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New International Encyclopedia, Volume 20

Finances
Finances. The Total Expenditures Of The State During 1791, The First Year Of Its State Hood, Were .0210, Which Were Obtained Mainly From A General Tax On Property And Partly From Sale Of Public Lands. The Budget Grew Slowly, And Direct Taxation Upon Property Remained The Main Source Of Income. ...

Finances_2
Finances. During The Colonial Days The Financial Needs Were Very Small, And For Almost A Century The Budget Increased Hardly 50 Per Cent., Being £4200 In 1660, £4500 In 1700, And £6500 In 1754. The Main Sources Of In Come Were A Poll Tax And An Export Duty On To ...

Fisheries
Fisheries. As Earl• As 1s50 Fish Were Shipped From Washington, And Since That Date The Growth In The Industry Has Been Very Rapid. The Period Between 1892 And 1902 Showed An Especially Ap Preciable Advancement, The Value Of The Output In The Former Year Being About $1.300.000, And In The ...

Food Value
Food Value. The Wheat Grain Consists Mainly Of A Large Starchy Mass Surrounding An Embryo And Surrounded By Six Layers Of Tissue, Known To As Shown By Analyses, The Different Sorts Of Flour Do Not Vary Very Greatly When Ground From The Same Lot Of Wheat„ Although The Amount Of ...

Foreign Countries
Foreign Countries. In England Jeremy Ben Tham Early Recognized The Injustice Of The Law Toward Women, But He Considered Prejudices Too Strong To Be Combated. Bailey, In The Rationale Of Political Representation. (1835). Advocated Equal Rights. In 1850 An Article In The West Minster ',wirt(' Occasioned Much Interest. ,tohn Stuart ...

Forests And Purest Products
Forests And Purest Products. Forests Of Yel Low Pine, Interspersed With Tamarack And West Ern White Pine, Are Common East Of The Cascades And North Of The Columbia River. Light Forests Of Yellow Pine Also Cover The Eastern Part Of The State South Of Spokane. East Of The Cascades Dense ...

Francis 17961865 Wayland
Way'land, Francis (1796.1865). An American Educator. Born In New York City. He Graduated At Union College In 1813, Studied Medicine For Three Years. And In 1816 Entered Andover Theological Seminary. Before Grad Uating He Left To Become A Tutor At Union Col Lege, Where He Remained Form• Years. In 1821 ...

Francis 1820 89 Wharton
Wharton, Francis (1820-89). An Ameri Can Jurist, Born In Philadelphia. After Graduat Ing At Yale College In 1839, He Practiced Law In Philadelphia Until 1855. He Was Professor Of English Literature, Jurisprudence, And History At Kenyon College (gambier, Ohio) From 1856 To 1863, When He Was Ordained In The Protestant ...

Francis Adrian 1752 Vanmerkemp
Vanmerkemp, Fra.ncis Adrian (1752 18e). An Immigrant From Holland To The State Of New York Toward The Close Of The Eighteenth Century; A Man Of Remarkable Learning And Of The Highest Character, Who W•as Prevented By Un Toward Circumstances From Attaining The Celeb Rity Which He Richly Deserved. Born In ...

Francis Amasa 1840 97 Walker
Walker, Francis Amasa (1840-97). A Distinguished American Economist, Born In Bos Ton. He Was The Son Of .,amara Walker (q.v.). He Graduated At Amherst In 1860 And .entered Upon The Study Of Law. Soon After The Outbreak Of The Civil War He Enlisted, And He Served Until Near The Close ...

Frederic Wines
Wines, Frederic": Howaim ( 1838—) . An American Sociologist, Horn In Philadelphia, Pa. He Graduated At Washington College (pa.), In 1857; Was Chaplain In The United States Army From 1862 To 1804, And After Graduating At The Princeton Theological Seminary In 1865. Became Pastor Of The First Presbyterian Church Of ...

Frederick Townsend 1831 62ward
Ward, Frederick Townsend ( 1831-62). An American Military Advent Orer, Born At Salem, Mass. Ile Was Educated At The High'school In His Native Town, Became A Sailor, Fought With The French In The Crimea, And Was With Walker In Nicaragua. He Then Became For A Time A Ship-broker In New ...

Friedrich August 17n9 1524 Wolf
Wolf, Friedrich August 17n9-1524) - A German Classical Scholar, Born At Liaynrode. Prussian Saxony. Lie Studied At Guttingen And Began His Career As A Teacher In The Seminary At Meld In 1779, Then Became Rector Of The Gymna Sium At Osterode (1782), And In 1783 Was Called To The Chair ...

Friedrich Gottlieb 1784186s Welcker
Welcker, Friedrich Gottlieb (1784.186s). A German Classical Arehteologist And Philologist. He Was Born At Grunberg, In Hesse-darmstadt: Studied At Giessen; Was Ap Pointed Teacher At The Gymnasium There In 180:3; And In The Year 1806 Went To Rome. Where He Remained Two Years As Tutor In The Family Of Wilhelm ...

Friedrich Theodor Von 1807 87
Vischer, 'friedrich Theodor Von ( 1807-87 ) . A German Critic, Born At Lndwigs Burg, Wurttemberg. Ile Was Educated At To Bingen, After Which He Was For A Year Vicar Of The Country Church Of Llorrheim, Near Vaihingen. He Then Spent The Years 1832 And 1833 In Developing His :esthetic ...

General Death Eate
General Death Eate. Perhaps The Highest Death Rate For ,:o-eat Countries Where Records Are Kept Occurs In Russia, With 33.5 Per 1000 On The Average For Iss4-(73; With 33,3; And With 32.4. The Lowest Death Rates Are Found In Great Britain, The ::-.4enndinavian Cowl Tries, And Those Few American States ...

Geology
Geology. The Southern Half Of The Wash Ington Cascades, And The Whole Of Eastern Wash Ington South Of The Great Bend And The Spokane River, Are Covered By An Immense Sheet Of Basalt Forming Part Of The Great Oregon Lava-tlow, The Most Extensive Volcanic Outburst Known On The Globe. It ...

Geology And Mineral Resources
Geology And 'mineral Resources. As In The Other Atlantic States, The Prineipal Geological Formations Run In Parallel Bands From Southwest T-o Northeast, And Correspond Closely To The Topographical Regions, Whose Characteristics, In Fact, Are Dependent Upon The Underlying Rock Formations. The Coastal Plain Or Tidewater Sec Tion Is Overlaid By ...

Geology And Mineral Resources_2
Geology And Mineral Resources. The Medicine Bow, Laramie, Big Horn, And Wind River Ranges Have Their Cores Of Archaean Crys Talline Rocks Exposed Along Their Crests. These Outcrops Are Flanked By Narrow Bands Represent Ing The Upturned Edges Of Paleozoic And Lower Mesozoic Strata In A Regular Series From Cambro ...

Geology And Mining Interests
Geology And Mining Interests. The Andean Ranges Of The Southwest Arc For The Most Port Of Plutonic Formation In Which Granite And Gneiss Predominate, With Lateral Ridges Of Upper Green Sandstone And Limestone. The Valleys And Plains On Either Side Of These Ranges Are Covered By Detrital Deposits. The Northernmost ...

George 1588 1667 Wither
Wither Or Withers, George (1588 1667). An English Poet, Born At Bentworth, Near Alton, In Hampshire. Lie Spent Two Years At College, Oxford (1604-06), But Left Without A Degree. In 1610 He Settled In London As A Student Of The Law And Made The Acquaint Ance Of The Poet William ...

George Edwin Waring
Waring, George Edwin, Jr. Ms33. 98). An Americith Soldier And Sanitary Engineer, Born At Poundridge, N. Y. He Studied Agriculture And Agricultural Chemistry Under James Jay Napes. And Became A Lecturer On These Subjects. In 1855 Borace Greeley (q.v.) Employed Him To Manage The Greeley Farm At Chappaqua, N. Y., ...

George Frederick 1817 1904watts
Watts, George Frederick ( 1817-1904). An English Painter And Sculptor, The Most Prominent Artist Of The Contemporary School. He Was Born In London, And While Still A Boy Was Admitted To The Schools Of The Royal Academy. Lle Learned Far More, However• From His Study Of The Elgin Marbles In ...

George Villiers
Villiers, George, First Duke Of Bucking Ham (1592-1628). The Favorite Of James I. And Charles I. Of England. He Was Born August 28, 1592, And In 1614 Entered The Service Of The Court, Where At First His Advance Was Retarded By The Enmity Of The Powerful Earl Of Somerset. After ...

George Villiers_2
Villiers, George, Second Duke Of Ham ( 1628-87 ) . An English Politician. 11e Was The Second Son Of The First Duke Of Bucking Ham, And, His Elder Brother Dying While His Father Was Still Living, He Succeeded To The Title On The Death Of His Father. Ile Was Educated ...

Gilbert 1756 1801 Wakefield
Wakefield, Gilbert ( 1756-1801 ) . An English Classical Scholar, Born At Nottingham. At The Age Of Twenty He Graduated From Jesus College, Cambridge. In 1773 He Was Ordained A Deacon In The Church Of England, But After Hold Ing For A Brief Time Two Euracies, He Gave Up His ...

Giuseppe 1813 1901 Verdi
Verdi, Giuseppe ( 1813-1901 ) . The Greatest Italian Composer Of The Nineteenth Cen Tury. Be Was Horn At Roncole, A Small Town In The Duchy Of Parma, October 9, 1313. At The Age Of Seven He Received Regular Instruction From The Organist Of The Village Church. The Boy's Progress ...

Government
Government. The Constitution Of Venezuela, Adopted In 1830 And Amended In 1864 And 1881, Was Changed 'alarch 29, 1901. This Recent Change Has Been Further Complicated By The Foreign And Domestic Difficulties That, Situp Its Inception, Have Beset The Present Administration. In Gen Eral, Venezuela May Be Said To Be ...

Government
Government. Since 11374 The Government Been Under The Control Of Three Eommissioners Appointed By The President. And Approved By The Senate. The Citizens Have No Direct Voice In The Appointments To Office Within The District, Having No Vote In District Or National Affairs. Estimates Of The Money Needed For Muni ...

Government And Artificial Improvements
Government And Artificial Improvements. The Park Is Under The Sole Jurisdiction Of The Federal Government, And Is Administered By The Secretary Of The Interior. It Is Directly In Charge Of A Superintendent, Who Is An Army Officer, And Who Is Aided By A Detachment Of Federal Troops In Enforcing The ...

Greek
Greek. In Greece Windows Were In Use From Prehistoric Times, But Remained Quite Simple Rectangular Openings, Sometimes Slightly Smaller At The Top: The Window' Frame Was Of Stone Or Of Wood, As Occasion Required. In Some Eases The Windows Are Oblong And Double, The Lintel Being Supported In The Centre ...

Greenleaf 1807 92 Whittier
Whit'tier, Greenleaf' (1807-92). An American Poet, Born In Haverhill, Mass. He Was A Descendant Of An Emigrant To New Eng Land In 1638, Whose Children Became Members Of The Society Of Friends. Llis Life As A Youth Was Spent Mainly At Work On His Father's Farm. Ile Early Showed A ...

Griculture
Griculture. The Short Mild Winters And The Long Summers, With Plentiful Rains, Are Conducive To Farming. The Soil. However, Is Generally Much Inferior To The Soils Of The Mississippi Valley. And The Yield Per Acre Very Much Less. There Ds A Great Variation Of Soil In The Different Physical Divisions. ...

H Areas Corpus
H Areas Corpus. This Most Important Writ. Sometimes Known As The Bulwark Of English Lib Erty, Was Instituted To Enable The Friends Of A Person Supposed To Lie Unlawfully Imprisoned To Compel His Keepers To Produce Him In Court In Order That It Might He Determined Or Not He Was ...

Henry 17s5 1s4s Wheaton
Wheaton, Henry (17s5-1s4s). An Ameri Can Lawyer, Diplomat, And Publicist, Horn In Providence, R. 1. Lle Graduated At Brown Uni Versity In 1802, Was Admitted To The Liar In 1805, And Studied For Several Years In Paris And Lon Don. He Then Practiced For Some Time In Provi Dence, And ...

Henry Alexander 1806 76wise
Wise, Henry Alexander ( 1806-76 ) . An American Political Leader, Born At Drummond Town, Aceomac County, Va., Deeember 3, 1806. Ile Graduated At Washington College, Pa., In 1825, Was Admitted To The Bar In 1828, And Set Tled In Nashville, Tenn.. The Same Year, But Returned To Accomac County ...

Henry James Wood
Wood, Henry James (1870—). An English Orchestral Conductor And Composer. Ile Re Ceived His Musical Education Entirely At The Royal Academy Of Music. After 1895 He Won For Himself A European Reputation As The Con Ductor Of The Queen's Hall Symphony, And Of The Promenade Concerts. He Succeeded In Bring ...

Henry Richard 18201894 Vizetelly
Vizetelly, Henry Richard (18201894). An English Printer, Publisher, And Author, Born In The Parish Of Saint Botolph, London. As An Engraver He Worked Under John William Bonnar And Orrin Smith, And His Hest Work Was For An Edition Of Longfellow's Poems. With Herbert Ingram. The Founder• Vizetelly Was Prominent In ...

Henry Wilson
Wilson, Henry ( Isi 2-75). An American Political Leader. Vice-president Of The United States In 1873-73. He Was Born At Farmington, N. Ii., And His Original Name Was Jeremiah Jones Colhaith, But When He Reached Manhood He Legally Assumed The Name Of Henry Wilson. From The Age Of Ten Till ...

Hermann Vogel
Vogel, Hermann Kaiil (1542—). A Ger Man Astronomer, Born In Leipzig. Ile Studied The Universities Of Dresden And Leipzig. In 1565 He Became Assistant And Later Seeond Observer In The Observatory At Leipzig. In 15,70 Lie Became Astronomer In The Private Observatory Of Billow Near Kiel, And Here He Devoted ...

History
History. The Islands Which Later Formed Venice Served As A Refuge For The Inhabitants Of Aquileia, Padua, And The Neighboring Cities Dur Ing The Barbarian Migrations. The Invasion Of Attila (452), The Eanipaigns Of Holisarius Against The Goths, And The Invasion Of The 1,0111h:this (568) Drove Many Fugitives To The ...

History_2
History. The First Explorer Of This Region Was Champlain (q.v.), Who, In 1609, Sailed Up The Lake Which Hears His Name. The Country Was Said To Be Inhabited By The Iroquois, But This Is Doubtful. No Settlements Were Made Until 1665, When The French Built Fort Saint Anne On Isle ...

History_3
History. The Coast Of Victoria Was Sighted By Captain Cook In 1770, And The First Explora Tions Were Made In 1798 By George Bass, Who Discovered Bass Strait. In 1802 Lieutenant Murray Took Formal Possession Of Port Phillip Bay, And In 1803 An Unsuccessful Attempt Was Made By The English ...

History_4
History. In 1795 Sala, A Spanish Physicist, Suggested That It Might He Possible To Charge The Earth At Majorca With Positive Electricity And That At Alicante With Negative Electricity, When The Attraction Of The Opposite Changes Would Establish Communication Between The Two Cities. The Earliest Actual Experiment By Which It ...

History_5
History. The Greater Part Of Modern Wiirt Temberg Was Included In The Mediaeval Duchy Of Swabia. About The Beginning Of The Twelfth Century History First Speaks Of A Count Of Wiirt Temberg. An Uninterrupted Line Of Counts May Be Traced Back To The Middle Of The Thirteenth Cen Tury, When ...

History_6
History. The Territory Included Within The Present State Was A Part Of The Louisiana Pur Chase Of 1803 With The Exception Of The South West Corner, Which Was A Part Of The Mexican Cession Of 1848. The Territory Of Wyoming Was Directly Emitted By Congress, July 25, 1808, From Dakota, ...

Hugh Lawson 1773 1840 White
White, Hugh Lawson (1773-1840). An _american Political Leader, Born In Iredell County, N. C. He Served Against The Indians In Tennessee In 1792-93, And Became Private Secretary To Gov Ernor Blount In The Latter Year, But Soon Went To Philadelphia To Study. In 1796 He Began The Practice Of Law ...

Iianical Filtration
Iianical Filtration Is, Of All, A Straining Process, In Which The Natural Capabili Ties Of The Filtering Medium Are Aided By Coagu Lation. The Gelatinous Coagulating Material, Combined With The More Or Less Sticky Organic Matters In The Water, And With The Finely Divided Clay And Silt, Form A Layer ...

Induction Method
Induction Method. Another Method For Wire Less Telegraphy And One That Is Ideal In Its Sim Plicity Is Based On Induction. Two Coils Of Wire, A. B. Fig. 4. Are Arranged Parallel With Each Other And At Some Little Dis Tance Apart. When The Key Is Depressed A Direct Current ...

Inheritance Contract Id
Inheritance Contract. Id Roman Law And In All Modern Legislations Successions To The Property Of A Husband Or Wife May Be Granted, In Part At Least, By The Term Of An Ante-nuptial Contract. In The Late Medieval Customs Of Germany Reciprocal Rights Of Inheritance Might Be Established Between Any Persons ...

Ism Wight
Wight, Ism Or, All Island In The English Channel, Included In Hampshire, And Separated From The Mainland Of England By The Solent (q.v.) (alap: England, E 6). It Is 56 Miles In Circuit, And Has An Area Of 145 Square Population. In 1901, 82.387. The Soil Of The Northern Half ...

Italian Wines
Italian Wines. Alost Of The Wine Of North Ern Italy. Being Carelessly Made From Neglected Vineyards, Is Light, Neutral, Coarse, And Of Bad Keeping Quality, Hut, Owing To The Natural Advan Tages Of The Country, Well-colored Wines Of High Alcohol And Tannin Content Can He Produced With Reasonable Care. Though ...

Itydrography
Itydrography. The Greater Part Of The State's Surface Is Drained Directly Into The Atlantic Or Its Great Arm, Chesapeake Bay. The Largest River Within The State Is The James, Which Rises On The Western Boundary. Breaks Through The Blue Ridge, And Enters The Foot Of Chesapeake Bay Through A Large ...

Izaak 1593 1683 Walton
Walton, Izaak (1593-1683). An English Author. He Was Born In The Parish Of Saint Mary, Stafford, August. 9, 159:3, And Seems To Have Gone To London About Dal The Belief Al Most Universally Expressed By Biographers Until Recent Years That He Was A 'semester' Or A Linen Draper Is Contradicted ...

James 1727 59 Wolfe
Wolfe, James (1727-59), A British Gen Eral, Born At Wegterham, In Kent, January 2, 1727. Ile Was The Son Of General Edward Wolfe, An Officer Of Merit And Distinction Under :marl Borough And Prince Eugene. James At An Early Age A Strong Inclination For His Father's Profession Of Arms. After ...

James 1736 1819 Watt
Watt, James (1736-1819). A British Me Chanical Engineer, Famous For His Improvements On The Steam Engine, Which Were So Important And Fundamental As Often To Lead To His Being Styled Its Inventor. He Was Born At Greenock, Scotland, The Son Of A Carpenter And Merchant, Who Also At Times Held ...

James 1757 1825 Wilkinson
Wilkinson, James (1757-1825). An American Soldier, Horn In Benedict, Md., Of Eng Lish Ancestry. He Was Privately Tutored And Studied Medicine In Philadelphia (1773-75). In September, 1775, He Enlisted In The American Army, Joining The Army Before Boston; The Fol Lowing Yea• Lie Was Made Captain And Led A Com ...

James Sa Ai Eel
Wadsworth, James Sa Ai Eel ( 1807-64). An American Soldier, Born At Geneses, N. V. He Was Educated At Hamilton College, At Harvard, And At Vale, Though He Did Not Graduate At Any Of These Institutions.; Studied Law Under Daniel Webster In Boston And Under Mckeon And Deniston In Albany, ...

James A Miott Icneill
Whistler, James A Miott Icneill ( 1834 1903). An American Painter And Etcher. Of French Training. The Must Original And Gifted Artist Of American Lineage. The Events Of Iris Early Life Are Difficult To Ascertain. Owing To His Own Contradictory Statements And Desire To Veil Them In Mystery; Hut It ...

Jan Frans Willems
Willems, Jan Frans A Flemish Philologist, Historian, And Poet. He Was Horn At The Village Of Boeehout, Near Antwerp, And At The Age Of Twelve Was Sent To The Town Of Lierre, To Learn Singing And Music. His Talents Attracted The Notice Of Several Influential Persons There, Through Whose Agency ...

Japanese Wrestling Jilijutsit Or
.japanese Wrestling (jilijutsit Or Jiu. . A Method Of Self-defense Without Weapons; The Modern Form Of The Old Samurai Weaponless Combat. It First Became Popular In Japan In The Sixteenth Century, Its Origin Being Traced To Akiyama, A Learned Physician, Who At That Period Lived At Nagasaki. He Is Said ...

Jeremiah Holmes 1792 1836 Wiffen
Wiffen, Jeremiah Holmes (1792-1836). An English Poet And Translator. He Was Born Of Quaker Parentage At Bedfordshire. He Was For A Time A Schoolmaster. And He Acquired A Knowledge Of The Classics, Hebrew. French, Ital Ian, And Later Of Spanish And Welsh. Lit 1821 He Was Appointed Librarian At Woburn ...

Joannes Zonaras
Zon'aras, Joannes (lat., From Gk.'bocivens Zwpapas). A Byzantine Annalist Of The First Half Of The Twelfth Century. He Lived At Constan Tinople, Where He Was Commander Of The Imperial Guard And Private Secretary To Alexius 1. And Joannes Comnemis. In The Reign Of The Latter He Became A Monk At ...

Johann Karl Friedrich 1834
Zollner, Johann Karl Friedrich (1834 82). A German Astronomer And Physicist, Born In Berlin. Lie Studied At The Universities Of Berlin And Basel, And Became In 1866 Assist Ant Professor And In 1872 Professor Of Physical Astronomy In Leipzig. In 1872 Zialner De Veloped A Theory. According To Which The ...

John 158s 1649 Winthrop
Winthrop, John ( 158s-1649). An Eng Lish Colonist In America, First Governor Of The Colony Of Massachhsetts Bay. He Was Born At Edwardston. Suffolk, England, And His Early Life Was Spent At Groton Manor, In Suffolk. He Studied For Two Years (1602-04) At Trinity Col Lege, Cambridge. At The Age ...

Joseph Wheeler
Wheeler, Joseph ( Is36—) . An American Soldier. Born At Augusta, Ga. Ile Graduated At West Point In 1859, Was Commissioned A Second Lieutenant Of Dragoons, And Served At The Cavalry School El Carlisle, Pa., Until April, 1861, When He Resigned His Commission And Entered The Con Federate Service. Lit ...

Julian Alden Weir
Weir, .julian Alden (is52—). An Ameri Can Portrait, Genre, And Landscape Painter. He Was Born At West Point, August 30, 1852, And Received His First Instruction From His Father, Robert Walter Weir (q.v.). He Studied At Paris Under In 1873-76. And During His First Student Days Was Closely Associated With ...

Karl Maria Von 1786 1826
Weber, Karl Maria Von (1786-1826). A Famous German Composer, Born At Eutin, Olden Burg, December 18, 1786. His Musical Training Began At A Very Early Age. His Father, A Shiftless Musician, Was Anxious To Make Him A Musical Prodigy Like Mozart And Exhibit Him For Profit. Up To 1800 He ...

Kinds And Grades Of
Kinds And Grades Of Wool. The Wool Clipped From Lambs, Called In England 'hog Wool.' (litters From The Nvether Wool, Or Subsequent Clippings, In The Staple Being Somewhat Pointed, Softer, And More Wavy Or Curly. Lamb's Wool Is More Valu Able Than Wether's Wool, And Can Lie Used For Purposes ...

Legislative
Legislative. The Constitution Provides That The Senate Shall Consist Of Not Less Than 33 Or More Than 40 Members And The House Of Dele Gates Of Not Less Than 90 Or More Than 100. The Senators Are Elected For Four Years And The Delegates For Two Years. Elections Being Held ...

Lester Frank Ward
Ward, Lester Frank (1841—). An Ameri Can Geologist And Paleontologist, Well Known As A Sociologist And Philosophieal Writer. He Was Born At Joliet, Ill., And Obtained His Early Education In That State. After Serving In The Federal Army During The Civil \var He Was Graduated From The Columbian Uni Versity, ...

Lewis 1827 1905 Wallace
Wallace, Lewis (1827-1905). Au Ameri Can Soldier And Novelist, Known As Lew Wallace. He Was Born In Brookville, Ind. Lie Studied Law In Indiana. Served In The Mexican War, And Then Practiced Law Until The Civil War. He Served As Colonel Of A Regiment Of Indiana Volunteers In Virginia In ...

Libraries
Libraries. Washington Contains A Greater Number Of Collections Of Books Than Any Other City Of Its Size In The World. There Are No Less Than Thirty-four Libraries Owned By The Go• Erunent, Besides The Public Library And Those In Educational Institutions And In Private Hands. The Aggregate Number Of Books ...

Ligny And Quatre Bras
Ligny And Quatre-bras. The Emperor's Ad Vance Northward Was Along The Line Of The High Way Through Charleroi To Brussels. The Move Ment Began On June .13th, And On The 14th Na Poleon's Headquarters Were At Beaumont. On The Afternoon Of The 15th The French Army Be Gan The Passage ...

Liquid Water
Liquid Water. Water Is Well Known In The Three States Of Aggregation—liquid, Solid, And Gaseous. Under Normal Atmospheric Pressure, Water Is Liquid Between 0° C. (32° F.), Its Freez Ing Point, And 100° C. (212° F.), Its Boiling Point. Its Greatest Density Is At About 4° C. (39.2° F.), At ...

Literature
Literature. Hebrew Throughout The Middle Ages Was The Literary Language Of The Jews, And Was Employed Not Only In Religious Services, But Also In Business Correspondence, In Bookkeeping, And In The Preparation Of Legal Documents. As Early As The Sixteenth Century Translations Of The Bible Into Yiddish Began To Make ...

Lutes Wilson
Wilson, .lutes Ilanaison (1s37—). An American Soldier, Born Near Shawneetown, He Graduated At West Point In 1860 And Entered The Topographical Engineers. During The Civil War He Acted As Aide-de-camp To General 3k Clellan In The Maryland Campaign; Was Chief Topographical Engineer Of The Army Of The Ten Nessee From ...

M Immo
M Immo. The Oarliest Reln•esentative Of This School Was Antonio Da Murano (c.1435), Who Worked In Common With A German, Johannes Alemannus. A Greater Influence Than The Ger Man Was Exercised By The Umbrian Painter Gentile Da Fabriano Upon Murano And Its Chief Representatives, The Vivarini Family. The Most Prominent ...

Manufactures
Manufactures. Like Most Other Southern States, Virginia Ha=., Since 1880, Had A Note Worthy Industrial Growth. The Value Of Manu Factured Products Increased From $31,780,992 In 18s0 To 8132,172,910 In 1900. The Aggregate Capital Invested In The Latter Year Was $103,670, 988, And There Were 72.702 Per:sons Engaged As Wage-earners. ...

Manufactures_2
:manufactures. The State's Wealth In Iron, Timber, And Farm Resources Has Been Much To Its Advantage In Its Industrial Development. The Value Of Products Was 45 Per Cent, Greater In 1900 Than In 1890, The Value In 1900 Being $300-, 818.942. The Capital Invested In That Year Was $330.568.779, And ...

Marcus Teren Ills Bc
Var'ro, Marcus Teren Ill's (b.c. 116-27). A Latin Author, Known As The 'most Learned Of The Romans.' He Was Born At Reate, And Edu Cated First Under L. ..elius Stilo Pneconinus, And Then Under Antioehus, A Philosopher Of The Aead Emy. Varro Served With Distinction In The Wars Against The ...

Marcus Vitruvius Pollio
Vitru'vius Pol'lio, Marcus. A Distin Guished Roman Architect And Engineer Of The First Century B.c., And The Author Of The Earliest Extant Work On Architecture. The Place And Exact Date, Alike Of His Birth And Death, Are Uncertain; But It Seems Most Probable That He Was Born In Formbe In ...

Martin 1782 1862 Vanburen
Van Bu'ren, Martin ( 1782-1862). Eighth President Of The United States, Lie Was Born At Kinderbook, N. Y., December 5. 1782. Studied Law With William P. Van Ness In New York City, And Was Admitted To The Bar Iu 1803. He Early Developed A Fondness For Polities And Held Suecessively ...

Metallurgy Of Zinc
Metallurgy Of Zinc. Zinc May Be Extracted From Ores And Furnace Products By (1) The Dry Process, Or (2) The Electro-metallurgical Pr9cess. :metallic Zinc Can Only Be Obtained In The Dry Way And By Electro-metallurgical Processes. As Zinc Cannot Be Separated From Its Solutions By Any Of The Metals That ...

Middle Welsh
Middle Welsh. The Earliest Continuous Texts Of Assured Date Appear In The Book Of Liana(' 11 (fiber Landarensis), A Manuscript Of The Twelfth Century. To The Early :middle Welsh Pe Riod Belongs Also The Collection Of Ancient Laws Ascribed To Dowel Dda And Probably Compiled In Their Substance In His ...

Military Volunteer
Volunteer, Military. A Member Of A Military Organization, Serving Of His Own Free Will. He May Belong To A Trained Reserve For National Defense, As In England Or The United States, Or To An Auxiliary Force Of The Regular Or Standing Army. The Modern Volunteer Movement Had Its Origin In ...

Militia
Militia. In 1900 The Slate Had 423,825 Men Of Military Age. The Organized Militia In 1901 Numbered 2773. I'ol'('lation. The Following Figures Show The Growth Of The Population By Decades: 1840, 30, 945; 1850, 305,391 ; 1800, 775,881; 1870, 1,054, 6700; 1880, 1,315,497; 1890. 1,680,880; 1900, 2,069,042. In 1900 Wisconsin ...

Mining
Mining. Virginia Rivals Western Penn Syl•ania As A Mining Region. Its Large Mineral Wealth Consists Mainly Of The Mineral Fuels— Coal, Petroleum, And Natural Gas. Coal-mining Has Developed Chiefly Since Isso, Since Which Year The Production Has Steadily Increased. The Average Annual Gain For That Period Was Over 1,000,000 Tons. ...

Mode Of Evolution Of
Mode Of Evolution Of The Vertebrata. At A Very Early Period In The History Of Vertebrates, The Internal Rod Or Backbone, At First Cartilaginous, Became Ossified And Segmented Into Vertelirce, And Four Appendages Developed Which Became Fins, Legs, Or Wings, For Progression In Water, On Land, Or In The Air, ...

Modern
Modern \voomengravtng. The Great Dif Ference Between Early And Modern W•ood-eagrav Ings Is That The Latter Is Done On The End Of The Grain On The Wood, Which Is Sawed Crosswise, Instead Of The Side Of The Wood Sawed Lengthwise. The J:nrface Being Therefore Mire]] Harder, It Is Done With ...

Modern Welsh
Modern Welsh. Welsh Literature Since The Sixteenth Century Has Relatively Less Interest Than In The Earlier Periods Of Its History. With The Decline Of The Bardie Institution, Poetry Ceased To Be Cultivated As Of Old, And The Prose Of The Modern Period Has Been Too Largely Confined To Theological Subjects ...

N Vincent De Paul
Vincent De Paul, N' 11r 1)61. Saint (1576-160). A Distinguished French Priest, Founder Of The Missionary Order Of The Lazarists. Lie Was Horn At Ila.nquines, Near Pony, In Gascony, April 24,1576, And Was Sent To School At Toulouse. Ile Became An Ecclesiastical Student, And Was Ad Mitted To Priest's Orders ...

N Viti Dellavita
Viti ( Della Vita ) , (n% Ve'ta). Tm Iura) (1467-1523). An Italian Painter Of The Umbrian School. He Was Born At Ferrara, And Was The Principal Pupil Of Francia, With Whom He Studied At Bologna, 1490415. He Then Settled At Urbino. Where He Stood In High Favor With The ...

Niccolo Zeno
Zeno, Niccolo And Antonio. Two Venetian Navigators And Adventurers Of The Fourteenth Century. They Came Of A Rich Patrician Family And Late In The Fourteenth Century ( Probably Be Tween 1375 And 1380) Went On A Voyage Into The North Atlantic. Where They Were Wrecked, And Remained For Some Time ...

Nicholas Patrick Stephen 1802 65
Wiseman, Nicholas Patrick Stephen (1802-65). An English Roman Catholic Prelate. He Was Born At Seville, Of An Irish Family. He Was Brought To Ireland In His Childhood, And Re Ceived His Education At The College Of Saint Cuthbert At Ushaw, Near Durham, And At The English College At Rome. He ...