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New International Encyclopedia, Volume 1

Advance Guard
Advance' Guard. Troops On The March Are In A Formation In Which They Cannot Fight, And When They Come Upon The Enemy T Hey Mo St, Tivat, Deploy. This Takes Time, Especially In Large Columns, Consequently Such Columns Require De Tachments To Protect Them Against Surprise. Which In An Advance ...

Advent
Advent (lat. Advent Us. The Approneh, Coining), Or Time Of Advent. A Term Ap Plied By The Christian Church To Certain Weeks Before Christmas. In The Greek Church The Time Of Advent Comprises Forty Days: Hut In The Roman Church And Those Protestant Churches In Which Advent Is Observed, Only ...

Adverb
Adverb (lat. Adrerbium-, From Ad, To + Vcrimm, Word, Verb, "the Word" Of A Sentence Par Excellence. A Literal Translation By The Roman Grammarians Of The Nk. I7ritiaqua, Cpir Rhe'ma, Tram Fci, Cpi, At + Apa, Rhemia, Word, Verb). As An Adjective Is Joined To A Noun, So Is An ...

Adverse Possession
Ad'verse Possession. The Possession Of Lands Under A Claim Of Title Inconsistent With That Of The True Owner. Tt Originates In The Disseisin (q.v.) Or Ouster Of The Freehold Tenant, And, If Continued For The Statutory Period Of Limitation, Results In The Acquisition Of A Com Plete Title By The ...

Advertising
Ad'vertis'ing ( Hat. Adrertere, To Turn [the Mind] To, To Notice). The Method By Which The Producer Of Commodities Disseminates Infor Mation Regarding Them. For The Producer It Has The Value Of An Automatic Process, Since It Makes It Possible To Reach Thousands Of People Through Printed Words, Where Formerly ...

Advocate
Advocate (lat. Advocates, One Called To Aid, From Ad, To-}- Rorarc, To Call). In The Time Of Cicero The Term Advocates Was Not Applied To The Patron Or Orator Who Pleaded In Public, But Rather, In Strict Accordance With The Etymology Of The Word, To Any One Who In Any ...

Aerated Waters
Aerated Waters. Waters Impregnated With Carbon Dioxide Gas, And Frequently Con Taining Mineral Salts. Such Waters Are Exten Sively Used To Quench Thirst, And Are Commonly Called Soda Waters. The Carbonic Acid Lased In Making The Common Artificial Nitrated Waters Is Prepared By Treating A Mineral Eart,dmate. As Chalk Or ...

Aeration
A'era'tion (lat. Ai'r, Air). In Botany, The Exchange Of Gases Between Living Plant Tissue And The Surrounding Medium. This Exchange Is Manifested By Two Processes. In One Of These, Viz., The Manufacture Of Foods (see Photosynthesis ) , Carbon Dioxide Is Required By The Plant And Oxygen Must Be Eliminated. ...

Aerolite
A'erolite (gk. 4p, A Er, Air + 2/doc, Lith O-3, Stone), Meteoric Stone, Fireball, Lith, Of Shooting-star. A Solid Body Reaching The Earth From Unknown Points Beyond The Earth's Atmosphere. When Seen At Night, Aerolites Usually Consist Of A Luminous Head Or Fireball, Followed By A Bright Train Of Incandescent ...

Aeronautics
A'eronaut'ics ( Gk. Air + Ratir7/c, I/cws, Sailor). The Art Of Aerial Navigation. It Is Of Comparatively Recent Development, As The Ancients Seem To Have Been Convinced That The Navigation Of The Air War Impossible To Human Beings, And To Have Made No Attempt To Accomplish It. Grecian Mythology, However, ...

Affective Processes Affection
Affection, Affective Processes (lat. Affeetio, A State Of Mind Produced By Some Influence, From Affieere, To Do Something To One, Ad, To + Facere, To Do). For Many Centuries Psychologists Have Discussed The Phenomena Of The Human Mind Under The Three Headings Of Intellect. Feeling, And Will. (see Psychology.) One ...

Affidavit
Af'fida'vit (perf. Of Low Lat. Affidare, "he Has Made An Oath," From Lat. Ad, To Fides, Faith). A Written Declaration, Or Statement Of Fact, Made Before A Magistrate Or Other Person Legally Authorized To Administer An Oath, The Truth Of Which Is Confirmed Either By An Oath Sworn Or A ...

Affonso De Albuquerque
Albuquerque, Affonso De, Tiie Great (1453-1515). Viceroy Of The Portuguese Indies. Lie Was Born At .alhandra, A Town Near Lisbon, And Is Known In The National Epics As "the Por Tuguese Mars" And As "the Portuguese Camsar." Albuquerque Spent His Youth In Attendance At The Palace Of King Alfonso V. ...

Africa
Africa ( Lat. Africa, From Fer, Inhabitant Of Africa : Of Uncertain Derivation, Possibly Of Pluenician Origin. It Seems To Have Been O•igin Tidy The Designation Of Carthage, As The Colony M Tyre, And Later Extended To The Whole Con Tinent. It Is Certain That The Name Africa Was First ...

African International Associ Ation
African In'terna'tional Asso'ci A'tion. In 1876 The King Of Belgium Called A Conference At. Brussels Of Geographers And Ex Plorers To Consider Means For The Opening, Up Of Africa To Civilization. And There The African International Association Was Formed, With The Object Of Establishing, Stations For Scientific Pur Poses In ...

After Images
Af'ter-im'ages. Retinal Images Which Ap Pear After Time Eye Has Been Removed From Some Illuminated Object. When We Light Our Lamp In The Evening We Are Distinctly Conscious That The Illumination Has A Reddish-yellow Tinge. As Time Goes On However. We Lose The Color; The Paper Ou Which We Write ...

Agapze
Ag'ap.ze Nom. Pl. Of (i;(;-.-1,, Apa Love-feast). Love-feasts, Or Feasts Of Charity, Usually Celebrated By The Earliest Christians In Connection With The Lord's Supper. The Rich Christians Presented Their Poorer Brethren In The Faith With Gifts, And All Ate Together, In Token Of Their Equality Before God And Their Brotherly ...

Agassiz
Agassiz, Louis (1807-73). An American Naturalist, Buirn At Motier, In The Canton Of Fri Bourg. Switzerland. His Father Was A Clergyman And His Mother A Woman Of Education And Taste. Following A Decided Bent Toward Zoology, De Veloped From Childhood And Fostered By His School Preparation At Lausanne,he Studied Medicine ...

Agathocles
Agath'ocles (;k, 'a; Aff,t(iie) Lase.), Siriiian Despot, Ruler Of Syracuse. Lie I/0111 At Therime, In Si•ily., Rose From Humble Circumstances Through The Patronage Of Llamas. A Noble Citizen Of Syracuse, And Received A Com Mand In The Expedition Against .\grigetiturn. Afterward He Married The Widow Of And Became One Of ...

Agave
Agave, Fi-ga've. (gk. Fem. Of Iiyav6f, Aganos, Noble, High-born), Cen'tery Plant. A Genus Of Plants Belonging To The Natural Order Amaryllidaeele, And Having A Tubular Perianth With A Six-partite Limb, And A Coriaceous, Many Seeded Capsule. They Are Hcrbaeeous Plants, Of Remarkable And Beautiful Appearance. There Are A Number Of ...

Age
Age. A Term Employed To Designate Suc Cessive Epochs In The History Of The Human Race. In The Greek Mind, The Life Of The Race Was Likened To That Of The Individual—hence The In Fancy Of The Former Might Easily Be Imagined To Be, Like That Of The Latter, The ...

Agent
Agent (lat. Agens, Acting, Pres. Part. Of Ague, To Act). A Modern Term In English Law. As A Generic Term, It Includes Every One Author Ized To Act For And Represent Another; But It Is Often Used In A Specific Sense To Denote One Authorized To Act For Another In ...

Agincourt Or Azincourt
Agincourt. Or Azin Court. A Village In The Department Of Pas De-calais, France, Celebrated For The Splendid Victory Over The French Gained By Henry V. Of England On St. Crispin's Day, October 25, 1415. Reviving The Ancient Claim Of The Plantagenets To The French Throne, Henry Had Invaded France And ...

Agira
Agira, A-je'ra, Formerly San Filipo D'ar Giro. A City In Sicily, 2130 Feet Above The Sea, 45 Miles Northwest Of Catania (map: Italy, J 10). It Has The Ruins Of A Norman Castle, Sul Phur Mines, And Marble Quarries. The Histo Rian Diodorus (q.v.), Who Was Born Here, Credits It ...

Agjapeivfon4
Agjapeivfon4 (modern Compound From Gk. (46777, (19(11)(7% Love, Ow'. A Staying, Stopping-place). A Conventual Establishment Of A Singular Kind, Consisting Of Persons Of Both Sews. Founded At Charlyneh, Near Bridgewater, England, By Mr. Henry James Prince. Formerly A Clergyman Of The Church Of England. The In Mates Belong To A ...

Agnate
Agnate (lat. Aynatits, Born In Add It But To, From Ad, To + Twins, Born). Agnates, In The Law Of Both England And Scotland, Are Persons Related Through The Fa Ther.as Cognates Nre Persons Through Their Mother. Ity The English Law Of Suc Cession, Agnates Inherit Unless The Inheritance Ilas ...

Agra
Agra, A'gra. A District And A Division In The North-west Provinces (q.v.) Of British India (slap: India, C 3). Population Of Dis Trict, 1891, 1,003,800; 1901, 1,000,500; Of Di Vision, 1891, 4,768,000; 1901, 5,248,100. Agra (evidently From Achberabad, City Of Akbar). A City In The North-west Provinces Of British India, ...

Agrarian Law
Agrarian Law (bat. Leges Agra•im). Laws Regulating The Division Or Holding Of The Public Lands Lager Publicus) Of The Roman Do Main. With The Name Of Agrarian Laws Was For Merly Associated The Idea Of The Abolition Of Property In Land, Or At Least Of A New Distribution Of It. ...

Agrarian Movement
Agrarian Movement (lat.. Aqrarius, Pertaining To Land, Field, Ager). A Movement Among Farmers To Promote Their Interests And Those Of Large Landed Proprietors. It Comprises Efforts At Trade Organization, Often With Political Consequences. Such Movements Took Place In England Long Ago, And Were Particularly Active In The Period Cif The ...

Agricultural Education
Agricultural Ed'uca'tion. The Modern System Of Agricultural Education In Its Most Complete Form Includes (1) University Courses Of Instruction And Research (experiment Stations) ; (2) General College Courses; (3) Col Lege Courses Or Schools In Special Subjects, E.g., Dairying, Animal Husbandry, Aviculture, Or Vet Erinary Science; (4) Secondary Courses Or ...

Agricultural Experiment Tion
Agricultural Experiment Tion. An Institution, Or Department Of An Devoted To Seientitie And Practical Investigations For The Benefit Of Agriculture, The Inspection Of Materials, Animals. And Plants Used In Or Injurious To Agriculture, And The Dissem Ination Of Information On The Theory And Practice Of Agriculture, They Grew Out Id ...

Agricultural Maciiinery
Agricultural Maciiinery. One Of The Fea Tures Of The Agricultural History Of The Past Fifty Years Has Been The Ostensive 1111.111(1111l11011 Of Ma Chinery. Sowing Nutehines, Cultivators, And All The Machines That Displace The His Are Of Com Par:ttitel. Resent Illvention. As Early As 33 Ati„ According To Pliny, The ...

Agriculture
Ag'ricul'ture (tilling- Of Land, Lat. Agri, Gen. Of Agrr, Field, 4- Cultura, Tilling, Cultiva Tion). In A Broad Sense Of The Word, The Science And Art Of The Production Of All Plants And Ani Mals Useful To Man. More Or Less Intimately Connected With Agriculture Itself Has Been The Preparation ...

Agriculture_2
Agriculture. Agriculture Is The Leading In Dustry Of The State, But It Is Not Keeping Pace = With The Other Rapidly Developing Industries Or With The Increase Of Population. Agriculture Re Ceived A Decided Setback From The Civil War, And Has Not Yet Completely Adjusted Itself To The New Industrial ...

Agriculture_3
Agriculture. Alaska Is Too Far North To Be Of Any Importance As An Agricultural Country. Yet The Southern Coast, The Kenai Peninsula, And The Aleutian Islands Possess Possibilities Of A Limited Agricultural Development. The Soil Is Very Fertile, But The Expense Of Preparing It For Cultivation Is Enormous. The Census ...

Aguirre
Aguirre, It-ger'rti, Lore De (c. 1507-61). A Spanish Explorer In Peru, Known As The "traitor" And "tyrant." He Was Born In Ofiate In The Province Of Biscay, And Came To America At An Early Age. He Was In Peru During The Period Of The Insurrections Which Followed The Subju Gation ...

Agutaino
Agutaino, Ii'g'57-1.ilra$. A Malay People On Agttaino Island. See Philippines. A'hab (tick Father's Brother). King Of Israel Front Si,) To S5:1 Me„, The Son And Slleves Roi' Of Omri (1. Kings Xvi 40). The Story Of His Reign Is Told At Greater Length Than That Of Any Other Monarch. But ...

Ahmadabad
Ahmadabad, -dn (1' ( For Derivation See Auto I. The Chief Town In The District Of The Same Name, In The Presidency Of Bombay, India, Situated On The Left Bank Of The Sabar Mati. 290 Miles North Of Bombay, In Lat. 23° N., Long. 72° 3g' E. (map: India, B ...

Aiarchese Orazio 1811 82antinori
Antinori, .aiarchese Orazio ( 1811-82). An Italian Zoologist And African Ex Plorer. Born At Perugia. He Went. To Egypt In 1859. And With Carlo Poggia Explored The Upper Nile Country. In The Butietin Of The Italian Geographical Society, Of Which He Became One Of The Founders In 1867, He Gives ...

Aicard
Aicard, Tikar'...jean Francois Victor ( 184s —1. A French Author, Born At Toulon. .\t First He Studied Law, But Subsequently Turned To Literature, In Which He Made His First Appear Ance With The Drama Jeil Nes Croya)1•es Ills Works, Which Are In General Distinguished By A Finished Style, Include Arc ...

Aid De Camp
Aid-de-camp, Pol'dr-klix' (fr., Camp As Sistant), Or Aid. A Military Officer Serving Ou The Staff Of A Commanding General °nicer. In Time Of War It Is A Position Of Grave Responsi Bility, As Shown Lay The Terrible Mistake Which Led To The Brilliant. Hut Foolish, Light Ea•alry Charge Of The ...

Aigret
Aigret, Regret Or Ft-gra', Or Aigrette (fr.). A Small White Heron Or Egret. (see Egret.) Pence. A Plume Or Erect Ornament Of Feathers, Originally The Long Filiform Tuft Of Feathers That Spring From The Back Of The Egret In The Breeding-season, And Arranged To Adorn The Hair, A Bonnet, Headdress ...

Aintab
Aintab, A Town In The Syrian Vilayet Of Aleppo, Asiatic Turkey, Situated About 65 Miles North Of The City Of Aleppo (map: Tur Key In Asia, G 4). It Is An Important Military Post And Is Well Fortified. It Carries On An Ex Tensive Trade In Leather And Cotton, And ...

Air Brake
Air Brake. A Brake Worked By Com Pressed Air, Which Is Extensively Applied To Rail Way Ears In The United States, And Also To A Less Extent In Other Countries. Air Brakes Are Also Used On Street Railway Ears. The Air Brake In Its First Form Was Invented By George ...

Air Cushion
Air Cushion, Kush'fin. A Mattress Or Cushion Compos.•1 Of A Hag Or Sack Of Air-tight Fabric, Which Can He Inflated, And Which Possesses Many Advantages Of Comfort, Cleanliness, And Portability. Air•beds Were Known As Early As The Beginning Of The Eighteenth Century, But, Being Made Of Leather, Were Expensive. And ...

Air Gun
Air Gun. An Instrument Somewhat Re Sembling A Sporting Rifle, Designed To Diseharge Darts Or Bullets By The Elastic Force Of Compressed Air. As Ordinarily Made. An Air Gun Etpnsists Essentially Of ;in Air Chamber Or Reservoir, Usu Ally Located In The Stook: Of A Condensing Syringe For Pumping Air ...

Air Pump
Air Pump. An Instrument For Removing The Air From A Vessel. These Pumps May Inc Divided Into Two Classes, Mechanical Air Pumps And Mercurial Air Pumps. The Mechanical Air Pump Was Invented By Otto Von Guericke About 1654, And A Specimen Of His Early Apparatus Is Shown In Fig. 1 ...

Airy
Airy, Ar'i. Ste Georr.e Biddell (1301-921. An English Astronomer. He Was Horn At Alnwirk. Northumberland. And Graduated At Trinity Col Lege, Cambridge, In 1819. In 1s25, Lie Discovered The Optical Defect Of Astigmatism And Provided A Corrective For It. Lie Was Elected To The Plu Mian Professorship At Cambridge In ...

Aisle
Aisle, I1 (fr. Ails, Wing, From Lat. Alit, Con Tracted From Oxi//o). An Architectural Term Meaning The Lateral Section Of The Interior Of Any Building Which Is Divided By Rows Of Piers Or Eolumns. In Such Interiors The Higher And Broader Central Section Is Called The Nave; The Narrower, Lower ...

Aiwalyk
Aiwalyk, See A I Va Li K. Aix, Tiks Or Ha (anciently Lat. Aqua, ,s'extiw, Springs Of Sextius). A Town Of France, Former Ly The Capital Of Provence, Now The Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Bonches-du-rheme (map: France, M 8). The Principal Buildings Of The Town Are ...

Aix La Chapelle
Aix-la-chapelle, -in-sha'per,ger. Aacii En (named From Its Springs, Lat. Aquw, And The Palace Chapel). A City Of The Prussian Rbine Province, And Capital Of The Government District Of The Same Name, Situated In A Valley Near The River Wurin, About 40 Miles West Of Cologne (map: Prussia, B 3). The ...

Ajawa
Ajawa, Ei-jiint. A Bantu Tribe Of Portu Guese East Africa, Described By Livingstone. They Have Acquired Some Culture From Contact With The Arabs. Cannibalism Still Exists Among Them, And At The Funeral Of A Chief Women Are Sacrificed; Though They Are Accounted Intelli Gent, Industrious, And Enterprising, A Manly And ...

Akbar
' Akbar, Iik'ber; Hind. Pron. Fileker (ar. I Very Great). Properly Jalal-uu-din Muhammad (1542-1605). Emperor Of Hindustan, The Great Est Asiatic Monarch Of Modern Times. His I Father, Ilumayun, Was Deprived Of The Throne By Usurpers, And Fled For Refuge To Persia. On His Way Thither, In The Town Of ...

Akhaltsikh
Akhaltsikh, N,'kal-tsiki. The Chief Town Of A District In The Government Of Tiflis, Russian Armenia, About 95 Miles West Of Tiflis. And 1450 Miles By Rail Southeast Of Moscow, On The Banks Of The Posklmv-tchai, An Affluent Of The Nor (map: 'russia, E 6). It Is Situated In A Valley ...

Aksakoff
Aksakoff, Iik-sii'ketf, Ivan Sergeyevich (1823-86). A Russian Writer And Leader Of The Panslavists, Born In The Government Of Ufa. Ile Studied In The School Of Jurisprudence And Graduated In 1842, Afterward Entering The Mos Cow Division Of The Senate. In 1848 He Entered The Service Of The Ministry Of The ...

Alabama
Alabama. A River Formed By The Junction Of The Coosa And Tallapoosa Rivers, About 10 Miles North Of Montgomery, Ala. (map: Alabama, 11 4). Its Genera] Course Is Westward To Selma, Thence South-westward To About 50 Miles North Of Mobile, Where It Meets The Tombigbee, And With That Stream Forms ...

Alabama Claims
Alabama Claims. A Series Of Claims For Indemnity Made Upon Great Britain By The United States, Based Upon The Alleged Omission Of Great Britain To Observe The Obligations Im Posed By International Law Upon Neutral Nations With Reference To Their Dealings With, And Duties To, Belligerents. The Claims, In Most ...

Alamo
Alamo, Mla-mo. The. A Franciscan Mis Sion, Built Within The Present San Antonio, Texas (q.v.), About And Occasionally Used After 1793 As A Fort. It Consisted Of A Church, An Inclosed Convent Yard About 100 Feet Square, A Convent And Buiiding, And A Plaza Cover Ing About Two And One-half ...

Aland Islands
Aland Islands, Aland. An Archipelago Of Sonic 300 Small Islands And Rocks, In The Gov Eminent Of Abo-bjfirnehorg, Finland, At The En Trance Of The Gulf Of Bothnia (map: Russia, B 2 ). The Narrow Pass Of Sea Separating Them On The West From The Swedish Coast At Grisslehamn Is ...

Alaric
Al'aric (goth. From Al. All + Yeas, Ruler). The Great Chieftain Of The Visigoths. Ile Makes His First Appearance In History In 394 A.d., As Leader Of The Gothic Auxiliaries Of Theodosius In His War With Eugenius; But After The Death Of The Former He Took Advantage Of The Dissensions ...

Alaric Ii
Alaric Ii. King Of The Visigoths, 485 507. He Succeeded His Father, Eurie. He Was Of A Peaceful Disposition, And Wished To Live On Friendly Terms With The Franks. Ills Dominions Were Very Extensive. Besides Hispania Tarra Conensis And Licetica, He Possessed Numerous Rich Provinces In Gaul, And Formed An ...

Alarm
Alarm. A Self-acting Contrivance Employed To Call Attention To Danger Or Accidents, Or To Arouse Persons From Sleep. The Common Alarm Clock Is A Familiar Example Of Such A Device, And The Electric Burglar-alarm Is Another. The -simplest And Most Common Arrangement Of Bur Glar-alarm Consists Of An Electric Hell ...

Albania
Albania, Mod. Iil'rth-ne'a. (turk...ii-nail/1. A Country In The Western Part Of The Balkan Peninsula. Embracing, In The Est Sense Of The Name, The Turkish Vilayets Of Janina, Monastir, Scutari, And A Part Of Kos Sovo (slap: Turkey In Europe, C 4). It Takes In Ancient Illyria, Most Of Epirus, And ...

Albanian Language
Albanian Language. The Albanian Forms One Of The Eight Chief Divisions Of The Lndo-germanic Languages (q.v.), And Is A De Scendant Of The Ancient Illyrian, Of Which Only A Few Words Are Preserved. On Account Of The Large Number Of Greek Loan-words In Its Vocabu Lary, The Albanian Was Formerly ...

Albano
Albano, 5l-bh!n6. A Town Of Italy, About 18 Miles From Rome, On The Declivity Of The Lava-walls Which Encompass Lake Albano (slap: Italy, C 6). It Is The Seat Of A Bishop, Has About 7000 Inhabitants, And Is Surrounded By Hand Some Mansions Of The Wealthier Romans. It Is On ...

Albany
Albany. Capital Of New York State, And County Seat Of Albany Co., And All Important Railroad And Commercial City. It Is On The West Bank Of The Hudson River, Nearly Six Miles Below The Head Of Navigation, 145 Miles North Of New York City And About 200 Miles West Of ...

Albany Convention Of 1754
Albany Convention Of 1754. In 1754. When Hostilities Were About To Begin Be Tween The French And English In America. The Lords Of Trade Recommended That An Intercolonial Convention He Called To "confirm And Establish The Ancient Friendship Of The Five Nations" And Con Sider Plans For A Permanent Union ...

Albatross
Albatross (corrupted From Po•tug. Al Catraz, The Cormorant, From Ar. Al, The+ Gadus, Bucket, Referring To Its Water-carrying Pouch). A Popular Name For The Large Marine Birds Of The Family Diomedea, Closely Related To The Petrels. (q.v.). Albatrosses Are Among The Most Exclu Sively Pelagic Birds Known. They Occur On ...

Alberoni
Alberoni, Iirbti-ro'ne, Ci—irmo, Cardinal (1664-1752). An Italian Prelate. Minister Of Philip V. Of Spain. He Was The Son Of Poor Vine-dresser, And Was Born At Firenzuola, In Parma. From A Chorister In A Church At Piacen Za, Lie Quickly Rose, Through His Abilities, To The Dignity Of Chaplain And Favorite ...

Albert
Albert, Ger. Albrecht, The Name Borne By Five Dukes Of Austria, Of Whom Two (i. And V.) Were Also Emperors Of Ger Many. Albert I., Archduke Of Austria And Em Peror Of Germany, Was The Eldest Son Of Rudolph Of Hapsburg, And Was Born In 1248. Rudolph, Before His Death, ...

Albert 1490 1568
Albert (1490-1568). The Last Grand Mas Ter Of The Teutonic Order And First Duke Of Prus Sia. He Was The Son Of The Margrave Frederic Of .ansbach, Who Wished Him To Enter The Church. He Was Educated Under The Care Of Archbishop Hermann, Of Cologne. Where He Became A Canon. ...

Albert Nyanza
Albert Nyan'za, Called By The Natives Mwutan-nzn:e. A Large Lake Of British East Africa, One Of The Reservoirs Of The Nile, Ted In A Deep Rock-basin, So Miles Northwest Of The Victoria Nyanza (map: Africa, Li 4). This Lake Is The Northernmost Of A Series Of Five That Occupy The ...

Albert_2
Albert, Iilibe'rt; Ger. Pron. Ill'bert, Ed Uard (1841-1900). An Austrian Surgeon. He Was Born At Senftenberg, In Bohemia, And Studied Medicine At Vienna. In 1873 He Was Made Pro Fessor Of Surgery At Innsbruck. From 1881 Until His Death Lie Was Clinical Professor Of Surgery At Vienna. His Published Works ...

Alberta
Alberta, A District In Canada, Formed In 1832 Out Of The Northwest Territories, Containing 100.000 Square Miles (map: North West Territories, F 4). It Is Hounded On The North By Athabasca, On The East By Saskatch Ewan And Assiniboia, On The South By United States, And On The West By ...

Albigenses
Al'bigen'ses. A Name Applied To The Heret Ical Cathari In The South Of France, About The Beginning Of The Thirteenth Century. The Name Arose From The Circumstance That The District Of Albigeois, About Albi, In Languedoc, Was The First Point In Southern France Where The Cathari Ap Peared. The So-called ...

Alboin
Alboin, Oyhdin ( ?-e. 573). The Founder Of The Lombard Dominion In Italy. He Succeeded His Father In 561 A.d. As King Of The Lombards, Who Were At That Time Settled In .norieum And Pannonia. He First Aided Narses Against The 0atrogoths, And Afterward, Allying Himself With The Avars, Attacked ...

Alcavala
Alcavala, Arka-vivia, Or Alcabala I Sp. From Ar. Al, The + Gabiilah, Duty, Tax). A Duty Formerly Charged In Spain And Her Colonies On Transfers Of Property, Whether Public Or Pri Vate. It Was Probably Instituted In 1341 By Al Fonso Xl., Beginning With 5 Per Cent., And By The ...

Alchemy
Alchemy (ar. Al, The + Kintiya, From Late Gk. Vili[e]ia, Eh Ent Felia; See Below). Alchemy Is To Modern Chemistry What Astrology Is To Astronomy, Or Legend To History. In The Eye Of The Astrologer, A Knowledge Of The Stars Was Val Uable As A Means Of Foretelling, Or Even ...

Alcibiades
Alcibiades (gk. Alkibiadt•s) (c. -150404 N.c.). An Athenian Politician And General. He Was The Son Of Clinias And Dino Mache, And Belonged To The Class Of The Eupatri The. Ile Was Born At Athens, Lost His Father In The Battle Of Coronea In 146 B.c., And Was In Conse Quence ...

Alcohol
Alcohol (ar. Al, The + Kohl, Exceedingly Fine Powder Of Antimony For Painting Eyebrows; Hence The Quintessence Of Something; Finally Rectified Spirits, Alcohol), Or Alco Hol, Caoh, Often Called Spirits Of Wine. A Chemical Compound Of Carbon, Hydrogen, And Oxygen That Has Been Known And Ex Tensively Used From The ...

Alcoholism
Alcoholism. The Term Employed To Denote The Symptoms Of Disease Produced By Alcoholic Poisoning. In Acute Alcoholism, Which Is Generally Caused By The Rapid Absorption Of A Large Quantity Of Alcoholic Drinks, The First Symptoms Are Animation Of Manner, Ex Altation Of Spirits, And Relaxation Of Judgment. The Emotions Are ...

Alcott
Alcott, Ttrkfit, Amos Bronson ( 1799 1888). An American Educational Reformer, Conversationalist, And Transcendental Philos Opher. He Was Born At Wolcott, Conn., Novem Ber 29, 1799, And Died In Boston, March 4, 1888. Lle Was The Son Of A Farmer, And His First Experi Ence Of Life Was Gained As ...

Alder
Alder, Avdilr (lat. Ohms). A Genus Of Plants Of The Natural Order Betulacere. (see Bmen.) The Geniis Consists Of Trees And Shrubs, Natives Of Cold And Temperate Climates: The Flow Ers In Terminal, Imbricated Eatkins, Which Ap Pear Before The Leaves In Some Species, Though In Other Species Leaves And ...

Aldrovandi
Aldrovandi, Uusse (1522 1605). An Italian Naturalist. He Was Of Noble Birth. He Became, In 1554, A Professor Of Phil Osophy And Logic. And In 1560 Lectured On Botany In The University Of Bologna. He Also Practiced Medicine, And Succeeded, After Violent Popular Op Position, In Establishing' An Inspectorship Of ...

Alemanni
Al'eman'ni, More Correctly Spelled Ala Manni (probably, "all Men"). The Name Of A Military Confederacy Of Several German Tribes Which Began To Appear On The Lower And Middle Main About The Beginning Of The Third Century. Caracaila Fought With Them First On The Main In 211 A.d., But Without Conquering ...

Aleppo
Aleppo (ar. Haleb). One Of The Most Im Portant Cities Of Syria, And Capital Of The Turk Ish Vilayet Of Aleppo (30,340 Square Miles: Pop., 995,800) (map: Turkey In Asia, G 4). It Is About 80 Miles East Of The Mediterranean Sea, On The Desert Stream Of Nahr-el-haleb, In About ...

Alessandria
Alessandria, Ii'les-sibedre-a. The Capital Of The Italian Province Of The Same Name (1950 Square Miles; Pop., 1900, 812.022), And A Strong Fortress, Situated In A Marshy Region On The Tanaro, 47 Miles From Genoa By Rail (map: Italy. C 3). Its Chief Ecclesiastical Buildings Are The Cathedral, Built In The ...

Aleutian Islands
Aleutian Islands, 11-10'shan,also Called The Catharine Arcurelaco. The Name Of A Group Of Islands, Numbering Above 150, And Con Sisting Of Several Clusters, Which Form An Insular Continuation Of The Peninsula Of Alaska (q.v.) (map: Alaska. A 5). They Lie On Both Sides Of The Parallel Of 55° N. Bit., ...

Alexander Nevski
Alexander Nevski, Niwskt. (1220-63). A Russian Hero And Saint. He Was Born At Vlad Imir, The Son Of Prince Varoslav Of Novgorod. In Order To Defend The Country, Which Was Attacked On All Sides, But Especially By The Mon Gols, His Father Left Novgorod, Intrusting The Government To His Sons. ...