosed By Vine-clad Or Wooded Hills, Near The Neckar, 40 Miles Southeast Of Carlsruhe. Many Of The Important Buildings Are Grouped Near The Central Palace Square; Chief Of These Are The Old And New Schlosser Or Palaces, ...

Stuyvesant
Stuyvesant, Sti've-sint, Petrus, Dutch Director-general Of New Netherland: B. Hol Land 1592; D. New York, August 1672. He Served In The War In The West Indies, Became Director Of The Colony Of Curacao, And,. Having Lost A Leg In An Unsuccessful Attack On The Portuguese Island Of Saint Martin, Returned ...

Styria
Styria, Stlef-a, Austria, A Province, For Merly Duchy; Area, 8,662 Square Miles. It Is Traversed By Three Alpine Ranges, Whose Highest Points Reach In The Grimming At The Northwest, And The Eisenhut At The Southwest, An Elevation Of 7,400 And 7,646 Feet Respectively. The Ranges Are Penetrated By Many Valleys ...

Sublime
Sublime, The, That Which, In The Works Of Nature Or Of Art, Is Grand And Awe-inspiring, Longinus, The Eminent Philosophical Critic (3d Century), In His Work (peri Hypsils,' 'of Sub Limity.) Characterizes The Sublime In Literary Composition As That Which "fills The Reader With A Glorying, And Sense Of Inward ...

Submarine Mines
Submarine Mines. The Anese And The European Wars Demonstrated That The Most Deadly Weapons Of Seacoast And Naval Warfare Are The Submarine Mine And Tor Pedo. A Single Submarine Mine Exploded At The Proper Time Will Disable Or Sink The Largest Battleship. The Turkish Coast Artillery In Clos Ing And ...

Submarine Photography
Submarine Photography, A Proc Ess Of Taking Photographs Under Water Dis Covered By Dr. L. Boutan, Professor Of Zoology At The University Of Paris. He Has Made Suc Cessful Experiments, To The Depth Of Several Hundred Feet, On The Coast Of France And In The Waters Of The Mediterranean. Dr. ...

Submarine Signaling
Submarine Signaling. Submarine Signaling Is The Art Of Producing Sound Waves In Water And Of Transforming Them Into Air Waves So That They Can Be Heard. The Art Of Submarine Signaling Has Been Directed Entirely Toward Safeguarding Lives And Property At Sea. Sound Waves Can Be Trans Mitted Through Water ...

Submarine Warfare
Submarine Warfare. Of The Many New Instrumentalities Of Destruction Employed During The Recent World War The Submarine Torpedo Boat Proved The Most Effective. It Differs From Battleships And Cruisers In That It Operates For The Most Part Beneath The Surface Of The Ocean, It Is Slower Of Speed, Frail Of ...

Substance
Substance. Ever Since Thales Ex Plained The Universe In Terms Of Water, There Has Been An Almost Irresistible Tendency Among Philosophers To Explain The Unity Of Intricate Assemblages Of Phenomena In Terms Of A Per Manent Quasi-material Substratum, Or, As It Is Technically Known, A Substance. The Notion Of Substance ...

Subways
Subways. Underground Railways, Now Common In Cities, Have Come To Bear This Name. Of All The Difficult Problems That Have Arisen As A Result Of The Great And Continuous Concentra Tion Of Population In Cities, The Most Difficult And The Most Expensive To Be Satisfactorily Solved Is The Furnishing Of ...