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Acanthopterygii
Acanthopterygii, The Most Specialized Section Of The Bony Fishes (teleostii), Characterized By The Possession Of Spines On The First Dorsal Fin And By The Absence Usually Of A Duct Connecting The Air-bladder With The Alimentary Canal. (see Fish.) They Include The Perch, The Mackerel, The Bass (qq.v.) And Other Well ...

Acanthus
Acanthus, A Genus Of Plants Of The Acanthus Family (acanthaceae), Embracing Some 20 Species, Mainly Perennial Herbs And Small Shrubs, Native To The Mediterranean Region And The Warmer Parts Of Asia And Africa. They Are Bold, Vigorous, Hand Some Plants, With Mostly Broad, Much Divided, Often Spiny-toothed Leaves. The Erect ...

Acapulco
Acapulco, A City And Port Of The State Of Guerrero On The Pacific Coast Of Mexico, I9om. S.s.w. Of The City Of Mexico. Its Population In 1900 Was 4,932, And In 1921 5,768. It Is Situ Ated On A Deep, Semicircular Bay, Almost Land-locked, Easy Of Access And With So ...

Acarnania
Acarnania, A District Of Ancient Greece, Bounded On The West By The Ionian Sea, On The North By The Ambracian Gulf, On The East And South By Mt. Thyamus And The Achelous. Its Most Populous Region Was The Plain Of The Achelous, Commanded By The Principal Town Stratus; Its People ...

Acarus
Acarus (akra-rus), A Genus Of Arachnids, Represented By The Cheese Mite And Other Forms. (see Arachnida.) ...

Acastus
Acastus, Son Of Pelias, But The Friend Of Jason ; He Took Part In The Calydonian Boar-hunt And The Argonautia Expedition. After His Father's Death He Instituted Splendid Funeral Games In His Honour. His Wife Astydameia (called Hippolyte In Horace, Odes Iii. 7, 17) Fell In Love With Peleus (q.v.), ...

Acatalepsy
Acatalepsy. In The History Of Philosophy The Greek Term Acatalepsy Was First Used By Pyrrho The Sceptic To Express The View That The Human Mind Has No Direct Apprehension Of Material Objects. One Is Consequently Not Justified In Making As Sertions About What Things Really Are In Themselves. Each Person ...

Acaulescent
Acaulescent, A Term Used Of A Plant Apparently Stem Less, As Dandelion, The Stem Being Almost Suppressed. Accadian, An Adjectival Form Of The Name Accad Or Ak Kad. Sumer And Akkad Were The Principal Sub-regions Of Baby Lonia (q.v.) And In View Of The Dialectical And Ethnological Differ Ences Between ...

Acca Larentia
Acca Larentia, In Roman Legend, The Wife Of The Shepherd Faustulus, Who Saved The Lives Of Romulus And Remus. Attempts Have Been Made To Explain The Wolf-legend By Suggest Ing That Larentia Was Called Lupa ("courtesan," Literally "she Wolf") On Account Of Her Immoral Character (livy I. 4; Ovid, Fasti, ...

Accelerando
Accelerando (ital.), In Music A Direction Signifying That The Tempo, Or Speed Of Performance, Is To Be Quickened. ...

Acceleration
Acceleration, As Used In Mechanics, A Term Denoting The Rate Of Change In The Velocity Of A Moving Body. It Is What The Increment In Velocity In A Unit Of Time Would Be If The Rate Of Change Were Uniform For That Unit. When A Body Falls In A Vacuum ...

Accelerator
Accelerator, In A Motor-car (q.v.) The Pedal Which Operates The Throttle And Thus Controls The Engine Speed. ...

Accelerometer
Accelerometer. This Instrument Consists Essentially Of An Elastic Cantilever (q.v.) Loaded At Its Free End. Accelerations Perpendicular To The Cantilever Produce A Deflection. One Type Consists In A Semicircular Glass Fibre Fixed At Both Ends, The Mass Centre Being Situated In The Middle Of The Arc ; This Instrument Measures ...

Accent
Accent, A Term Used By The Earlier Greek Grammarians For The Musical Accent Which Characterized Their Own Language, But Later The Term Became Specialized For Quantity In Metre, Whence Comes The Eng. Prosody (lat. Accentus, A Literal Transla Tion Of Gr. In All Languages There Are Two Kinds Of Accent ...

Acceptance
Acceptance, Generally, A Receiving Or Acknowledgment Of Receipt ; In Law, The Act By Which A Person Binds Himself To Comply With The Request Contained In A Bill Of Exchange (q.v.), Addressed To Him By The Drawer. Acceptance May Be Either General Or Qualified. A General Acceptance Is An Engagement ...

Acceptilation
Acceptilation, In Roman And Scots Law, A Verbal Re Lease Of A Verbal Obligation. This Formal Mode Of Extinguishing An Obligation Contracted Verbally Received Its Name From The Book-keeping Term Acceptilatio, Entering A Receipt, I.e., Carrying It To Credit. The Words Conveying The Release Had To Correspond To, Or Strictly ...

Access
Access, Approach, Or The Means Of Approaching. In Law, The Word Is Used In Various Connections. The Presumption Of A Child's Legitimacy Is Negatived If It Be Proved That A Husband Has Not Had Access To His Wife Within Such A Period Of Time As Would Admit Of His Being ...

Accession
Accession, In Law, A Method Of Acquiring Property Adopted From Roman Law, By Which, In Things That Have A Close Connection With Or Dependence On One Another, The Property In The Principal Draws After It The Property In The Accessory, Ac Cording To The Principle, Accessio Cedet Principali. Accession May ...

Accessory
Accessory, A Person Concerned In The Commission Of A Felonious Offence, Not As Principal, But By Participation; As By Ad Vice, Command, Aid Or Concealment. In Certain Crimes There Can Be No Accessories, All Concerned Being Principals, Whether Present Or Absent At The Time Of Their Commission. There Is No ...

Acciaccatura
Acciaccatura, In Music, An Old Type Of Ornament In Pianoforte And Organ Playing Which Consisted In Reinforcing A Particular Note By Striking Simultaneously With It The Note Below It, The Latter Being Then Immediately Released. (from Ital. Acciac Cature, To Crush.) Nowadays It Is More Often Applied To The Shorter ...

Accidence
Accidence, The Term For The Grammatical Changes To Which Words Are Subject In Their Inflections As To Gender, Number, Tense And Case (a Mis-spelling Of "accidents," From The Latin Neuter Plural Accidentia, Casual Events). Also Used For A Book Containing The Rudiments Of Grammar, And So Of Any Subject Of ...

Accident
Accident. This Term Has A Perplexing Variety Of Mean Ings, Which Are, However, Not Entirely Disconnected When Con Sidered Historically. The Meaning Of The Term Varies With The Antithesis Intended. To This, Accordingly, Attention Must Be Paid In Any Context In Which "accident" Occurs. The Following Account Deals With The ...

Accidentalism
Accidentalism, A Term Used (i) In Philosophy For Any System Of Thought Which Denies The Causal Nexus And Maintains That Events Succeed One Another Haphazard Or By Chance (not In The Mathematical But In The Popular Sense). In Metaphysics, Acci Dentalism Denies The Principle Of Universal Causation, That Is, The ...

Accidentals
Accidentals, In Music, Are Signs Signifying That The Notes To Which They Are Attached Have To Be Raised, Lowered, Or Restored To Their Original Pitch As The Case May Be. Thus A Sharp Raises A Note A Semi-tone, A Flat (?) Lowers It A Semi-tone, While A Natural (4) Restores ...

Accius Or
Accius Or Arrius, Lucius, Roman Tragic Poet, The Son Of A Freedman, Was Born At Pisaurum In Umbria, In B.c. He Must Have Lived To A Great Age, Since Cicero (brutus, 28) Speaks Of Having Conversed With Him. His Plays, Which Are Praised By Ancient Writers (horace, Epistles, Ii. 1, ...

Acclamation
Acclamation, In Deliberative Or Electoral Assemblies, A Spontaneous Shout Of Approval Or Praise (lat. Acclamatio), The Adoption Of A Resolution Or The Passing Of A Vote Of Confidence Or Choice Unanimously, In Distinction From A Ballot Or Divi Sion. In The Roman Senate Votes Were Passed By Acclamation In Such ...

Acclimatization
Acclimatization, In The Broad Sense, Is A Term Applied To The Fact That Plants Or Animals May Be Introduced, Artificially Or Naturally, Into A Country With A Climate Different From That Of Their Original Habitat, And May Successfully Propagate There. What Would Come To The Same Thing Is The Successful ...

Accolade
Accolade, A Ceremony Used In Conferring Knighthood; But Whether It Was An Embrace (according To The Use Of The Mod Ern French Word Accolade), Or A Slight Blow On Neck Or Cheek, Is Not Agreed. Gregory Of Tours Writes That The Early Kings Of France Kissed The Knights On The ...

Accommodation Bill
Accommodation Bill. An Accommodation Bill, As Its Name Implies, Is A Bill Of Exchange (q.v.) Accepted And Some Times Endorsed Without Any Receipt Of Value In Order To Afford Temporary Pecuniary Aid To The Person Accommodated. ...

Accommodation
Accommodation, In Theology Has Two Chief Meanings. (1) It Is Used To Describe The Method Of Adapting The Presenta Tion Of Truth To The Learners' Capacity. In A Sense All Revelation Of God Must Be "accommodated" To Man: The Naked Revelation Would Be So Dazzling As To Blind Him. When ...

Accompaniment
Accompaniment, A Musical Term For That Part Of A Vocal Or Instrumental Composition Added To Support And Heighten The Principal Vocal Or Instrumental Part ; Either By Means Of Other Vocal Parts, Single Instruments Or The Orchestra. Owing To The Early Custom Of Only Writing The Accompaniment In Outline, By ...

Accomplice
Accomplice, In Law, One Who Is Associated With Another Or Others In The Commission Of A Crime, Whether As Principal, Abettor, Or Accessory (q.v.). Although The Uncorroborated Evi Dence Of An Accomplice Is Admissible In Law, And May Be Acted Upon By A Jury, It Is The Duty Of The ...

Accord
Accord, In Law, An Agreement Between Two Parties, One Of Whom Has A Right Of Action Against The Other, To Give And Ac Cept In Substitution For Such Right Any Good Legal Consideration. Such An Agreement When Executed Discharges The Cause Of Action And Is Called Accord And Satisfaction. This ...

Accordion
Accordion, A Small Portable Reed Wind Instrument With Keyboard, One Of The Smallest Members Of The Organ Family, In Vented In 1829 By Damian, In Vienna. It Consists Of A Bellows Of Many Folds, To Which Is Attached A Keyboard With From Five To 5o Keys. The Keys On Being ...

Accorso
Accorso (accursius), Mariangelo (c. '544), Italian Critic, Was Born At Aquila In The Kingdom Of Naples. He Was A Great Favourite With Charles V., At Whose Court He Resided For 33 Years, And By Whom He Was Employed On Vari .. . . . Ous Foreign Missions. He Was The ...

Account Current
Account Current, A Running Account Which Is Likely To Extend Over An Interminable Period And Which, If Balanced, Is Usually Opened Again Immediately ; E. G., A Holding Company Which Markets Merchandise May Have An Account Current With A Sub Sidiary Company Which Manufactures A Product. The Entire Output Of ...

Account Rendered
Account Rendered, An Expression Used In Referring To An Account A Statement Of Which Has Already Been Delivered To The Customer. In Business It Is Customary, For The Purpose Of Verification, To Send To Each Customer Whose Account Is Not In Balance A Statement Showing The Debits (charges) And Credits ...

Account
Account, A Term Of Very Various Use In Book-keeping, Bank Ing And Stock Exchange Terminology (see Banking And Credit) Indicating Counting, Reckoning, Especially Of Moneys Paid And Received, Hence A Statement Made As To The Receipt And Payment Of Moneys. The Following Are Some Of Its Chief Usages Balanced Account, ...

Accountancy And Accountants
Accountancy And Accountants. Originally, Accountancy Was The Same Thing As Account-keeping Or Bookkeep Ing, And "accountant" And "bookkeeper" Were Interchangeable Terms, But An Increasing Recognition Of The Importance Of Account Ing In The Development Of Modern Business Methods Has Led Here, As Elsewhere, To The Division Of Labour. In The ...

Accountant General
Accountant-general, A Former Official Of The Court Of Chancery, Whose Duties Have Been Transferred To The Pay Master-general. ...

Accountants Societies
Accountants' Societies. Under British Law There Is No Restriction On The Right To Practice As An Accountant, Although The Designations Of The Recognized Professional Bodies (e.g., "char Tered" And "incorporated" Accountant) Are Protected By Decisions Of The Courts, Which Have Confined Their Use To Members Of The Body Concerned. Until ...

Accounts Payable Ledger
Accounts Payable Ledger, A Subsidiary Ledger Containing The Accounts Of Creditors. It Is A Device Used To Facil Itate The Book-keeping Of A Business Enterprise. The Operation Of This Type Of Ledger Makes Possible A Division Of Labour In An Accounting Department ; The Work Of Posting To Creditors' Accounts ...

Accounts Payable
Accounts Payable, In Accounting Terminology, Amounts Owed By A Business To Its Creditors And Not Evidenced By Notes, Bonds, Acceptances Or Other Recognition. Loans From Offi Cers Or Partners Of An Enterprise Should Be Considered As Loans Payable Rather Than Accounts Payable; Creditors Accounts With Debit Balances Should Be Listed ...

Accounts Receivable Ledger
Accounts Receivable Ledger, A Subsidiary Ledger Containing The Accounts Of Customers. In A Business Organ Ization Which Sells On Credit To Many Customers, It Is Impracticable To Keep Customers' Accounts In The General Ledger. The Necessity Of Having Several Clerks Posting The Accounts At The Same Time Makes A Segregation ...

Accounts Receivable
Accounts Receivable, In Accounting Terminology, Amounts Due To A Business By Its Trade Debtors For Merchandise Sold To Them, Or For Services Rendered, On A Credit Basis. It Should Be Noted That Only Obligations Arising From Trade Trans Actions Should Be Included. Loans To Officers Of A Company Should Be ...

Accoutrement
Accoutrement (a French Word, Probably Derived From A And Coustre Or Coutre, An Old Word Meaning One Who Has Charge Of The Vestments In A Church), Clothing; Apparel; A Term Used Especially, In The Plural, Of The Military Equipment Of A Soldier Other Than His Arms And Clothing. ...

Accra
Accra, A Port On The Gulf Of Guinea In 5° 31' N., O° 12' W., Since 1876 Capital Of The British Gold Coast Colony. Population (1932) About 63,200. The Name Is Derived From The Fanti Word Nkran (an Ant), By Which Designation The Tribe Inhabiting The Dis Trict Was Formerly ...

Accretion
Accretion, An Addition To That Which Already Exists; Increase In Any Substance By The Addition Of Particles From The Outside. In Law, The Term Is Used For The Increase Of Prop Erty Caused By Gradual Natural Additions, As On The Seashore Or On A River Bank Or By The Formation ...

Accrington
Accrington, Municipal And Parliamentary Borough, Lan Cashire, England, 23m. N. By W. Of Manchester, On The London Midland And Scottish Railway. Population (1891) 38,6o3 ; (193i ) It Lies In A Deep Valley On The Hindburn, A Feeder Of The Calder. Accrington (akerenton, Alkerington, Akerington) Was Granted By Henry De ...

Accrued Dividends
Accrued Dividends, The Amount Of The Dividend On A Stock Which May Be Presumed To Have Been Earned During The Period Between The Last Dividend Payment And A Later Stipulated Date. Of Course Such An Accrual Of Dividend Is A Mere Presumption Since Dividends Are Necessarily Uncertain Until At The ...

Accrued Expenses
Accrued Expenses, Costs Which Have Accumulated But Which Have Not Been Paid Or Formally Entered In The Accounting Records. Such Items Ordinarily Are Not Represented By Formal Claims Against A Business And Hence Are Not Included In Accounts Payable. Thus, In Determining Operating Costs For A Given Period, One Must ...

Accrued Income
Accrued Income, Revenue Which Has Been Earned But Which Has Not Been Received Or Formally Entered In The Account Ing Records. In The Preparation Of A Financial Statement Of Income For A Given Period Of Time, Such Amounts Must Be Considered If An Accurate Result Is To Be Obtained. Thus ...

Accrued Interest
Accrued Interest, The Amount Of Interest On A Bond Which Has Been Earned Over The Period From The Date Of The Last Interest Payment To Some Specified Date, But Which Will Not Be Paid By The Issuer Of The Bond Until The Next Regular Interest Date. Bonds Are Almost Invariably ...

Accumulated Dividend
Accumulated Dividend, Dividend On Cumulative Stock Which Was Due But Was Not Paid During One Or More Previous Dividend Periods. Such Unpaid Back Dividends Accumulate And It Is Essential That It Be Paid In Full Before Any Dividend Can Legally Be Paid On The Common Stock. (see Cumulative Pref Erence ...

Accumulation
Accumulation, In Law, The Continuous Adding Of The Interest Of A Fund To The Principal, For The Benefit Of Some Person Or Persons In The Future. Previous To 1800 This Accumulation Of Property Was Not Forbidden By English Law, Provided The Period During Which It Was To Accumulate Did Not ...

Accumulator Electrical Characteristics
Accumulator - Electrical Characteristics Accumulators In Repose.-accumulators Contain Only Three Active Substances—spongy Lead On The Negative Plate, Spongy Lead Peroxide On The Positive, And Dilute Sulphuric Acid Between Them. Sulphate Of Lead Is Formed On Both Plates During Discharge And Brought Back To Lead And Lead Peroxide Again During Charge ...

Accumulator Nickel Iron Alkaline Cells
Accumulator Nickel-iron Alkaline Cells In This Type Of Accumulator Which Was Invented And Developed By Edison, The Active Materials Of The Electrodes Consist Of The Oxides Of Iron And Nickel Which Are Immersed In An Electrolyte Of Potassium Hydroxide. Construction And Assembly.—the Active Material Of The Positive Plates Is Nickel ...

Accumulator Storage Cell
Accumulator (storage Cell). In The Case Of A Voltaic Electrical Battery Or Primary Cell, The Progress Of A Chemical Reaction Or Series Of Reactions Is Utilized For The P..oduc Don Of An Electric Current, And On Completion Of The Chemical Changes, The Efficiency Of The Battery May Be Restored By ...

Accursius
Accursius (ital. Accorso), Franciscus (1182 1260), Italian Jurist, Was Born At Florence About 1182. A Pupil Of Azo, He First Practised Law In His Native City, And Was After Wards Appointed Professor At Bologna. He Arranged Into One Body The Almost Innumerable Comments And Remarks Upon The Code, The Institutes ...

Accusation
Accusation, A Legal Term Signifying The Charging Of An Other With Wrong-doing, Criminal Or Otherwise. For The Accusation Of Another Of A Crime Or Of Misconduct For The Purpose Of Extortion, See Blackmail. ...

Accusative
Accusative, A Case Of The Noun, Denoting Primarily The Object Of Verbal Action Or The Destination Of Motion. ...

Ace
Ace, The Number One At Dice, Or The Single Point On A Die Or Card; Also A Point In The Score Of Racquets, Lawn-tennis, Tennis And Other Court Games. From Its Conventional Use As The Highest In A Suit In Card-games, The Word Has Been Employed (in France And Elsewhere) ...

Acenaphthene
Acenaphthene, An Aromatic Hydrocarbon First Isolated From Coal Tar By M. P. E. Berthelot And Subsequently Synthesized From A-ethylnaphthalene. Crystallizing From Alcohol In Colourless Needles, It Melts At 95°c. And Boils At 278°. Its Formula Is On Oxidation With Chromic Acid It Yields (a) Acenaphthenequinone Employed In The Manufacture Of ...

Acephali
Acephali (6,140axot), A Term Applied To Sects Having No Head Or Leader; And In Particular To A Strict Monophysite Sect That Separated Itself, In The End Of The Sth Century, From The Rule Of The Patriarch Of Alexandria (peter Mongus), And Remained "without King Or Bishop" Till It Was Reconciled ...

Acephalous
Acephalous, Headless, Whether Literally Or Metaphori Cally, Leaderless. The Word Is Used Literally In Biology, And Metaphorically In Prosody Or Grammar For A Verse Or Sentence With A Beginning Wanting. In Zoology, The Mollusca Are Divided Into Cephalous And Acephalous (acephala), According As They Have Or Have Not A Head. ...

Acerenza
Acerenza (anc. Acheruntia), Province Of Potenza, Italy, The Seat Of An Archbishop, 151m. N.e. Of The Station Of Pietra Galla, Which Is 9m. N.w. Of Potenza By Rail, 2,73oft. Above Sea Level. Pop. (1931) 4,505. Its Situation Is One Of Great Strength. ...

Acerra
Acerra, Town And Episcopal See, Province Of Naples, Italy, 9m. N.e. From Naples. Pop. (1931) 20,112 (town), 21,165 (commune). The Town Lies On The Right Bank Of The River Agno, Soft. Above Sea, In A Fertile But . Somewhat Marshy District, Formerly Malarious. It Became A City With Latin Rights ...

Acerra_2
Acerra, In Roman Antiquity A Small Box Or Pot For Holding Incense; Also A Little Altar Placed Near The Dead On Which Incense Was Offered Every Day Till The Burial. In Ecclesiastical Latin, An Incense Boat. ...

Acetabulum
Acetabulum, The Latin Word For A Vinegar Cup, An Ancient Roman Vessel, Used As A Liquid Measure (equal To About Half A Gill) ; It Is Also Used In Biology For Certain Cup-shaped Parts; E.g., The Socket On The Hip Girdle For The Head Of The Thigh-bone, The Receptacle Of ...

Acetaldehyde Or
Acetaldehyde Or Simply "aldehyde," Is The Second Aldehyde (q.v.) Of The Aliphatic Series. It Occurs In The "first Runnings" From Alcohol Stills, Wood Spirit, Petroleum, Etc. It Is Produced When Ethyl Alcohol Is Oxidized And Gives Acetic Acid On Oxidation It Has A Characteristic Odour, Not Unlike Ivy Leaves. ...

Acetals
Acetals, The Ethers (q.v.) And Esters (q.v.) Derived From The Glycols. (see Glycols.) The Aromatic Acetals Are Derivatives Of Catechol (q.v.). ...

Acetanilide
Acetanilide, Also Called Antifebrin, Made By The Inter Action Of Glacial Acetic Acid (q.v.) With Aniline (q.v.). It Is A Febrifuge Or Antipyretic, Used In Headaches And Fevers, Of Which It Reduces The Pain Without Removing The Cause. The Dose Is 0.1 To 0.3 Grams (ii To 5 Grains). It ...

Acetic Acid
Acetic Acid, The Organic Acid Which Gives To Vinegar (from Which It Derives Its Name) Its Characteristic Sharp Taste, Is The Second Of The Series Of Aliphatic Acids, Formic Acid (q.v.) Being The First. Its Formula Is And It Occurs In Nature In Plant Juices Occasionally As Free Acid, But ...

Aceto Acetic Ester
Aceto-acetic Ester, Ethyl Acetoacetate Is An Out Standing Example Of A Chemical Substance Having A Dual Character Arising From The Possession Of Two Different Molecular Structures. Such Substances Are Called Tautomeric Compounds (see Isomer Ism). The Substance Is An Ester (which See), And Has The Molecu Lar Formula The Two ...

Acetone
Acetone Is Present In Very Small Quantities In Normal Urine, In The Blood, And In Larger Quantities In Diabetic Patients, And Is The Simplest Representative Of The Aliphatic Ketones. It Results With Other Ketones From The Destructive Distillation Of Wood And Other Cellulosic Derivatives, And For This Reason It Is ...

Acetophenone Or
Acetophenone Or Phenyl Methyl Ketone Is The Simplest Representative Of The Mixed Aliphatic-aromatic Ketones. It Crystal Lizes In Colourless Leaflets With A Characteristic Odour; It Melts At 2o° C And Boils At 202° C, Is Volatile In Steam And Has The Com Position, It Occurs To A Small Extent In ...

Acetylene
Acetylene Is A Colourless Gaseous Compound Of 7.75% Of Hydrogen And 92.25% Of Carbon, Used As A Fuel, Both In The Oxyacetylene Process For The Welding And Cutting Of Metals, And Also For Isolated Or Inde Pendent Lights. It Is Of Great In Terest To The Chemist, Being The Simplest ...

Achaea I
Achaea. (i) A District On The North Coast Of The Pelopon Nese, Between The Mountains Of Erymanthus And Cyllene And The Corinthian Gulf ; Bounded On The West By Elis, East By Sicyon, Sometimes Included In Achaea. The 12 Cities In Its Narrow Fer Tile Coastland Formed A Religious Confederacy, ...

Achaean League
Achaean League, A Confederation Of The Towns Of Achaea In Ancient Greece. Isolated On Their Narrow Strips Of Plain, These Towns Were Exposed To The Raids Of Pirates From The North Of The Corinthian Gulf. As A Protection Against Such Dangers The Earliest League Of 12 Achaean Cities Arose. In ...

Achaeans
Achaeans. The Name Achaeans Is Used In The Homeric Poems In Much The Same Sense As That In Which The Name Hellenes Came To Be Used In Later Times. To Homer The Hellenes Were A Small Tribe In Southern Thessaly (il. Ii. 684), But From The 8th Century Onwards The ...

Achaemenes
Achaemenes (hakhamani), The Eponymous Ancestor Of The Royal House Of Persia, The Achaemenidae. According To Darius In The Behistun Inscription And Herod. Iii. 75, Vii. I1, He Was The Father Of Teispes, The Great-grandfather Of Cyrus. Whether He Really Was An Historical Personage, Or Merely The Mythical Ancestor Of The ...

Achaemenidae
Achaemenidae, The Graecized Name Of The Family Of The Ancient Persian Kings. (see Persia : Ancient History.) Achard, Franz Carl ( , ) , Prussian Chemist, Was Born At Berlin On April 28, 1753, And Died At Kunern, In Silesia, On April 20, 1821. He Was A Pioneer In Turning ...

Achates
Achates, The Companion Of Aeneas In Virgil's Aeneid. The Expression "fidus Achates" Has Become Proverbial For A Loyal And Devoted Companion. ...

Achelous
Achelous (mod. Aspropotamo, "white River"), The Largest River In Greece ( I3om.). It Rises In Mt. Pindus, And, Dividing Aetolia From Acarnania, Falls Into The Ionian Sea. Its Water Is Charged With Fine Mud, Which Is Deposited Along Its Banks In Fer Tile, Marshy Plains. At Its Mouth, A Number ...

Acheron
Acheron (gr. River Of "woe"), Name Of Several Rivers Of Greece. In Greek Mythology The Name Is Specially Given To A River Of Hades, Over Which Departed Souls Were Ferried By Charon. Later Greek And Roman Poets Used It To Designate The Lower World Generally. ...

Achiacharus
Achiacharus, The Name Of An Eastern Sage Whose "say Ings" Spread Far And Wide And Had A Remarkable Influence On The World's Gnomic Literature. His History And Moralizing Sayings Have Been Preserved, In Whole Or In Part And With Interesting Minor Variations, In Syriac, Arabic, Ethiopic, Armenian And Slavonic Translations, ...

Achill
Achill, The Largest Island Off Ireland, Separated From The Curraun Peninsula Of The West Coast By The Narrow Achill Sound. Pop. (1926) 5,008. It Is Included In Mayo. Its Shape Is Triangular, And Is 15m. From East To West And From North To South. Area 57sq.m. The Island Is Mountainous, ...

Achilles Tatius
Achilles Tatius, Of Alexandria, Greek Rhetorician, Author Of The Erotic Romance, The Adventures Of Leucippe And Cleitophon, Flourished About A.d. 450, Perhaps Later. Suidas, Who Alone Calls Him Statius, Says That He Became A Christian And Even Tually A Bishop (like Heliodorus, Whom He Imitated) But There Is No Evidence ...

Achilles
Achilles, Son Of Peleus (q.v.) And Thetis; Bravest, Hand Somest And Swiftest Of The Army Of Agamemnon. According To Homer, He Was Brought Up By His Mother At Phthia With His Cousin And His Intimate Friend Patroclus; His Teachers Were Phoenix And Cheiron. The Non-homeric Tales Of His Childhood Contain ...

Achimenes
Achimenes, A Genus Of Plants (family Gesneraceae, To Which Belong Also Gloxinia And Streptocarpus), Natives Of Tropical America, And Well Known In Cultivation As Stove Or Warm Green House Plants. They Are Herbaceous Perennials, Generally With Hairy Serrated Leaves And Handsome Flowers. The Corolla Is Tubu Lar With A Spreading ...

Achin History
Achin - History Northern Sumatra Was Visited By A Number Of European Travel Lers In The Middle Ages, For Example Marco Polo, Friar Odoric And Nicolo Conti (qq.v.). But The First Voyager To Visit Achin, Known Then By That Name, Was Alvaro Tellez, A Captain Of Tristan D'acunha's Fleet, In ...

Achin
Achin (dutch, Atjeh), And Dependencies, Is A Dutch Gov Ernment In Sumatra, Dutch East Indies. It Forms The Northern Extremity Of The Island, The Boundary Extending From Salahadji, A Point On The East Coast, Just North Of Aru Bay, To A Point On The West Coast, About Mid-way Between Singkel ...

Achinese
Achinese, A Sumatran Tribe Of Proto-malayan Stock Modi Fied By Hindu And Arab Elements, The Darker Complexion Of The Lowlanders As Distinct From The Highlanders Of The Tribe Being Attributed To A Greater Infusion Of South Indian Blood. They Are Muslims, But Not Very Strict, And Early In The 13th ...

Achinsk
Achinsk. ) A Province In The Siberian Area Of The R.s.f.s.r. Area 65,2o4sq.km. Pop. (19 2 6) 39 2,000 ; Urban 24,997; Rural 367,003. It Consists Of Pine, Spruce And Birch Forest, With Open Grassy Areas On Which Rye And Wheat Are Grown By The Peasants And Immigrant Colonists. The ...

Acholi
Acholi, A Negro People Of The Upper Nile Valley, Akin To The Shilluks Of The White Nile. They Frequently Decorate The Tern Ples Or Cheeks With Wavy Or Zigzag Scars, And Also The Thighs With Scrolls; Some Pierce The Ears. Their Huts Are Circular With A High Peak, A Mud ...

Achromatic Lens
Achromatic Lens, A Combination Of Two Or More Lenses Corrected For Chromatic Aberration. (see Optics ; Lens ; Photography : Apparatus.) ...

Acid Base Equilibrium
Acid Base Equilibrium: See Diet And Dietetics. Acidimetry, The Determination Of The Quantity Of Free Acid (q.v.) In A Substance. There Are Several Methods Of Estima Tion, One Of The Chief Being By Volumetric Analysis (q.v.). A Con Venient Method For The Aqueous Solution Of A Fairly Pure Acid Is ...

Acid
Acid, The Name Loosely Applied To Any Sour Substance; In Chemistry It Has A More Precise Meaning, Denoting A Substance Containing Hydrogen Which May Be Replaced By Metals With The Formation Of Salts. An Acid May Therefore Be Regarded As A Salt Of Hydrogen. A Still More Recent And Broader ...

Acinaces
Acinaces, From The Greek. An Ancient Persian Sword, Short And Straight, And Worn, Contrary To The Roman Fashion, On The Right Side, Or Sometimes In Front Of The Body, As Shown In The Bas-reliefs Found At Persepolis. Among The Persian Nobility It Was Frequently Made Of Gold, Being Worn As ...

Acireale
Acireale (anc. Acis), Town And Episcopal See, Province Of Catania, Sicily; 9m. N.e. From Catania By Rail. Pop. (1931) 17,607 (town), 38,168 (commune). The Thermal Springs Were Used By The Romans. It Took Its Name From The River Acis, Into Which Acis, The Lover Of Galatea, Was Changed After He ...