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Alicante_2
Alicante, Seaboard Province, South-eastern Spain, Formed (1833) From Parts Of The Provinces Of Valencia And Murcia. Pop. 545,838; Area, 2, 24osq.m. ; Density Per Sq.m., 243.7. In The North And West There Are Extensive Calcareous Mountain Ranges Cut By Deep Ravines ; Further South The Land Is More Level With ...

Alice Maud Mary
Alice Maud Mary, Grand Duchess Of Hesse-darm Stadt (1843-1878), Second Daughter And Third Child Of Queen Victoria, Was Born At Buckingham Palace On April 25 1843. In The Summer Of 186o, At Windsor Castle, Princess Alice First Met Her Future Husband, Prince Louis Of Hesse. In The Following Year, The ...

Alice Springs
Alice Springs, A Telegraph Station On The Overland Tele Graph Line (adelaide—port Darwin) In The Central Southern Por Tion Of The Northern Territory, Australia. Situated Near The Centre Of The Macdonnell Ranges, 994m. From Adelaide And I,io5m. From Port Darwin, It Lies Virtually In The Centre Of The Continent. Heavitree ...

Alien Corporation
Alien Corporation, A Corporation Doing Business In One Country But Having Its Organization And Charter In Another Country, E.g., A Canadian, English Or French Corporation Doing Business In The United States. The Various State Statutes Do Not Make Any Distinction Between Corporations Incorporated In For Eign Countries And Those Incorporated ...

Alien Houses
Alien-houses, Religious Houses In England Belonging To Foreign Ecclesiastics, Or Under Their Control; Generally They Were Built Where Property Had Been Left By Donors To Foreign Orders In Order To Purchase Prayers For Their Souls. There Were More Than Ioo In England; Many Were Suppressed By Henry V. And The ...

Alien
Alien Is Defined By The British Nationality And Status Of Aliens Act 1914-22 As A "person Who Is Not A British Subject." He Is One Who Either Owes Allegiance To A Foreign Sovereign Or Is Stateless. Calvin's Case (1608) Decided That Natives Of Scotland Born Before The Union Of The ...

Alienation
Alienation, The Act Or Fact Of Being Estranged, Set Apart Or Separated. In Law The Word Is Used For The Act Of Transfer Of Property By Voluntary Deed And Not By Inheritance. In Regard To Church Property The Word Has Come To Mean A Transfer From Religious To Secular Ownership. ...

Alienist
Alienist, One Who Specializes In The Study Of Mental Dis Eases, Which Are Often Included In The Generic Name "alienation." (see Insanity.) ...

Aligarh
Aligarh, A City And District Of British India In The Agra Division Of The United Provinces. The City (pop. 83,878-in 1930 Is Also Known As Koil. There Are Several Flour-mills, Cotton-presses And An Important Dairy Farm. Aligarh F Ort, Situated On The Grand Trunk Road, Consists Of A Regular Polygon, ...

Alignment Or Alinement
Alignment Or Alinement, The Way In Which The Line Runs (from Fr. A And Ligne, The Lat. Linea, A Line) ; An Ex Pression Used In Surveying, Drawing, And In Military Arrangements, The Alignment Of A Regiment Or A Camp Meaning The Situation When Drawn Up In Line Or The ...

Aliment
Aliment, A Synonym For "food," Literally Or Metaphoric Ally. The Word Has Also Been Used In The Same Legal Sense As Alimony (q.v.). Aliment, In Scots Law, Is The Sum Paid Or Allow Ance Given In Respect Of The Reciprocal Obligation Of Parents And Children, Husband And Wife, Grandparents And ...

Alimentary Canal
Alimentary Canal, In Anatomy. The Alimentary Canal Is The Digestive Tract From The Mouth To The Anus. It Is Some 25 To 3oft. Long, And The Food, In Its Passage, Passes Through The Following Parts One After The Other : Mouth, Pharynx, Oesoph Agus, Stomach, Small Intestines, Caecum, Large Intestines, ...

Alimony
Alimony, In Law The Allowance For Maintenance To Which A Wife Is Entitled Out Of Her Husband's Estate F Or Her Support In Or Consequent Upon A Matrimonial Cause. Though, As A Rule, Payable To A Wife, It May, If The Circumstances Of The Case Warrant It, Be Payable By ...

Aliquot Part
Aliquot Part, An Exact Divisor Of A Number Or Quantity (that Is, A Divisor Giving An Integral Quotient). For Example, 2 Is An Aliquot Part Of Io, 334 Is An Aliquot Part Of Oo, A Line 21 In. Long Is An Aliquot Part Of One That Is 73- In. Long, ...

Alirajpur
Alirajpur, An Indian State Under The Southern Agency In Central India. It Lies In Malwa, Near The Frontier Of Bombay. It Has An Area Of 836sq.m. ; And A Pop. (1931) Of 1°1,963. The Country Is Hilly, And Many Of The Inhabitants Are Aboriginal Bhils. Alismaceae, In Botany, A Family ...

Aliwal North
Aliwal North, A Town Situated On The Left Bank Of The Orange River, Which Here Forms The Boundary Between The Cape Province And The Orange Free State, And Which Is Spanned By A Bridge 86oft. In Length; 3o° 31' S., 26° 53' E. Pop. (1931) White 2,677, Coloured (1921) 3,819. ...

Aliwal
Aliwal, A Village In British India, Ludhiana District, Pun Jab, On The Left Bank Of The Sutlej, Famous As The Scene Of A Great Battle Of The First Sikh War (q.v.). In Jan. 1846 It Was Held By A Sikh Army, Which Had Crossed The River And Threatened Ludhiana. On ...

Alizarin
Alizarin, A Vegetable Dyestuff Prepared From The Root Of The Madder (rubin Tinctorum), Was Known To The Ancients, And Was Prepared Entirely From This Source Until 1868. The Pure Sub Stance Crystallizes In Red Prisms Melting At 29o° C. It Is Insoluble In Water, And Not Very Soluble In Alcohol. ...

Ali_2
Ali, Known As Ali Bey (1766-1818), The Assumed Name Of Domzingo Badia Y Leblich, A Spanish Traveller. Pretending To He A Descendant Of The Abbasids, Badia In 1803 Set Out On His Travels. Under The Name Of Ali Bey El Abbassi, And In Muslim Costume, He Visited Morocco, Tripoli, Egypt, ...

Ali_3
Ali, Known As Ali Pasha (1741-1822), Turkish Pasha Of Iannina, Surnamed Arslan (the Lion), Was Born At Tepeleni, Albania. His Father, Hereditary Bey Of Tepeleni, Was Killed By Neighbouring Chiefs When Ali Was 14. His Mother Formed A Brig And Band To Secure Revenge And Restitution. In The Wild Brigand ...

Alkali Manufacture Americanpractice
Alkali Manufacture - American Practice The Ammonia Soda Process, Established About 187o, Superseded The Le Blanc Process Which Has Never Been Used In America. The First American Plant For The Synthesis Of Soda Ash By The Am Monia Soda Process Was Built In New York State During 1882. In The ...

Alkali Manufacture Manufactureof
Alkali Manufacture - Manufacture Of Caustic Soda Caustic Soda Can Be Produced In Two Separate Ways By The Conversion Of Soda Ash Direct, Or By Subjecting Brine To The Action Of The Electric Current (electrolysis) Whereby Caustic Soda Is Produced Simultaneously With Chlorine. Two Methods May Be Used For The ...

Alkali Manufacture Manufactureof_2
Alkali Manufacture - Manufacture Of Salt Cake By This Name Is Known The Residue Resulting From The Treatment Of Salt With Strong Sulphuric Acid In The Manufacture Of Hydro Chloric Acid (q.v.). It Consists Of Sodium Sulphate With A Small Proportion Of Free Sulphuric Acid. Apart From The Strictly Utilita ...

Alkali Manufacture
Alkali Manufacture. The Group Of Materials In Cludes Sodium Carbonate (soda Ash), Caustic Soda, Bicarbonate Of Soda, Soda Crystals (washing Soda), Sodium Silicate (water-glass), Sulphate Of Soda (salt Cake) And Sodium Sulphide. Certain Other Substances Are Linked With These In Manufacture, Such As Chlorine, Which Is Produced Simultaneously With Caustic ...

Alkali Soils
Alkali Soils. The Term "alkali" Is Applied To Those Soils In Which Soluble Salts Have Accumulated In Amounts Sufficient To Cause Injury To Plant Life. The Toxic Limit Varies With The Chemical Composition Of The Soluble Salts And Also Depends Upon The Variety Of Crop Plants Grown In The Region. ...

Alkalimetry
Alkalimetry, The Determination Of The Quantity Of Free Alkali (q.v.) In A Substance. The Chief Laboratory Method Is By Volumetric Analysis. (see Acidimetry And Chemistry.) ...

Alkaline Earths
Alkaline Earths. By The Early Chemists, The Term Earth Was Used To Denote Those Non-metallic Substances Which Were Insoluble In Water And Were Unaffected By Strong Heating; And As Some Of These Substances (e.g. Lime) Were Found To Be Very Similar In Properties To Those Of The Alkalis, They Were ...

Alkaloids
Alkaloids. For Reasons Given Below, It Is Not Possible To Give A Precise Definition Of This Term, Although To (he Chemist There Is No Ambiguity In Its Use. Man Had From Very Early Times Drugs, But His Knowledge Of The Alkaloids Themselves Began Little More Than A Century Ago. In ...

Alkanet
Alkanet, A Plant, Alkanna Or Anchusa Tinctoria, Of The Family Boraginaceae, Also Known As Orchanet, Dyer's Bugloss, Spanish Bugloss Or Bugloss Of Languedoc, Which Is Grown In The South Of France And On The Shores Of The Levant. Its Root Yields A Fine Red Colouring Matter Which Has Been Used ...

Alkmaar
Alkmaar, Town In The Province Of North Holland, Hol Land, 241m. By Rail North-north-west Of Amsterdam, Communi Cating With Haarlem And Amsterdam, And On The North Holland Canal. Pop. (193o) 28,3°5. The Name Alkmaar ("all Sea") First Occurs In The Loth Century And Recalls The Original Situation Of A Fishing ...

All Fours
All Fours, A Card Game (also Termed High Low Jack, Old Sledge, And Seven Up) For Two, Three, Or Four Players (in Partnership). A Complete Pack Of Cards Is Used. All Players Cut For Deal, The One Cutting The Highest Card Being The Dealer. Ace Is Highest And Deuce Lowest. ...

All Or None Law
All-or-none Law In Physiology Relates Response To Stimulus In Excitable Tissues. It Was First Established For The Con Traction Of Heart Muscle By H. P. Bowditch In 1871. Describing The Relation Of Response To Stimulus, He Stated, "an Induction Shock Produces A Contraction Or Fails To Do So According To ...

All Or None
All Or None, A Condition Set By A Bidder For An Issue Of Securities Meaning That At The Price He Offers He Wants The Entire Issue And Cannot Be Held To His Offer Unless The Issue In Its En Tirety Is Awarded To Him. Sellers Of Securities Use The Same ...

All Saints Bay Or
All Saints Bay Or Bahia De Todos Os San Tos, A Land-locked Bay And Natural Harbour On The Eastern Coast Of Brazil About 738m. (1,187km.) North-east Of Rio De Janeiro. The Bay Is About 20m. Wide And 23m. Long With An Entrance From The Atlantic About 2m. Broad. The Channel ...

All Souls Day
All Souls' Day, The Day (nov. 2 Or, If That Be A Sun Day Or Festival Of The First Class, Nov. 3) Set Apart In The Roman Catholic Church For Commemoration Of The Faithful Departed; A Custom Based On The Doctrine That Souls Which At Death Are Not Yet Sufficiently ...

Allah
Allah, The Arabic Name Used By Muslims Of All Nationali Ties For The One True God, Compounded Of Al, The Definite Article, And Ilah, A God. The Same Word Is F Ound In Hebrew And Aramaic As Well As In Ancient Arabic (sabaean). Bibliography.-lane's Arabic-english Lexicon, P. 82; J. Wellbibliography.-lane's ...

Allahabad
Allahabad, A City Of British India, The Capital Of The United Provinces Of Agra And Oudh, Giving Its Name To A District And A Division. The City (pop. 183,914 In I931) Is Situated At The Confluence Of The Ganges And The Jumna Rivers, 564m. From Cal Cutta By Rail. Its ...

Allamanda
Allamanda, Named After J. N. S. Allamand (1713-87), Of Leyden, A Genus Of Shrubby, Evergreen Climbers, Belonging To The Family Apocynaceae, And A Native Of Tropical America. ...

Allantoin
Allantoin Is Found In The Allantoic Liquid Of The Cow, And In The Urine Of Sucking Calves. It Forms Glancing Prisms Of Neutral Reaction Slightly Soluble In Water. It Can Be Obtained By The Oxidation Of Uric Acid By Means Of Lead Dioxide, Manganese Dioxide, Ozone Or Potassium Permanganate, And ...

Allargando
Allargando (ital.), A Musical Term Indicating A Slacken Ing Of The Speed And A General Increase Of Weight And Breadth In The Style Of Performance. ...

Allegheny Mountains Or The
Allegheny Mountains Or The Alleghe Nies, A Name Formerly Applied To All The Appalachian Mountains (q.v.), And Now, Sometimes, To All That System Lying West And South Of The Hudson River, Being Steep And Narrow-crested In Pennsylvania (',soo-1,800ft.), In Maryland, Virginia And West Virginia Rising To Above 4,000f T. And ...

Allegheny River
Allegheny River, A River Of Pennsylvania And New York And The Principal Tributary Of The Ohio River, Whose Source Is The Confluence Of The Allegheny And The Monongahela At Pitts Burgh. The Allegheny Rises In The High, Hilly Plateau Region Of Potter County, Pa., At An Elevation Of About 2,25oft. ...

Allegiance
Allegiance, The Duty Which A Subject Or Citizen Owes To The State Or To The Sovereign Of The State To Which He Belongs. It Is Often Used By English Legal Commentators In A Larger Sense, Divided By Them Into Natural And Local, The Latter Applying To The Deference Which Even ...

Allegory
Allegory, A Figurative Representation Conveying A Mean Ing Other Than And In Addition To The Literal. It Is Generally Treated As A Figure Of Rhetoric, But The Medium Of Representation Is Not Necessarily Language. An Allegory May Be Addressed To The Eye, And Is Often Embodied In Painting, Sculpture Or ...

Allegro
Allegro, An Italian Word Meaning Literally "cheerful," Which, However, As Used In Music Has Come By A Natural Process To Mean A Quick Or Lively Rate Of Speed, Coming Between Andante And Presto. It Is Also Used Of A Separate Piece Of Music, Or Of A Movement In A Sonata, ...

Allelomorph
Allelomorph, The Name Applied To Each Of A Pair Of Characters In Mendelian Inheritance. (see Heredity, Men Delism.) ...

Allemande
Allemande, A Name For Two Kinds Of Dance, One A Ger Man National Dance, In 2-4 Time, The Other Somewhat Resembling A Waltz (from Fr. For German). In Music, It Signifies A Certain Kind Of Movement In A Suite, Usually Following The Prelude And Preceding The Courante (q.v.), With Which ...

Allenstein Marienwerder
Allenstein-marienwerder, A Region Composed Of Districts Of The Former Prussian Provinces Of East And West Prussia. Articles 94-98 Of The Treaty Of Versailles (q.v.) Provided That The East Prussian Circles (kreise) Of Allenstein, Ortelesburg, Osterode, Sensburg, Johannisburg, Lotzen, Lyck And Neidenburg, In So Far As They Had Not Already Been ...

Allenstein
Allenstein, A Town In East Prussia, Germany, On The River Alle, Loom. N.e. Of Thorn By Rail. Pop. The Town Possesses A Mediaeval Castle, And Has Courts, With Superior Courts At Konigsberg. The Town Makes Machines, Cement, Furni Ture, Gloves And Umbrellas. It Trades In Grain, Leather And Cattle. ...

Allentiacan
Allentiacan, A Small Independent Linguistic Stock Of South American Indians, So Called From The Allentiacs Or Huarpes (guarpes) Who Were Its Most Important Tribe. The Allentiacs Lived In Western Argentina, In The Vicinity Of The Lagoon Of Huana Cache On The Borders Of The Provinces Of San Luis And Mendoza. ...

Allentown
Allentown, A City Of Pennsylvania, U.s.a., On The Lehigh River, 56 M. N.n.w. Of Philadelphia; The County Seat Of Lehigh County. It Is On The William Penn Highway, And Is Served By The Reading System, The Central Railroad Of New Jersey And The Lehigh Valley Railroad, And The Lehigh And ...

Alleppey
Alleppey, A Seaport Of South India, In The State Of Travan Core, 33m. South Of Cochin, On A Strip Of Coast Between The Sea And One Of Those Backwaters That Here Form The Chief Means Of Inland Communication. Pop. (1931) There Is A Lighthouse 85ft. High. Though The Third Town ...

Allergy
Allergy, A Hypersensitivity Which Causes Various Diseases Such As Serum Sickness, Asthma, Hay Fever And Hives. When A Foreign Protein, Say Horse Serum, Is Injected Into A Laboratory Animal Of Another Species, It Is Harmless. But It Renders The Animal Hypersensitive To Further Injections Of The Same Serum After A ...

Allgemeine Elektrizitats Gesell Schaft
Allgemeine-elektrizitats-gesell Schaft, Commonly Known As The A.e.g. Prior To 1923, This Was The Largest Electrical Manufacturing Concern In Germany And One Of The Most Important Industrial Undertakings In The World. Since That Year, However, The Rapid Expansion Of The Siemens-schuckert, Siemens-und-halske Group Has Served To Rele Gate It To Second ...

Allia
Allia (mod. Fosso Bettina), A Small Tributary Of The Tiber On The Left (east) Bank, About I'm. N. Of Rome. It Gave Its Name To The Terrible Defeat Of The Romans By The Gauls On July 18, 390 B.c. Despite Objections, Livy's Account, Placing The Battle On The Left Bank ...

Alliance
Alliance, A City Of North-western Nebraska, U.s.a., On The Burlington Route; The County Seat Of Box Butte County. The Population Was 4,591 In 192o (9o% Native White), And It Was 6,669 In 193o By Federal Census. It Has Railroad Shops, A Cereal Mill And Several Other Industries. ...

Alliance_2
Alliance, A City Of Stark County, O., U.s.a., On The Mahoning River, 55m. S.e. Of Cleveland, About I,o8oft. Above Sea-level. It Is Served By The Pennsylvania And The New York Central Railway Systems. The Population Was 21,603 In 1920, Of Whom 3,026 Were Foreign-born Whites; And Was 23,047 In 193o ...

Alliance_3
Alliance, In International Law, A League Between Indepen Dent States, Defined By Treaty, For The Purpose Of Combined Action, Defensive Or Offensive, Or Both. Alliances Have Usually Been Di Rected To Specific Objects Carefully Defined In The Treaties. Thus The Triple Alliance Of 1688 Between Great Britain, Sweden, And The ...

Allied Maritime Transport Council
Allied Maritime Transport Council. This Council (which Will Be Referred To Below As The A.m.t.c.) Was The Organ Through Which, In The Latter Months Of The World War, The Allied Powers Decided How The Merchant Shipping At Their Disposal Should Be Allotted Among Their Different Supply Services. Throughout 1918 Shipping ...

Allier
Allier, A Department Of France On The Northern Border Of The Massif Central, Formed In 1 790 From The Old Province Of Bourbonnais. Area 2,848sq.m. Pop. (1931) 373,924, A Consider Able Decrease Since 1906. It Is Bounded On The North By Nievre, East By Saone-et-loire, South-east By Loire, South By ...

Allier_2
Allier (anc. Elaver), River Of Central France Flowing Into The Loire. Rising In The Department Of Lozere, Its Upper Course Is Mostly Through Deep Gorges Following Structural Lines Of Weak Ness Between The Mountains Of The Margeride And Those Of The Velay. It Then Traverses The Basins Of Langeac And ...

Allifae
Allifae (mod. Alife), A Town Of The Samnites, 15m. N.w. Of Telesia, And I7m. E.n.e. Of Teanum. The Site Of The Samnite City, Which In The 4th Century B.c. Had A Coinage Of Its Own, Is Not Known; The Roman Town Lay In The Valley Of The Vulturnus, And Its ...

Alligator
Alligator, An Animal So Closely Allied To The Crocodile That The Old Naturalists Classed Them Together As Forming One Genus. In Popular Speech The Two Are Often Confused (see Croco Dile). It Differs From The True Crocodile Principally In Having The Head Broader And Shorter, And The Snout More Obtuse; ...

Alliteration
Alliteration, The Commencing Of Two Or More Words, In Close Juxtaposition, With The Same Sound. As Milton Defined Rhyme To Be "the Jingling Sound Of Like Endings," So Alliteration Is The Jingle Of Like Beginnings. All Language Has A Tendency To Jingle In Both Ways, Even In Prose. Thus In ...

Allium
Allium (lat. For "garlic"), A Genus Of Plants, Of The Family Liliaceae, With About 325 Species (eight Of Which Occur In 13ritain), Found In Central And South Europe, North Africa, The Dry Country Of West And Central Asia, And North And Central America. The Plants Are Bulbous Herbs, With Flat ...

Alloa
Alloa, Municipal And Police Burgh And Seaport, Clackman Nanshire, Scotland. It Is On The North Bank Of The Forth, 32m. From Edinburgh By The L.n.e.r. Via The Forth Bridge, And 25m. From Leith By Steamer. Pop. (1931) 13,322. The L.m.s.r. Enters The Town From The South-west By A Steel Bridge ...

Allobroges
Allobroges Cal-lob're-gas), A Celtic Tribe In The North Of Gallia Narbonensis, Inhabiting The Low Ground Called The "island" Between The Rhodanus, The Isara, And The Graian Alps, Correspond Ing To The Modern Dauphine And Savoy. If The Name Is Rightly Interpreted As Meaning "aliens," They Would Seem To Have Driven ...

Allocatur
Allocatur, A Law Term, Meaning A Certificate Given By A Taxing Master, At The Termination Of An Action, For The Allowance Of Costs. ...

Allocution
Allocution, A Name Given To The Formal Addresses Made By The Pope To The College Of Cardinals And Through Them To The Church (lat. Allocutio, An Address). Allocutions Are Usually Called Forth By Ecclesiastical Or Political Circumstances, And Aim At Safeguarding Papal Principles And Claims. They Are Published By Being ...

Allodium
Allodium, That Portion Of Land Allotted To An Individual By The Chief, As Representing The Community, In The Early Anglo Saxon Settlement Of Britain. It Usually Consisted Of The Home Stead, And Was Regarded As The Property Of The Family. It Was Free From Rent And Services. Later, Allodium Is ...

Allomerism
Allomerism, The Quality Of Bodies By Virtue Of Which They Can Change Their Elements And Proportions While Preserving Their F Orm. ...

Allonge
Allonge, A Slip Of Paper Affixed To A Negotiable Instrument, As A Bill Of Exchange, For The Purpose Of Receiving Additional En Dorsements For Which There May Not Be Sufficient Space On The Bill Itself. An Endorsement Written On The Allonge Is Deemed To Be Written On The Bill Itself. ...

Allophane
Allophane, A Hydrous Aluminium Silicate, Said To Be Al,si05-5h20: It Only Occurs As An Amorphous Incrustation In Thin Layers On The Walls Of Fissures And Cavities In Rocks, And Is Sometimes Stained Blue By Copper, Though Usually White, Yellow, Or Brownish. The Hardness Is 3 And The Density 1.9. ...

Allosaurus
Allosaurus, A Large Carnivorous Dinosaur From North America. It Was Bipedal In Locomotion, With Very Small Front Feet. (see Dinosauria ; Reptiles.) ...

Allotment
Allotment. In England, The Term Denotes A Portion Of Land Assigned On Partition Or Under An Inclosure Award (see Commons) ; Also A Division Of Land Into Small Portions For Culti Vation By A Labourer Or Artisan At A Small Rent (see Allotments And Small Holdings). In Company Law, "allotment" ...

Allotments Organization Society
Allotments Organization Society. The Allotments Organization Society And Small Holders Ltd. May Be Termed The Residuary Legatee Of The Late Agricultural Organization Society, And Is Continuing The Co-operative Organization Of Small Cultivators In Englar 1 And Wales, A Task First Undertaken By The Latter Body Many Years Ago. Its Principal ...

Allotments
Allotments. An Allotment, In England And Wales, As Defined By The Allotments Acts 1922 And 1925, Is Any Parcel Of Land Above 4ac., But Not Exceeding Five Ac. In Extent, Which Is Cultivated As A Farm Or Garden, Or Partly As A Farm And Partly As A Garden. In Other ...

Allotropy
Allotropy Was The Term Applied By Berzelius (1841) To The Existence Of A Substance In Two Or More Distinct Forms. The Modern Tendency Is To Restrict The Application Of The Term To Crystalline Forms Of Elements Which Usually Have Different Physi Cal But Similar Chemical Properties, And To Use The ...

Allowance
Allowance, The Action Of Allowing, Or The Thing Allowed; Particularly, A Certain Limited Apportionment Of Money Or Food And Diet (see Diet). Commercially "allowance" Means The De Duction Made From Gross Weight Of Goods To Make Up For Weight Of Box Or Package, Waste, Breakages, Etc. ...

Alloway
Alloway, Hamlet And Ecclesiastical Parish (pop. 797), In Ayrshire, 2+ M. South Of Ayr, Scotland. It Is Famed As The Birth Place Of Burns The Poet And As The Scene Of His "tam O' Shanter." ...

Alloxan Or Mesoxalyl Urea
Alloxan Or Mesoxalyl Urea, Crystallizes From Water In Colourless Rhombic Prisms Containing Four Molecules Of Water Of Crystallization. It Possesses A Very Acid Reaction; It Colours The Skin Purple-red, And With Ferrous Sulphate It Develops An In Digo-blue Coloration. It Is An Oxidation Product Of Uric Acid, Being Obtained From ...

Alloxantin
Alloxantin, A Product Obtained By The Combination Of Alloxan And Dialuric Acid. It Forms Small Hard Prisms Which Be Come Red On Exposure To Air Containing Ammonia, Owing To The Formation Of Murexide (ammonium Purpurate), The Formation Of Murexide Is Used As A Test For The Presence Of Uric Acid, ...

Alloys Constitution Diagrams
Alloys - Constitution Diagrams The Number, Composition And Proportions Of The Constituents In Equilibrium At Any Given Temperature, And Changes Due To Change In Temperature May Be Represented Graphically In A Con Stitution Diagram. Such Diagrams Present Only Equilibrium Con Ditions And Are Not Concerned With The Arrangement Of The ...

Alloys
Alloys, A Term Applied In Its Broadest Sense To Any Metallic Substance Which Is Not A Chemical Element. If This Definition Is Taken Literally All Of The Metals Of Commerce Could Be Regarded As Alloys, Since Even The Purest Ones Contain Some Foreign Sub Stance. It Is The Practice, However, ...

Allspice
Allspice, The Dried Unripe Berry Of The Pimento Or Allspice Tree (eugenia Pimenta Or Pimenta Officinalis) Of The Myrtle Family. The Tree, Which Attains A Height Of 4oft., Is Native To Central America And To The West Indies Where It Is Also Cultivated. This Highly Aromatic Spice, Widely Used In ...

Alluvion
Alluvion, A Word Taken From Roman Law, In Which It Was One Of The Examples Of Accessio, That Is, Acquisition Of Prop Erty Without Any Act Being Done By The Acquirer. It Signifies The Gradual Accretion (q.v.) Of Land Or Formation Of An Island By Imperceptible Degrees. If The Accretion ...

Alluvium
Alluvium, The Material Deposited By Rivers (see The Gen Eral Article Geology). It Is Usually Most Extensively Developed In The Lower Part Of The Course Of A River, Forming Flood-plains And Deltas, But May Be Deposited At Any Point Where The Velocity Of A River Is Checked; For Example, Where ...

Allyl Alcohol
Allyl Alcohol, A Colourless Mobile Liquid Of Pungent Smell, Boiling At 97°c. Its Chemical Formula Is Or : It Is An Unsaturated Primary Alcohol Occurring In Very Small Quantities In Wood Spirit. It May Be Prepared By Heating Glycerin With Oxalic Acid And A Little Ammonium Chloride To 26o° C. ...

Alma Ata
Alma Ata (formerly V Yernyi) . (1) A Town Which Is The Capital Of The Dzhetysyisk Province Of The Autonomous Kazak (kirghiz) S.s.r. Pop. (1926) 45,379. It Was Founded As A Forti Fied Settlement By The Russians In 1855, But Is Now Important Commercially, And May Become More So If ...

Alma Mater
Alma Mater, A Name, Signifying "bounteous Mother," Given By The Romans To Certain Goddesses, Especially To Ceres And Cybele, And Now Applied To Universities And Schools Regarded As The "foster Mothers" Of Those Who Have Attended Them. ...

Alma
Alma, A City Of Gratiot County, Mich., U.s.a., On The Pine River, 37m. W. Of Saginaw, Almost Exactly In The Geographical Centre Of The Lower Peninsula. It Is Served By The Ann Arbor And The Pere Marquette Railways. The Population Increased Between 1910 And 193o From 2,757 To 6,734. It ...

Almacantar
Almacantar (also Written Almucantar), An Astro Nomical Term For A Small Circle Of The Sphere Parallel To The Horizon ; When Two Stars Are In The Same Almacantar They Have The Same Altitude. The Term Is Also Given (188o) To Instruments Of A Pattern Invented By S. C. Chandler To ...

Almacks
Almack's, Formerly The Name Of A Famous London Club And Assembly Rooms. The Founder Is Usually Said To Have Been One Macall, Or Mccaul, Of Which Name Almack Is An Anagram. In 1764 He Founded A Gentlemen's Club In Pall Mall, Where The Present Marlborough Club Stands. It Was Famous ...

Almaden Or Almaden Del
Almaden Or Almaden Del Azogue, A Town In Spain, Province Of Ciudad Real. Pop. (1920) 9,829. Almaden (ar. Amaden, The Mine) Has Been For Centuries The Principal Centre For The Famous Ores Of Mercury, Impregnating The Quartzite Of Certain Ridges Between The Sierras Of Chillon (n.) And Cordoneros (alcudia) (s.) ...

Almagest
Almagest, The Famous Treatise On Astronomy By Ptolemy In The Znd Century A.d. Besides The Exposition Of The Ptolemaic Theory Of The Heavens, It Contains An Important Catalogue Of The Places Of 1,o8o Stars. (see Ptolemy.) ...

Almanac
Almanac, A Book Or Table Containing A Calendar Of The Days, Weeks, And Months Of The Year, A Register Of Ecclesiastical Festivals And Saints' Days, And A Record Of Various Astronomical Phenomena, Etc. The Attention Given To Astronomy By Eastern Nations Probably Led To The Early Construction Of Such Tables ...

Almansa Almanza
Almansa (almanza), A Town In Spain, Province Of Alba Cete, At The Foot Of A Castle-topped Crag, Above A Fertile Plain, Which Is The Principal "gate" To The Interior Of Spain On The Mediter Ranean Side. Pop. (193o) 14,63o. Almansa Is, In Consequence, An Important Railway Junction, And Was The ...

Alma_2
Alma, A River Of Russia, In The South-west Of The Crimea, Entering The Black Sea 17m. N. Of Sevastopol. It Gives Its Name To A Famous Victory Gained Over The Russians, On Sept. 20, By The Allied Armies In The Crimean War (q.v.). The South Bank Of The River Is ...

Alme Or Almai
Alme Or Almai (from Ellim, "wise," "learned"), The Name Of A Class Of Singing Girls In Egypt Who Are Present At Festivals And Entertainments And Act As Hired Mourners At Funerals. They Are To Be Distinguished From The Ghawazee, Or Dancing Girls, Who Per Form In The Public Streets, And ...

Almeida
Almeida, A Town Of North-eastern Portugal, In The District Of Guarda; Situated In Hilly Country Near The River Coa, A Tribu Tary Of The Douro, And Long An Important Frontier Fortress. Pop. (193o) 1,654. During, The Peninsular War (q.v.) Much Fighting Occurred Between The Coa And The Spanish Fortress Of ...