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New International Encyclopedia, Volume 1

Anomalists And Analogists
Anom'alists And Anal'ogists (for Derivation, See Below). Under This Name Were Known In Antiquity The Representatives Of The Two Opposing Views Of The Origin Of Language. The Science Of Grammar Was Developed In The Al Exandriassage, Although Sonic Beginning Had Been Made In The Earlier Period. Notably By Aristotle. The ...

Ant Eater
Ant'-eat'er. Any Of Various Ant-eating Mammals, Especially Those Of The South Ameri Can Edentate Family Myrmecoithagithe. The Head In This Family Is Remarkably Elongated, With A Slender, Tubular Muzzle, And A Small, Toothless Mouth, With A Long, Vermiform, Protrusile Tongue. The Eyes And Ears Are Very Small. The Legs Are ...

Ant Lion
Ant'-li'on. The Larva Of Any Insect Be Longing To The Neuropterous Family Myrmelonithe. The Kinds Commonly Referred To Are Only Those Which Form Pitfalls, And Not The Members Of The Family In General, All Of Which Do Not Possess This Habit. The Conical Pitfalls Which Are Used More Than Straight, ...

Antalcidas
Antal'cidas A Spartan Statesman, Son Of Leon. Toward The End Of The Year 393 B.c., Be Was Sent By His Gov Ernment To Tiribazus, The Persian Satrap At Sar Dis, To Break Up The Understanding Which Then Existed Between Athens And Persia. He Succeed Ed By Agreeing To The Persian ...

Antar
Antar, An'thr, Or Antara, Ibn Shaddad Al-absi. A Celebrated Arabic Hero Of The Seventh Century, And One Of The Famous Pre Islamic Poets Of Arabia. His Mother Was A Black Slave, Seliba, And As The Son Of A Slave He Was Also Regarded As A Slave, And Obliged To Render ...

Antarctic Lands
Antarctic Lands. The Islands And Continent Surrounding The South Pole Of The Earth. Re Ports Of Recent Explorations In The Antarctic Region Have Served As Foundations For An Hy Pothesis That There Must Be A Considerable Con Tinent About The South Pole. The Outer Edges Of This Land Have Been ...

Antarctic Ocean
Antarctic Ocean. The Name Antarctic Ocean Is Given To The Sea Waters Lying Within The Ant Arctic Regions, And Since The Great Continents Do Not Extend So Far South As The Limits Of The Antarctic Regions, This Ocean Has No Out Side Continental Land Boundaries, And Its Waters Merely Mingle ...

Antarctic Region
Antarctic Region (gk. Nvri, Anti, Against. Opposite + (innroc, Ark T Os, Hear, Ursa Major, The North). The Name Applied To That Portion Of Our Earth's Surface Which Encircles The South Pole. Technically And Astronomically It Is Bounded By The Antarctic Circle, And Although The Antarctic Land Masses Do Not ...

Antelope
Antelope ( Gk. Av190.olp, A N Tholops, A Horned Animal). Any Of Many Hollow-horned Ruminants Forming A Group (formerly Esteemed The Family Antilopithe) Within The Family Bo Vid.e, And Usually Classified Between The Cattle And Goats. The English Word, In Its Widest Pop Ular Use, Often Includes On The One ...

Antheridium
An'therid'ium (a Diminutive After The Greek Fashion From Anther; See Anther ) . The Male Organ Of Plants; That Is, The Organ In Which The Sperms Are Developed. Among The Algae And Fungi An Antheridium Is Usually A Single Cell, And In The Simplest Forms In Which Antheridia Appear This ...

Anthology
Anthology (gk. Dc190.0yia, Antho/oyia, A Flower-gathering, From Flower + 2.i)etv, Legcin, To Pick Out). The Title Usually Given To A Book Consisting Of An Unconnected Se Ries Of Choice Thoughts, Whether In Prose Or In Verse, But Generally In The Latter. In Ancient Times, Collections Of This Kind Consisted Largely ...

Anthracite
An'thracite (gk. Det9pakirnc, Anthrakit From Cirtipa., Anthrax, Coal). A Term Used To Designate The Highest Glade Of Coal, Or That Hav Ing The Highest Percentage Of Fixed Carbon, And Lowest Volatile Contents Of All The Coals. It Has Been Produced From Bituminous Coal By Alter Ation Through The Action Of ...

Anthrax
Anthrax (gk. Rirl9pu;, Coal, Carbuncle, Malignant Pustule: Fr. Charbon). A Specific, In Fectious Disease Produced By A Pathogenic Micro Organism, Bacillus Anthrueis. The Disease Is Also Known In Different Countries As Charbon, In Flammation Of Milt; Milzbrand, • Earbanehio, Mjeltbrant, Miltbrand, And Siberian Plague. In Man, It Is Also Called ...

Anthropology
An'thropol'ogy (gk. *(109pwroc, Anthro Pos, Man + ?i)oc, Logos, Discourse, Science). The Science Of Man. Anthropology Is The Youngest Of The Sciences And Borrows Methods From All, Though The Object Matter—the Human Genus—is So Far Distinct As To Require Special Treatment. This May Be Illustrated By Noting The Relations Among ...

Anthropometry
An'thropom'etry ( Gk. Iiia9m.nroc, Anti, Rd Fos, Man + Plrpov, Met Von, Measure). A Method Of Measurement Pursued In Anthropology. The Primary Measurements Are Those Of The Normal Hody At Rest, And Include Stature. Weight, Eir Emnferenee Of Head, Reach (or Span Of Extended Arms), Circumference And Expansion Of Chest, ...

Anti Federalists
An'ti-fed'eralists. The Name Given To A Certain Political Faction And Party In The United States As A Means Of Conveniently Distinguishing Those In Opposition To The So Called Federalist Party. As A Matter Of The Ory And Analysis, The Federalists Believed In A National System Of Government, While The Anti ...

Anti Masons
An'ti-ma'sons. The Name Of A Political Party In New York And Other States, Organized In 1827-28, Chiefly As The Result Of Excitement Over The Fate Of William Morgan, Of Batavia, N. V., Who Was Said To Be About To Publish, Or Betray, The Secrets Of The Masonic Order, Of Which ...

Anti Rentism
An'ti-rent'ism. A Movement, Partly Po Litical, Extending Over The Years 1839-47, Among The Leaseholders In Albany, Columbia, Delaware, Montgomery, Rensselaer, And Other Counties In New York State. These Leaseholders Held Their Land Under A Sort Of Feudal Tenure, In Spite Of The Virtual Abolition In 1775 Of Many Of The ...

Anti Semitism
Anti - Sem'itism (anti ± Sem Ites, I.e., Jews). A Movement Based On Race Hatred Of The Jew, Due To Social And Economic Causes, In Germany, Austria And France, And Partly Also To Political Causes In Russia. The Movement Has Crystallized In Sonic Countries Into An Anti-semi Tie Political Party. ...

Antibes
Antibes, A Fortified Seaport In The Department Of Alpes-maritimes, In The South East Of Provence, France, And The General Port Of Communication With Corsica. It Stands On The East Side Of A Small Neck Of Land Called La Garonpe, Lying West Of The Mouth Of The Var, In A Fertile ...

Antichrist
Antichrist (gk.' A Ich Rig Tos ; From Anti, Against + Nour6c, Christos, Christ). A Name Which Occurs Only In The Epistles Of John, Lint Which, In All Likelihood, Designates The Final New Testament Form Of A Popular Belief, Whose Rise Is To Be Found In Later Judaism And Which ...

Anticline
Anticline (gk. Anti, Against, Oppo Site + K5ivem, Klincin, To Incline). In Geology, A Term Applied To That Form Of Rock-folding In Which The Opposite Sides Or Limbs Of The Fold Slope Downward And Away From The Crest Of The Fold. Anticlinal Axis Is The Axis Or Crest Of Such ...

Anticosti N
An'ticos'ti (n. Amer. Ind. Naticotck). A Barren Island In The Province Of Quebec, Can Ada, Dividing The Gulf Of St. Lawrence Into Two Channels, And Situated Between Lat. 49° And 50° N. And Long. 61° 40' And 64° 30' Iv., Forty Miles North Of Cape Gaspe (map: Can Ada, S ...

Antidote
Antidote (gk. Civrlaoros, Antidolos, Given Against, From Hurl, Anti, Against + Flf6pal, Dido Nai, To Give). A Term Applied In Medicine To Any Substance Capable Of Neutralizing The Action Of A Poison, Or, In General, Of Any Other Substance. The Action Of Antidotes May Be Due Either To Their Chemical ...

Antietam
Antietam, 511-te'tam. Battle Of, Some Times Called The Battle Of Sharpsburg. A Sanguinary Conflict Fought On September 16 And 17, 1862, Between A Federal Force Of About 75.000 Under General _mcclellan And A Confederate Force Of About 40,000 Under General Ixe. After Having Driven Mcclellan From The Peninsula And Pope ...

Antimony
Antimony (low Lat. Antimonium, Of Dis Puted Origin). A Metallic Element That Was Known To The Ancients, Hut Was First Isolated In 1450. It Is Found Native In Small Quantities, Sometimes Associated With Silver, Iron, Or Arsenic. Its Chief Commercial Source Is The Pay Antimony Ore Or Stibnite„ Which Is ...

Antinowianism
An'tinowianism (gk. 1.-i, Anti, Against Copoc, Nomos, Law). The Doctrine Or Opinion That Christians Are Freed From Obligation To Keep The Law Of God. It Is Generally Regarded By The Advocates Of The Doctrine Of Justification By Faith As A Monstrous Abuse And Perversion Of That Doctrine, Upon Which It ...

Antioch
An'tioch (gk. 'arrt6xeta, : Lat. Latioehra, Or A Nliorhia). The Ancient Capital Of The Ilellenistie Kings Of Syria. On The Orontes, And The Most Marmitieent Of The Sixteen Eities Of That Name Built By Seleucns Nivat Or, And Named For His Father, Antiochus. Its Situation Was Ad. Mirably Chosen. The ...

Antiochus Iii The Great
Antiochus Iii. The Great. King Of Syria, 223-187 B.c. Son Of Seleueus Il. Cal Linicus (246-226) And Laodice, A Cousin Of Andromaelms, Aicended The Throne At The Age Of Fifteen, After The Murder Of His Brother, Seleucus Iii. Cerannus (226-223). His First Expedition Was Against Ptolemy Iv. Philo Pator (221-204). ...

Antiochus Iv Epiphanes
Antiochus Iv. Epiph'anes (gk. Epiplialls, Illustrious). King Of Syria, 175-164 B.c. Son Of Antiochus Iii., Suc Ceeded His Brother, Seleueus Iv., Philo Pato• (1s7-175). In 188 He Had Been Sent To Rome As Hostage, And He Had Been Educated There: In 176 Seleueus Had Sent His Own Son Demetrius To ...

Antiparos
Antip'aros (oh. 'ar-thrapoc, Opposite Paros). Anciently Called Olearos Or Olia Ros. One Of The Cyclades Islands, Cele Brated For A Stalaetit-ic Cave. It Is Separated From Paros By A Narrow' Strait. It Contains About $01) Inhabitants, And Forms A Part Of The Eparehy Of Naxos. Antipa Mos Is Seven Miles ...

Antipater
Antip'ater (gk. 'avri7rai-poc, Antipatros). (c. 400-319 N.c.). (1) The Son Of Lollas, And One Of The Most Distinguished Generals Of Philip Of Macedon And Alexander The Great. It Was Es Pecially Through The Loyal Services Of Antipater And Parmenion That Alexander Was Enabled To Establish His Kingdom On A Firm ...

Antipathy
Antipathy (gk. &yr/, Anti, Against + Rdeos, Pathos, Suffering, Affection, Emotion, Feel Ing). By Derivation, The Opposite Of Sympathy (q.v.). It May Be Defined As A Permanent Aversion To, Or Settled Incompatibility With, Some Object Or Some Quality Of An Object. We May Distinguish Between Formal Or Logical An Tipathy ...

Antiphon
Antiphon ( Gk. 'am-tqw.a.) (430-411 B.c. ) . The Earliest Of The Ten Attic Orators In The Alexandrian Canon. He Was The Son Of Sophilus The Sophist, And Was Born At Ilhanmus, In Attica. Although Antiphon Was Undoubtedly Influenced By The Teachings Of Go•gias, He Never Developed So Rhetorical A ...

Antipodes
Antipodes, (gk. Plur. Avrimm• Dec, From Avri, Anti, Against + /was, Foot). Literally, Those Who Have Their Feet Over Against Each Other. As Applied To Geography, The Term Means The Inhabitants Of Any Two Oppo Site Points Of The Globe, Or, In Other Words, The Dwellers At The Opposite Extremities ...

Antipope
Antipope. A Pontiff Elected In Oppositiot To One Canonically Chosen. The Regular Pope Of Rome Were Occasionally Out Of Favor With A Faction Which Chose Its Own Bishop (e.g., Hip Polytus, 21s-223: Felix Ii., 355-350), But The First Antipope Is Reputed To Be Laurentins, Elect Ed In 498, In Opposition ...

Antipyrine
An'tipy'rine (derivation Same As Of An Tipyretics). An Artificial Alkaloid, Having The Composition C„h,,n,o. It Is A White, Crystalline Powder, Freely Soluble In Water And Alcohol, And Having A Slightly Bitter Taste. It Diminishes The Force And Frequency Of The Heart's Action And Low Ers The Arterial Tension; Reduces The ...

Antique
Antique' (lat. Antiques, Old). As The Term "ancients" Is Commonly Applied To The Greeks And Romans, The Word Antique Is Used With Reference To Their Works Of Art, Especially Their Incomparable Sculptures. The Antique Style In Works Of Art Is Distinguished By Critics From The Romantic Or Also From The ...

Antiseptic
An'tisep'tic (anti + Gk. Cir-str, S(tein, To Make Rotten, To Cause Decay). In The Arts, Any Substance Which Arrests Fermentation And Decay: In Medicine, Any Agent Which Arrests The De Velopment And Growth Of Micro-organisms. A Germicide Is A Substance Or Agency Which Destroys These Micro-organisms. A Disinfectant Destroys The ...

Antonelli
Antonelli, An'tikneple, Giacomo (1808 76). An Italian Cardinal And Statesman, Horn At Sonnino. At The Seminary In Rome He Became Conspicuous For Intellectual Capacity. And Pope Gregory, Recognizing His Ability, Attached Him To His Suite. He Became Under-secretary In The Ministry Of Interior In 1841, And In 1845, Minis Ter ...

Antwerp
Antwerp (fr. A Nrcrs, Anciently Ando•er Porn, From Anc Dc Werp, "at The Wharf, Har Bor"). A City Of Belgium, Capital Of The Prov Ince Of The Same Name, Situated On The Right Bank Of The Scheldt, In Lat. 50° 13' N., Long. 4° 23' E. (slap: Belgium, C 3). ...

Anura
Anu'ra (gk. Di', An, Priv. Oopd, Oura, Tail), Or Salientia (lat., From Salire, To Hop, Jump). An Order Of Amphibia Including Those That Hare No Tail When Adult. It Is Subdivided By Cope Into Three Sub-orders: .1 Glossa, African And Tropical American (pipa ) Toads, And Fossil Forms; Firm Is ...

Anzengruber
Anzengruber, Fin'tsen-grovber, Lunwto (1839-89). An Austrian Dramatist And Novel Ist, Born At Vienna. He Left School Early, And After Spending Some Years In Business Pursuits Became A Strolling Actor At The Age Of Nineteen. While Leading This Life (1860-67), He Wrote A Number Of Plays, None Of Which Met With ...

Aorta
Aorta (gk. Etopt7), Aorte, From Aelpetv, Acirein, To Lift, Raise). The Great. Arterial Trunk Which, Rising From The Left Ventricle Of The Heart, Sends Its Branches Ramifying Through The Whole Body. The Aorta In Man Is Subdivided By Anato Mists Into The Arch, The Thoracic Aorta, And The Abdominal Aorta. ...

Apafi
Apafi, O'pci-fl, Or Abafi, O'h5-f1, Michael I. (1632-90), Prince Of Transylvania. He Ac Companied Prince George Il In An Expedition Against The Poles In 1656, Was Taken Prisoner By The Tartars, And After His Release Returned To His Estate. In 1661 He Was Chosen Prince Of Transylvania, Through The Support ...

Apartment House
Apartment House. A Building Ar Ranged In Three Or More Suites Of Connecting Rooms, Each Suite Designed For Independent House Keeping, But With Certain Meehanieal Conven Iences, As Heat, Light, Or Elevatoriervice, Fur Nished In Common To All The Families Occupying The Building. Legally, There Is No Distinction, In The ...

Apatite
Apatite (from Gk. Circirn, Apate, Deceit, As The Mineral Has Often Been Mistaken For Other Minerals). A Mineral Consisting Of Phosphate With Some Chloride And Fluoride Of Calcium, Its Composition Being Represented By The Formula, Ca ((if ),. It Occurs Both In Crys Talline And Amorphous Form, And Is Largely ...

Ape As
Ape (as. Apa, Ger. A Ffe). A Monkey; Any Quadrumanous Animal, Especially One Of Large Size, And Belonging To The Old World. (see Below.) Thus, The "apes Of Gibraltar," Or "bar Bary Apes." Are Macaques (q.v.) And Some "sa Cred Apes" Are Baboons. (see Bannon Macaque: Most:nr, Etc.) More Particularly ...

Apelles
Apel'les (gk. 'ar-exxijs). The Most Cele Brated Painter In Ancient Times, The Son Of Pytheas, And Probably A Native Of Colophon, On The Ionian Coast Of Asia Minor. The State Ments That He Was A Native Of Cos Or Of Ephesus, Seem Due To His Long Residence In Those Places. ...

Apennines
Apennines (ital. .4 Ppennino ; Lat. Mons Apennines, Apennine Mount, From Cym. Celt. , Sum • Pen, Unit, Promontory). A Mountain Chain Belonging To The System Of The Alps And Extending Uninterruptedly Throughout The Whole Length Of The Italian Peninsula. It Branches Out From The Maritime Alps At The Col ...

Apex I
Apex (i At., The Extreme End Of A Thing; Point, Summit). A Term Used In Mining To Des Ignate The Outcropping Edge Of A Mineral Vein Or Lode. As Interpreted Legally, It Is Not Necessary That The Edge Of The Vein Should Project Above The Surface Of The Ground, But ...

Aphasia
Aphasia, A-fa'zia-a Or -z1-a. (gk. 'atpacrla, Speechlessness, From Ci,a, Priv. Ocipal, Phanai, To Speak). A Term Used To Denote Certain Derange Ments Of Speech Which Are The Results Of Certain Disease Or Injury Of The Mechanism Of Speech. This Mechanism Is Complicated, But It Funda Mentally Consists Of Two Parts, ...

Aphid
Aphid (probably From Gk. Cicpet5is, Aphei Des, Unsparing, From El, A, Priv. E Ide St Ha I To Spare). A Bug Of The Family Aphidithe, Commonly Known As Plant-lice, Which Live Either Free On The Foliage, Bark, Or Roots Of Plants, Or Inclosed In Galls. They Nourish Themselves On The ...

Aphonia
Apho'nia (gk. Dcpwsta, From D, A, Priv. Cpws7'2, Phone, Voice, Sound). The Term Used In Medicine To Signify A More Or Less Complete Loss Of Voice.' It Is Altogether Distinct From Mutismn, In Which It Is Impossible To Form Articulate Sounds, And In Most Eases The Voice Is Not En ...

Apios Tuberosa
A'pios Tu'bero'sa. See Ground-nut. A'pis (gk. 'arts). A Sacred Bull Worshiped At Memphis By The Ancient Egyptians. Ilis Egyptian Name, Hap, Is Of Uncertain Etymology. Originally He May Have Been An Independent Local Divinity, But In Historical Times He Appears As The Sacred Animal Of The God Ptah Of :mem ...

Apocalyptic Literature
Apoc'alyp'tic Literature (gk. Diroicax6r-reic,apokalylitein, To Uncover, Reveal). The Designation Of Certain Alleged Prophecies And Revelations Of Jewish And Christian Author Ship Dating From About B.c. 200 To About A.d. 200. Their Main Theme Is The Problem Of The Final Triumph Of The Kingdom Of God. The Jewish Apocalypses Profess To ...

Apocrypha
Apocrypha (gk. Cbroxputpos, Apokryphos, Hidden, Concealed, From Dab, Am. Away + Kithrrav, Kryptein, To Hide), Or Apocryphal And Pseudefigraphical Writings, I. Old Testa Ment.—a Word Rendered Current By The Jews Of Alexandria. In The Earliest Churches, It Was Ap Plied With Very Different Significations To A Variety Of Writings. Among ...

Apogamy
Apog'amy Dr6, Apo. Away From + •yagos, Gnaws, A Wedding). A Name Which Refers To The Fact That A Plant Which Ordinarily Comes From A Fertilized Egg May, Under Certain Con Ditions, Develop In Some Other Way. It Is A General Term, Used To Cover All Cases In Which The ...

Apollinaris
Apol'lina'ris ( ? -392). The Younger, Bishop Of Laodicea In Syria, And One Of The Warmest Opponents Of Arianism. Both As A Man And A Scholar He Was Held In The Greatest Reverence, And His Writings Were Extensively Read In His Own Clay. His Father, Apollinaris The Elder, Who Was ...

Apollo
Apollo (gk, 'a7r6xx(ov, Apo/kin, Doric For Apellim). Next To Zeus, The Most Inr Portant And Widely Worshiped Divinity Of Greece. Later Antiquity Identified Apollo With The Sun, But In Homer The Two Are Entirely Distinct. As To The Origin And Meaning Of The Name Apollo, There Is No General Agreement ...

Apology
Apology (gk. Drovy(a, Apologia, A Speech In Defense. Defense). A Term Now Commonly Un Derstood As Synonymous With An Excuse For Breach Of An Engagement, Etc.. But Originally Used :ts The Title Of Any Work Written In Defense Of Certain Doctrines, As In The Apology Of Socrates, Ascribed To Plato ...

Apoplexy
Ap'oplexy (gk. Ciaoirxneta, Apoplexia, Front Dir6, Away + Tx1jo-o-av, Pl('sein, To Strike). A Term Applied To An Engorgement. Of Blood, With Or Without Extravasation, In Or Upon Any Organ, As The Brain (cerebral Apoplexy), The Spinal Cord Or Lungs (pulmonary Apoplexy). As Popularly Used. The Term Denotes Vaguely A Condition ...

Apostle
Apos'tle (gk. One Sent Forth, A Delegate, From Chrd.apo, From + B-rexxetv, Stellein. To Send). The Name Used In The New Testament To Designate Specifically That Group Of Christ's Disciples Who Were Called 'by Him To He His More Intimate Companions During His Ministry. And To Proclaim. As His Representa ...

Apostolic Constitutions And Canons
Apostolic Con'stitu'tions And Canons. The Constitutions Are A Collection Of Ecclesiastical Ordinances, In Eight Books, Erro Neously Supposed To Have Been The Work Of The Apostles, And To Have Been Written Down By Saint Clement. In The Last Chapter Of The Eighth Book The So-called Apostolic Canons, Eighty-five In Number, ...

Apparition
Ap'pari'tion (lat. Apparitio, An Appear Ance, From Ad, To + To Come Forth, Be Visible). An Illusion Or Hallucination In Which Objects, Commonly Human Heings, Are Seen With Such Vividness As To Be Regarded As Real. The Hallucinations Of Delirium Or Insanity Are Not Included Under This Term. Before The ...

Appeal
Appeal' (from Let. Appellarc, To Address, Appeal To, Call, Summon). In English Legal Pro Cedure. A Term That Has Two Distinct Meanings. ( It Denotes An Accusation By A Private Person Against Another For Seine Heinous Crime, Demand Ing Punishment On Acount Of The Injury To The Appellor, Rather Than ...

Appearance
Appearance. (for Derivation, See .ap Parent.) A Term Used In Its Most General Meaning To Signify What Is Presented Ill Con Sciousness. It Is That Of Which Consciousness Is Cognizant As An Object Distinct From Itself. For ,instance, In A Perception I May Have Of A Piece Of Money, Its ...

Apperception
Ap'percep'tion (lat. Ad, In Addition To Percipere, To Seize Entirely, Observe, Perceive). A Term First Employed By Leibnitz (1646-1716), For Whom It Signified A Spontaneous Activity Of The Ego Which Exercised Such A Modifying Influ Ence Upon The Crude "perceptions" Of Sense That They Became Transformed Into Clear And Ordered ...

Apple
Apple. The Name Applied To A Tree Be Longing To The Rose Family Of Plants, As Well As To Its Fruit. The Common Apple Is Known Botanically As Pyres Mules; The Crab Apples Be Longing To Baceate. All The Cultivated Apples Of The World Have Come From These Two Farms. ...

Apple Diseases
Apple Diseases. The Apple Is Subject To A Number Of Well-known Fungous Diseases, The More Important Of Which Are The Rust, Scab, And Bitter Or Ripe Rot. The Rust Is Due To The Fungus Jkestclia Pirata. This Fungus Is Peculiar In That It Spends Part Of Its Life On The ...

Appoggiatura
Appoggiatura, A-pod'a-t(713'ret (it., From Appoggiare, To Lean, Rest). One Of Those Me Lodic Ornaments Which Arc Regarded As Accessory Notes Having No Time-value, And Which Are Printed In Small Characters. There Are Two Dis Tinct Varieties Of The Appoggiatura. The Long And The Short. The Long Appoggiatura Was A Device ...

Apportionment
Apportionment (lat. Ad, To ± Portio, Part, Share, Portion). A Partition And Read Justment Of Legal Rights Or Obligations To Con Form To A Change In The Relations Of The Parties Thereto, And To Adjust Their Respective Interests In The Subject-matter Affected By The Change. Apportionment Is Of Frequent Occurrence ...

Apportionment Bills
Apportionment Bills. In The United States, Laws Passed By Congress After Each Decen Nial Census, To Define The Number Of Members Of The House Of Representatives To Which The Sev Eral States Are Entitled. Every State Has At Least One Member. Eleven Apportionment Bills Have Been Passed. The First Constitution ...

Apprehension
Ap'prehen'sion (lat. Apprchensio, A Setting Upon, Grasping, Understanding, From Ad, To Iwchendere, To Seize). A Term Denoting The Subjective Aspect Of Perception And Imagination, As Presentation And Representation Denote Their Objective Side. Two Special Uses Of The Word May Be Noticed. (1) The Phrase "direct Appre Hension" Is Employed For ...

Appropriation
Appro'pria'tion (late Lat, Appropria Tio, A Making One's Own. From Ad, To Proprius, One's Own). (1) The Act Of Applying Specific Property To A Particular Use. (2) The Act Of Reserving Property For A Designated Use. In Its First Signification, The Term Is Applied To Unlawful Acts. Such As Those ...

Apricot
Apricot (fr. Abricot, Sp. Albaricoque, Portug. Elbriroquc, From Ar. Al-birq0q, Gag). A Fruit (lat. Prunus Armeniaea, I.e., Ar Menian Plum) Resembling In Several Respects Both The Peach And Plum, And Really Inter Mediate Between Them. It Is Supposed To Be A Native Of China, And Was Brought Into Eu Rope ...

Apron
Apron (by Wrong Division Into An Apron, For A Napron, O.e. Napron, O.f. Naperon, Fr. Nap Peron, Dimin. Of Nu Ppe, Cloth, Tablecloth, From Lat. Mappa, Cloth, Ef. Napkin). An Outer Gar Ment, Originally Of Linen, But Often Of Cloth Or Leather, Covering The Front Of The Person And In ...

Apuleius
Apule'ius, Lucius. A Satirical Writer Of The Second Century. Ile Was Born At Madaura, In Africa, Where His Father Was A Magistrate, And El Man Of Large Fortune. Apu]eius First Studied At Carthage, Which At One Time Enjoyed A High Rep Utation For Its School Of Literature. Afterward He Went ...

Aquarium
Aquarium (lat., A Watering-place For Cattle, From Aqua, Water). A Tank Or Vessel Containing, Either Salt Or Fresh Water, In Which Either Marine Or Fresh-water Plants And Ani Mals Are Kept In A Living State. _from 1854 To 1860 There Was A Mania For These Scientific Toys, And They Became ...

Aqueduct
Aqueduct (lat. Aqua' Ductus, A Conduit Of Water). Broadly Speaking, This Word Means Any Conduit For Conveying Water, But Usage, Both Ancient And Modern, Has Practically Limited The Word To Masonry Conduits With Little Or No More Slope Than Is Necessary To Cause The Water To Flow Through Them By ...

Aqueous Rocks
Aqueous Rocks. In Geology, Rocks Which Have Been Laid Down As Mechanical, Chemi Cal. Or Organic Deposits From Water. They Be Long To The Sedimentary Rocks, Which Also Include Rocks Deposited From Air (aeolian Deposits). 1. The Mechanical Deposits From Water Are Derived From The Destruction Of Prexisting Rocks. Rain ...

Aquinas
Aquinas, Tuomas, Or Tidiiias Of Aqv'ino (e.1220-1274). One Of The Most Influential Of The Scholastic Theologians, Who Bears The Honorable Titles And Epithets Of Doctor Communis ("uni Versal Doctor," Fourteenth Century) ; Doctor Angelicas ("angelical Doctor," Sixteenth Cen Tury); Prim-cps Scholastienrunt ("prince Of Scholastics") : Doctor Ecelesiw ("doctor Of The ...

Arabesque
Arabesque, (fr.). A Term Which Means Merely After The Arabian Manner; And, So Far As Etymology Is Concerned, Might Therefore Be General In Its Application. In Practice, However, It Is Used To Characterize Any Kind Of Carved Or Painted Decoration, Especially In Conjunction With Architecture, Which Is Not In Close ...

Arabia
Arabia. The Great Southwestern Penin Sula Of Asia, Called By The Inhabitants "jazirat A D'arah," The Peninsula Of Arabia ; By The Turks And Persian:. "arabistan." It Is Situated In Lati Tude 12° 40' To 34° N., And Longitude 32' 30' To (30° E. Its Length From North To South ...

Arabian Music
Arabian Music. The Influence Of The Arabs Upon Modern Music- Is Distinctly Felt In Many Of Our Orchestral Instruments. Their Music-al System, However, Has Left No Traces, Be Cause It Was Rather A Philosophical And Mathe Matical Speculation Tlfan A Practical System. Although In Early Times The Arabs Had Primitive ...

Arabian Nights
Arabian Nights. An Extensive Collec Tion Of Tales Forming Part Of Arabic Literature. And The More Exact Title Of Which Is "the Book Of The Thousand And One Nights." Arabic Manuscripts Vary Considerably, No Two Agreeing Either As To The Number Of Separate Tales Or As To Their Order. In ...

Arabic Language And Litera
Arabic Language And Litera Ture. The Arabic Language Forms A Branch Of The South-semitie Tongues, And With The Tion Of Aramaic (q.v.) Is The Only Semitie Speceh To Be Called A Living Tongue. Is Still Spoken In Palestine, Syria, _mesopotamia. Arabia, Egypt, Northern Africa, And Slalta And It Is More ...