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Bouvier's Law Dictionary

Interlineation
Interlineation. Writing Between Two Lines. Interlineations Are Made Either Beyore ? Or Alter The Execution Of An Instrument. Those Made Before Should Be Noted Previously To Its Execution ; Those Made After Are Made Ei Ther By The Party In Whose Favor They Are, Or By Strangers. When Made By ...

International Arbitration
International Arbitration. Arbi Tration May Be Defined In The Words Of The First Hague Conference As "the Settlement Of Differences Between States By Judges, Of Their Own Choice, And On The Basis Of Respect For Law." Arbitration Thus Differs From Me Diation, Which Is An Interposition By A Third Party ...

International Law
International Law. Nature And Sources. International Law Is The Law Gov Erning, The Relations Between States. It Is Sometimes Called Public International Law To Distinguish It From, Private International Law Or, As The Latter Should More Properly Be Called, The Conflict Of Laws (q. V.). Pri Vate International Law Is ...

Interpleader
Interpleader. A Proceeding In The Action Of Detinue, By Which The Defendant States The Fact That The Thing Sued For Is In His Hands, And That It Is Claimed By A Third Person, And That Whether Such Person Or The Plaintiff Is Entitled To It Is Unknown To The Defendant, ...

Interpretation
Interpretation. The Discovery And Representation Of The True Meaning Of Any Signs Used To Convey Ideas. Lieber, Leg. And Pol. Hermeneutics. The "true Meaning" Of Any Signs Is That Meaning Which Those Who Used Them Were Desirous Of Expressing. A Person Adopting Or Sanctioning Them "uses" Them As Well As ...

Interstate Commerce Commis Sion
Interstate Commerce Commis Sion. A Commission Of Five Persons Ap Pointed By The President Under The Act Of February 4, 1887, To Carry Out The Purpose Of The Act. It Sits Usually In Washington, But Can Hold Sittings At Such Other Places As It May Choose. By Act Of June ...

Intervention
Intervention (lat. Intervenio, To Come Between Or Among). The Admission, By Leave Of The Court, Of A Person Not An Original Par Ty To Pending Legal Proceedings, By Which', Such Person Becomes A Party Thereto For The Protection Of Some Right Or Interest Alleged By Him To Be Affected By ...

Invent O Ry
Invent O Ry. A List, Schedule, Or Enu Meration In Writing, Containing, Article By Article, The Goods And Chattels, Rights And Credits, And, In Some Cases, The Land And Tenements, Of A Person Or Persons. A Con Servatory Act, Which Is Made To Ascertain The Situation Of An Intestate's Estate, ...

Irrigation
Irrigation. The Operation Of Watering Lands Or Causing Water To Flow Over Lands By Artificial Means For Agricultural Purposes. "the Word Irrigation, In Its Primary Sense, Means A Sprinkling Or Watering The Best Lexicographers Give It An Agricultural Or Spe Cial Signification, Thus: 'the Watering Of Lands By Drains Or ...

Island
Island. A Piece Of Land Surrounded By Water. When New Islands Arise In The Open Sea, They Belong To The First Occupant ; But When They Are Newly Formed So Near The Shore As To Be Within The Boundary Of Some State, They Belong To That State. Islands Which Arise ...

Issu E
Issu E. In Realty Law. Descendants. All Persons Who Have Descended From A Com Mon Ancestor. 3 Ves. Ch. 257 ; 19 Id. 547; 1 Roper, Leg. 90. In A Will It May Be Held To Have A More Restricted Meaning, To Carry Out The Testa Tor's Intention ; 7 ...

Italy
Italy. A Constitutional Monarchy Of Europe In Which The Executive Power Belongs Exclusively To The Sovereign. He Is Irre Sponsible. He Appoints His Ministers, Who Are Responsible. The Signature Of One Of Them Is Necessary To The Validity Of Royal Decrees. The King Shares The Legislative Power With The Parliament, ...

Jewel
Jewel. A Precious Stone ; A Gem; A Per Sonal Ornament, Consisting More Or Less Of Precious Stones. An Ornament Intended To Be Worn On The Person. The Precise Meaning Of The Word Was Dis Cussed By Shaw, C. J., In Com. V. Stephens, 14 Pick. (mass.) 370. He Said ...

Joint Stock Company
Joint Stock Company. An Associa Tion Of Individuals For Purposes Of Profit, Possessing A Common Capital Contributed By The Members Composing It, Such Capital Be Ing Commonly Divided Into Shares Of Which Each Member Possesses One Or More, And Which Are Transferable By The Owner. Shelf. Jt. St. Co. 1. ...

Joint Tenancy
Joint Tenancy. Joint Tenancy Exists Where There Has Been A Limitation Of The Same Estate, By Deed, Will Or Parol, To Two Or More Persons Without Words Of Severance. Jenks, Modern Land Law 170. Joint Tenants Are Said To Have Four Unities, Time, Title, In Terest And Possession ; Sassier ...

Joint And Several
Joint And Several. A Liability Is Said To Be Joint And Several When The Credi Tor May Sue One Or More Of The Parties To Such Liability Separately, Or All Of Them To Gether At His Option. Dicey, Parties 230. Where One Is Compelled To Pay The Whole Debt Or ...

Joint To Rt F
Joint To Rt F Easo Rs. Wrongdoers; Two Or More Who Commit A Tort. When Several Persons Join In An Offence Or Injury, They May Generally Be Sued Joint Ly, Or Tiny Number Less Than The Whole May Be Sued, Or Each One May Be Sued Separate Ly; Williams V. ...

Jointure
Jointure. A Competent Livelihood Of Freehold For The Wife, Of Lands And Tene Ments, To Take Effect, In Profit Or Possession, Presently After The Death Of The .husband, For The Life Of The Wife At Least. Jointures Are Regulated By The Statute Of 27 Hen. Viii. C. 10, Commonly Called ...

Journal
Journal. In Maritime Law. The Book Kept On Board Of A Ship Or Other Vessel Which Contains An Account Of The Ship's Course, With A Short History Of Every Occurrence During The Voyage. Another Name For Log Book. Chitty, Law Of Nat. 199. In Commercial Law. A Book Used Among ...

Judex
Judex (lat.). In Old English Law. A Juror. Spelman, Gloss. A Judge, In Modern Sense, Especially—as Opposed To Justiciarius, Is E. A Common-law Judge—to Denote An Ec Clesiastical Judge. Bracton, Fol. 401, 402. In Roman Law. One Who, Either In His Own Right Or By Appointment Of The Magis Trate ...

Judge
Judge. A Public Officer Lawfully Ap Pointed To Decide Litigated Questions Accord Ing To Law. An Officer So Named In His Commission, Who Presides In Some Court. In Its Most Extensive Sense The 'term In Cludes All Officers Appointed To Decide Liti Gated Questions While Acting In That Capaci Ty, ...

Judge Made Law
Judge-made Law. A Phrase Used To Indicate Judicial Decisions Which Construe Away The Meaning Of Statutes, Or Find Mean Ings In Them Which The Legislature Never In Tended. It Is Sometimes Used Meaning, Simply, The Law Established By Judicial Prec Edent. Cooley, Lim., 4th Ed. 70, N. See Austin, Prov. ...

Judgment
Judgment. In Practice. The Conclu Sion Of Law Upon Facts Found, Or Admitted By The, Parties, Or Upon Their Default In The Course Of The Suit. Tidd, Pr. 930 ; Truett V. Legg, 32 Md. 147; Siddall V. Jansen, 143 Ill. 537, 32 N. E. 384. It May Be On ...

Judgment Lien
Judgment Lien. At Common Law, A Judg Ment Is Merely A General Security And Not A Specific Lien On Land; 2 Sugd. Vend. *517; But By Stat. 1 & 2 Viet. C. 110, It Is Made A Charge Upon All Lands, Tenements, Etc., Of Which The Debtor Is Owner Or ...

Judgment In Rem
Judgment In Rem. An Adjudication Pronounced Upon The Status Of Some Partic Ular Subject-matter By A Tribunal Having Com Petent Authority For That Purpose. 3 Sm. L. Cas., 9th Am. Ed. 2015. An Adjudication Against Some Person Or Thing, Or Upon The Status Of Some Subject-mat Ter; Which, Wherever And ...

Judgment On Verdict
Judgment On Verdict. A Judgment On A Verdict Virtually Overrules All Demurrers To The Declaration; Fleming Oil & Gas Co. V. Oil Co., 37 W. Va. 645, 17 S. E. 203. The Form Of Such Verdicts Varies According To The Action And Frequently Also With The Char Acter In Which ...

Judgments And Decrees Of
Judgments And Decrees Of Foreign Comm Relating To Immovable Property With In Their Jurisdiction Are Held Binding Every Where. And The Rule Is The Same With Re Gard To Movables Actually Within Their Juris Diction; Noble V. Oil Co., 79 Pa. 354, 21 Am. Rep. 66; The Rio Grande, 23 ...

Judgments In Other Oases
Judgments In Other Oases. On A Plea In Abatement, Either Party May Demur-to The Pleading Of His Adversary Or They May Join Issue: On Demurrer, Judgment For The Plaintiff Is That The Defendant Have Another Day To Plead In Chief, Or, As It Is Commonly Ex Pressed, That He Answer ...

Judicaiia Judgment
Judicaiia ; Judgment. The Constitution Of The United States, Art. 4, S. 1, Declares That "full 'faith And Shall Be Given In Each State To The Public Acts, Records, And Judicial Proceedings Of Every Other State. And Congress May, By Gen Eral Laws, Prescribe The Manner In Which Such Acts, ...

Judicature Acts
Judicature Acts. The English Acts Under Which The Present System Of Courts Was Organized And Is Continued. The Statutes Of 36 & 37 Viet. C. 66, And 38 & 39 Vict. C. 77, Which Went Into Force Nov. 1, 1875, With Amendments In 1877, 40 & 41 Vict. C. 9, ...

Judicial Notice
Judicial Notice. A Term Used To Ex Press The Doctrine Of The Acceptance By A Court For The Purposes Of The Case, Of The Truth Of Certain Notorious Facts Without Re Quiring Proof. It Is The Process Whereby Proof By Parol Evidence Is Dispensed With, Where The Court Is Justified ...

Judicial Power
Judicial Power. The Authority Vest Ed In The Judges. The Authority Exercised By That Depart Ment Of Government Which Is Charged With The Declaration Of What The Law Is And Its Construction So Far As It Is Written Law. The Power To Construe And Expound The Law As Distinguished From ...

Judicial Proceedings
Judicial Proceedings. A Proceeding Which Takes Place In Or Under The Authority Of A Court Of Justice, Or Which Relates In Some Way To The Administration Of Justice, Or Which Legally Ascertains Any Right Or Liabil Ity, Hereford V. People, 197 Ill. 222, 64 N. E. 310. Conclusive Presumptions Are ...

Judicial Sale
Judicial Sale. A Sale, By Authority Of Some Competent Tribunal, By An Officer Au Thorized By Law For The Purpose. The Term Includes Sales By Sheriffs, Marshals, Masters, Commissioners, Or By Trustees, Executors, Or Administrators, Where The Latter Sell Under The Decree Of A Court. A Sale, Whether Public Or ...

Juge Dinstruction
Juge D'instruction. In French Law. An Officer Subject To The Who In Cases Of Criminal Offences Receives The Complaints Of The Parties Injured, And Who Summons And Examines Witnesses Upon Oath, And After Communication With The Pro Draws Up The Forms Of Accu Sation. They Have Also The Right, Subject ...

Jurata
Jurata (lat.). In Old English Law. A Jury Of Twelve Men Sworn. Especially, A Jury Of The Common Law, As Distinguished From The Assize, Or Jury Established Or Re Established By Stat. Hen. Ii. The Assize Was A Body Of Jurors Summon Ed To Answer Certain Specific Questions In Accordance ...

Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction. It Is Difficult• To Reduce A Jurisdiction So Extensive And Of Such Diverse Component Parts To A Rigid And Precise Clas Sification. But An Approach To It May Be Made. The General Nature Of The Jurisdic Tion Has Already Been Indicated. It Exists— First, For The Purpose Of Compelling ...

Jurisprudence
Jurisprudence. The Science Of The Law. The Practical Science Of Giving A Wise Interpretation To The Laws And Making A Just Application Of Them To All Cases As They Arise. The Science Of Human Law. And. Am. L. § 18. By Science, In The First Definition, Is Under Stood That ...

Juror
Juror (lat. Juro, To Swear). A Man Who Is Sworn Or Affirmed To Serve On A Jury. Any Person Selected And Summoned Ac Cording To Law To Serve In That Capacity, Whether The Jury Has Been Actually Impanel Led And Sworn Or Not. State V. Mccrystol, 43 La. Ann. 907, ...