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Gregor Aichinger
Aichinger, Gregor (c. 1565-1628), A Distinguished Composer. He Was Organist To The Fugger Family At Augsburg In 1584. Proske, In The Preface To Vol. Ii. Of His Musica Divina, Calls Him A Priest Of Regensburg, And Is Inclined To Give Him The Palm For The Devout And Ingenuous Mastery Of ...

Gregorio Allegri
Allegri, Gregorio (1582-1652), Italian Priest And Composer, Was Born At Rome And Studied Music Under G. Maria Nanini, The Friend Of Palestrina. He Was A Member Of The Sistine Chapel Choir From 1629 Until His Death On Feb. 18, 1652. His Most Famous Composition Is The Miserere, Performed Once A ...

Guillaume Amontons
Amontons, Guillaume French Phys Icist, Was Born In Paris Aug. 31 1663, And Died There Oct. I 1 1705. In 1687 He Presented To The Academy Of Sciences An Hygrometer Of His Own Invention, And In 1695 He Published His Only Book, Remarques Et Experiences Physiques Sur La Construction D'une ...

Gustave Ador
Ador, Gustave Swiss Statesman, Was Born At Geneva, Dec. 23, 1845, Of A Vaudois Family Established There In 1814. He Studied Law At The Academy And In 1868 Became An Advocate. He Served His Apprenticeship To Politics In The Cantonal Government And Was President Of The Cantonal Executive In 1892 ...

Gustave Aimard
Aimard, Gustave, The Pen-name Of Olivier Gloux (1818-83), French Novelist, Who Was Born In Paris Sept. 13, 1818, And Died There June 20, 1883. He Made Use Of The Materials Col Lected In A Roving And Adventurous Youth And Early Manhood In Numerous Romances In The Style Of J. Fenimore ...

Hannah Adams
Adams, Hannah (1755-1831) , American Writer, Was Born In Medfield, Mass., In 1755. She Is Said To Be The First Woman In America To Have Made Literature A Profession. By Private Study, Which She Began At An Early Age, She Acquired Much Varied Learning, Including Some Acquaintance With Latin And ...

Hans Christian Andersen
Andersen, Hans Christian Danish Poet And Fabulist, Was Born At Odense, In Fiinen, On April 2, 1805. He Was The Son Of A Sickly Young Shoemaker Of 22 And His Still Younger Wife ; The Whole Family Lived And Slept In One Little Room. Andersen Very Early Showed Signs Of ...

Hans Niels Andersen
Andersen, Hans Niels (1852— ), Danish Ship Owner And Merchant, Was Born At Nakskov In Poor Circumstances. He Went To Sea And In 1884, Having Gained Experience By Trading With The East, He Founded The Business Of Andersen And Co., At Bangkok, Opening In 1894 A Branch House In Copenhagen. ...

Heinrich Abeken
Abeken, Heinrich (1809-1872), German Theologian And Prussian Official, Was Born At Berlin On Aug. 8, 1809. In 1848 He Entered The Prussian Ministry For Foreign Affairs, And In 1853 Was Promoted To Be Privy Councillor Of Legation (geheimer Legationsrath). He Was Employed By Bismarck In The Writing Of Official Despatches, ...

Heinrich Aldegrever Or Aldegraf
Aldegrever Or Aldegraf, Heinrich (1 '558), German Painter And Engraver, Was Born At Paderborn, From Whence He Removed In Early Life To Soest, Where He Died. From The Close Resemblance Of His Style To That Of Albrecht Diirer He Has Sometimes Been Called The Albert Of Westphalia. There Is A ...

Helenius Acro Or Acron
Acro Or Acron, Helenius, Roman Grammarian, Probably Flourished At The End Of The 2nd Century A.d. He Wrote Commentaries On Terence And Perhaps Persius. A Collection Of Scholia On Horace Was Wrongly Attributed To Him. See Pseudoacronis Scholia In Horatium Vetustiora, Ed. 0. Keller. Acroliths, Statues Of A Transition Period ...

Helium
Helium.) Variation Of Volume.—since The Volume Of A Gas Depends Upon Its Pressure And Temperature And Since With A Rise In Height The Pressure Becomes Less, It Is Clear That If The Gasbags Were Full At Sea Level They Would Be Overflowing At, Say, 2,000f T. One Of Two Things ...

Henri Francois D Aguesseau
Aguesseau, Henri Francois D' Chancellor Of France, Was Born At Limoges Nov. 27 1668, The Son Of Henri D'aguesseau, Who Held Many Important Posts In The Government. He Studied Law Under Jean Domat And Was One Of The First Masters Of Forensic Eloquence In France. He Was Procu Rator General ...

Henri Frederic Amiel
Amiel, Henri Frederic (1821-1881), Swiss Philos Opher And Critic, Was Born At Geneva Sept. 27, 1821. He Studied Philosophy At Berlin In 1849 He Was Appointed Pro Fessor Of Aesthetics At The Academy Of Geneva, And In 1854 Be Came Professor Of Moral Philosophy. These Appointments, Con Ferred By The ...

Henry Adams
Adams, Henry (1838-1918), American Historian, Son Of Charles Francis Adams And Grandson Of John Quincy Adams, Was Born In Boston, Mass., On Feb. 16, 1838. He Graduated At Har Vard In 1858, Studied Abroad, And Was Private Secretary To His Father When The Latter Was A Congressman And Minister To ...

Henry Ainsworth
Ainsworth, Henry 1622), English Noncon Formist Divine And Rabbinical Scholar, Was Born At Swanton Mor Ley, Norfolk. He Was A Scholar Of Caius College, Cambridge, Joined The Puritan Party In The Church, And Eventually The Sepa Ratist. Driven Abroad In The Persecution Of 1593, He Found A Home In "a ...

Henry Airay
Airay, Henry (156o?-1616), English Puritan Divine, Was Born At Kentmere, Westmorland, But No Record Remains Of The Date Of Either Birth Or Baptism. He Died On Oct. 6, 1616. His Character As A Man, Preacher, Divine, And As An Important Ruler In The University, Will Be Found Portrayed In The ...

Henry Aldrich
Aldrich, Henry (1647-171o), Dean Of Christ Church, Oxford, And In 1692 Vice-chancellor Of The University, Was Born At Westminster In 1647, And Died At Oxford Dec. 14, 171o. He Was A Man Of Versatile Talent, Who Wrote A Compendium Artis Logicae Used As A Text-book In Oxford Far Into The ...

Henry Alford
Alford, Henry (181 71) , English Divine And Scholar, Was Born In London On Oct. 7, 181o, Of A Somersetshire Family Which Had Given Five Consecutive Generations Of Clergymen To The Church Of England. He Was A Precocious Lad Who Wrote Latin Odes And A History Of The Jews Before ...

Henry Allon
Allon, Henry English Congregational Min Ister, Was Born On Oct. 13 1818, At Welton, Yorkshire. In 1844 He Became Co-pastor With Thomas Lewis Of Union Chapel, Islington. In 1852, On The Death Of Lewis, Allon Became Sole Pastor, And This Position He Held With Increasing Influence Till His Death In ...

Henry Austin Bruce Aberdare
Aberdare, Henry Austin Bruce, 1st Baron (1815-95), English Statesman, Was Born At Duffryn, Aberdare, Glamorganshire, On April 16, 1815. He Was Called To The Bar In 1837, And Was Stipendiary Magistrate For Merthyr Tydvil And Aberdare, 1847-52. The Discovery Of Coal In The Duffryn And Aberdare Estates Of The Family ...

Henry Carter Adams
Adams, Henry Carter ( G ,1_ 52-1921), American Economist, Was Born At Davenport, Ia., Dec. 31, 1852. He Was Educated At Iowa College And Johns Hopkins University, Where He Was A Fellow 1876-78, And In French And German Universities. He Afterwards Taught At Cornell University, And In 1887 Became Professor ...

Henry William Paget Anglesey
Anglesey, Henry William Paget, Ist Mar Quis Of (1768-1854), British Field-marshal, Was Born May 17, 1768, The Eldest Son Of Henry Paget, 1st Earl Of Uxbridge, And Was Educated At Westminster School And Christ Church, Oxford. He Served With Distinction In The French Revolutionary Wars, And By 1808 Had Risen ...

Herbert Adams
Adams, Herbert ), American Sculptor, Was Born At West Concord (vt.) On Jan. 28, 1858. He Was Educated At The Worcester Institute Of Technology And At The Massa Chusetts Normal Art School, And In 1885-90 He Was A Pupil Of Antonin Mercie In Paris. In 189o-98 He Was An Instructor ...

Herbert Baxter Adams
Adams, Herbert Baxter (1850-19o1), American Historian And Educationalist, Was Born At Shutesbury (mass.) On April 16, 185o. He Graduated At Amherst, At The Head Of His Class, In 1872; And After Studying At Giittingen And Berlin He Received The Degree Of Ph.d. At Heidelberg In 1876, With The Highest Hon ...

Hermann Adler
Adler, Hermann (1839-1911 ) , British Chief Rabbi, Born At Hanover On May 3o, 1839, The Son Of N. M. Adler, Was Educated At University College School And University College, Lon Don, And Then At Prague Under Dr. Rapoport. After Receiving The Rabbinical Diploma At Prague, He Returned To England, ...

Hermann Allmers
Allmers, Hermann (182 1-1902), German Writer, Was Born On Feb. 1, 1821, At Rechtenfleth, Near Bremen. In 1858 He Wrote Marschenbuch, In Which Northern Lands And Peoples Are Described. In 186o Appeared His Dichtungen, And Nine Years Later His Romische Schlendertage, Both Manifesting His Love Of Land Scape Imagery. The ...

Hernando De Alarcon
Alarcon, Hernando De, Spanish Navigator Of The I6th Century, Was Sent By The Viceroy Of New Spain In 154o To Give Naval Support To The Expedition Of Francisco Vasquez De Coronado In His Search For The Mythical Seven Cities Of Mexico. The Junction Was Never Effected. Alarcon Sailed Up The ...

Herod I Agrippa
Agrippa, Herod I. (c. 10 B.c.—a.d. 44), King Of Judaea, The Son Of Aristobulus And Berenice, And Grandson Of Herod The Great, Was Born About O B.c. His Original Name Was Marcus Iulius Agrippa. Josephus Inf Orms Us That, After The Murder Of His Father, Herod The Great Sent Him ...

Herod Ii Agrippa
Agrippa, Herod Ii. (27—t Oo), Son Of Agrippa, Herod I., And Like Him Originally Marcus Julius Agrippa, Was Born About A.d. 27, And Received From Claudius The Tetrarchy Of Chalcis And The Oversight Of The Temple On The Death Of His Uncle, Herod, A.d. 48. In A.d. 53 He Was ...

High Court Of Admiralty
Admiralty, High Court Of. The High Court Of Admiralty Of England Was The Court Of The Deputy Or Lieutenant Of The Admiral. It Is Supposed In The Black Book Of The Admiralty To Have Been Founded In The Reign Of Edward I. ; But It Would Appear, From The Learned ...

Higher Algebra
Higher Algebra Much That Is Elementary In The Sense Of Elemental, Is Not So In The Sense Of Being Adapted To The Pre-university Schools. Higher Algebra Of A Sort Is Taught In These Schools, And Higher Algebra Of An Entirely Different Sort Is Taught In The Universities. In The Pre-university ...

His Highness The Aga
Aga Khan I., His Highness The (1800-1881), The Title Accorded By General Consent To Hasan Ali Shah (born In Persia, 1800), When He Settled In Bombay Under The Protection Of The British Government. He Was Believed To Have Descended In Direct Line From Ali By His Wife Fatima, The Daughter ...

History A Hypnotic Stage
History: A. Hypnotic Stage The History Of Abnormal Psychology Can Easily And Definitely Be Divided Into Three Stages : The Hypnotic, The Experimental And The Analytical. The First Two Derived Their Inspiration From Paris, The Third From Vienna. The Beginnings Of Medical Psychology Are Less Than A Century Old. It ...

History Of Aegean Civilization
History Of Aegean Civilization History Of An Inferential And Summary Sort Only Can Be Derived From Monuments In The Absence Of Written Records. The Latter Do, Indeed, Exist In The Case Of The Cretan Civilization And In Great Numbers; But They Are Undeciphered And Likely To Remain So, Except In ...

History Of Algebra
History Of Algebra The Earliest Known Treatise Containing Problems Which Would At Present Be Called Algebraic Is The Ahmes Papyrus (also Called, From The Name Of Its Former Owner, The Rhind Papyrus) Now In The British Museum, And Written C. 1700-1600 B.c. The First Of These Problems Reads As Follows ...

Horatio Alger
Alger, Horatio (1834-1899), American Writer, Born In Revere, Mass., Jan. 13, 1834. He Graduated At Harvard Col Lege In 1852, Became A Teacher And Journalist, And In 1864 A Uni Tarian Minister. He Removed To New York City In 1866, And The Experiences Gained In His Efforts To Improve The ...

I Aba
Aba, (i) A Form Of Altazimuth Instrument, Invented By, And Called After, Antoine Thomson D'abbadie; (2) A Rough Home Spun Manufactured In Bulgaria; (3) A Long Coarse Shirt Worn By The Bedouin Arabs. ...

I Abila
Abila, (i) Generally Called Abila Of Pausanias To Distin Guish It From (2) Below. It Was The Capital Of The Tetrarchy Of Abilene In Ancient Syria And An Important Town On The Road Be Tween Damascus And Baalbek (heliopolis). Ruins And Inscrip Tions At Modern Village Of Suq Wadi Barada ...

I Anadyr
Anadyr, (i) A Gulf, And (2) A River, In The Extreme North East Of The Kamchatka Province Of The Far Eastern Area Of The Russian S.f.s. Republics. The Gulf Extends From Cape Chukchi On The North To Cape Navarin On The South, Forming Part Of The Bering Sea. The River ...

I Illiam Allen
Allen, I Illiam English Cardinal, Was Born At Rossall, Lanes, And Died In Rome Oct. 16, 1594. He Was Edu Cated At Oriel College, Oxford, And Became Principal Of St. Mary Hall. Although He Was Deprived For Refusing The Oath Of Su Premacy At Elizabeth's Accession, He Remained In The ...

Ibn Hujr Amru Ul Qais Or
Amru'-ul-qais Or Imru'-ul Qais, Ibn Hujr, Arabian Poet Of The 6th Century, The Author Of One Of The Mo`allakat (q.v.), Was Regarded By Mohammed And Others As The Most Distinguished Poet Of Pre-islamic Times. He Was Of The Kingly Family Of Kinda, And His Mother Was Of The Tribe Of ...

Improvement Of Performance Aeroplane
Improvement Of Performance - Aeroplane Or Airplane. ...

In Medicine Acetylene
Acetylene, In Medicine. Acetylene, Which When Pure Loses Its Usual Offensive Smell, Is An Anaesthetic When Inhaled And Was First Used As Such In 1924. Like Ethylene (q.v.) It Is In The Experimental Stage At Present. Its Efficiency Is Between That Of Gas-oxygen And Ether. It Has The Advantage That ...

Incorporated American Psychological Association
American Psychological Association, Incorporated, The, Was Founded On July 8. 1892, At A Meeting Held At Clark University. Worcester, Mass.. Attended By G. Stanley Hall. George S. Fullerton. Joseph Jastrow. William James, George T. Ladd. James Mck. Cattell And J. Mark Bald Win As The Original Members. The First Meeting ...

Induction
Induction. (2.) In Greek Mathematics The Method Of Proving A Proposition By Resolving It Into Simpler Statements Already Proved Or Else As Sumed As Axiomatic. Pappus (c. 275), In His Synagoge Or Collec Tion (bk. Vii., "on The Treasury Of Analysis"), Gives The Best Extant Greek Definition : "analysis, Then, ...

Industrial Alcohol In The
Industrial Alcohol In The United States The Principle Of Taxing And Regulating Alcoholic Beverages Is Fundamental In All Civilized Countries, And This Principle Was Applied To Alcohol Itself Until Industrial Needs Achieved Special Legislation, Granting Tax-free Alcohol For Industrial Purposes. On Dec. 17, 1897, A Joint Committee Of Congress Said ...

Internal Combustion Engine
Internal Combustion Engine.) Aero Engines - Elements Of The Problem. The Great Problem With Which The Designer Of Aero Engines Is Faced Is Reduction Of The Ratio Weight To Horse-power, Or As It Is Customarily Expressed The "pounds Per Horse-power," To The Smallest Possible Value Consistent With Reliability. But Pounds ...

International Institute Of Agriculture
Agriculture, International Institute Of: See International Institute Of Agriculture. ...

Isaac Abrabanel
Abrabanel, Isaac, Called Also Abravanel, Abarbanel (1437-1508), Jewish Statesman, Philosopher, Theologian And Com Mentator, Was Born At Lisbon Of An Ancient Family Which Claimed Descent From The Royal House Of David. Like Many Of The Spanish Jews He United Scholarly Tastes With Political Ability. He Was A Favourite Of King ...

Isaac Albeniz
Albeniz, Isaac (186o-1909), Spanish Pianist And Pro Lific Composer, Who Only Towards The Close Of His Career Found His True Metier And Wrote The Works Which Give Him His Chief Claim To Remembrance. These Were His Brilliant And Fascinating Piano Forte Pieces, Such As The Suite Iberia, Reproducing The Rhythms ...

Isaac Allerton
Allerton, Isaac (1583?-1659), One Of The American Pilgrims, Was Born Probably In England About 1583. The First Record Concerning Him Is As A Merchant In Leyden, Holland. He Was A Member Of The English Separatist Church There And Was Made A Freeman Of The City In 1614. On The First ...

Isaac Ambrose
Ambrose, Isaac (1604-1663-4), English Puritan Divine, Vicar Of Preston. Ambrose Left His Great Church Of Preston In And Became Minister Of Garstang, Whence He Was Ejected In 1662 With The Two Thousand Ministers Who Refused To Conform. As A Religious Writer Ambrose Has A Vividness And Freshness Of Imag Ination ...

Isabella Macdonald Alden
Alden, Isabella (macdonald) (1841-1930), American Juvenile Writer, Was Born In Rochester, N.y., On Nov. 3, 1841. She Was Educated At Seneca Collegiate Institute In Ovid, N.y., And At The Young Ladies' Institute In Auburn, New York. In 1866 She Married The Rev. Gustavus R. Alden. Under The Pseudonym Of "pansy" ...

Ist Baron
Ist Baron British Diplomatist And Ambassador, Was Born In Florence On Feb. 20, 1829, The Son Of Maj.-gen. Lord George William Russell. His Education, Like That Of His Two Brothers—hastings, Who Became Eventually 9th Duke Of Bedford, And Arthur, Who Sat For A Generation In The House Of Commons As ...

Istry
Istry : Organic, Heterocyclic.) Bibliography.-r. Wolffenstein, Die Pflanzen-alkaloide (i92 2 ) ; Bibliography.-r. Wolffenstein, Die Pflanzen-alkaloide (i92 2 ) ; T. A. Henry, The Plant Alkaloids (1924) ; A. R. Cushny, Pharma Cology And Therapeutics Or The Action Of Drugs (1924); G. Trier, Die Alkaloide (1927); Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis ...

Ivar Aasen
Aasen, Ivar (1813-1896), Norwegian Philologist And Lexi Cographer, Was Born At Aasen I Orsten, In Sondmore, Norway, Aug. 5,1813, The Son Of A Small Peasant-farmer. Gradually, By Dint Of Infinite Patience And Concentration, The Young Peasant Became Master Of Many Languages, And Began The Scientific Study Of Their Structure. His ...

Jacob Abbott
Abbott, Jacob (1803-1879), American Writer Of Books For The Young, Was Born At Hallowell (me.) On Nov. 14, 1803. He Graduated At Bowdoin College In 1820; Studied At Andover The Ological Seminary. He Was Tutor In 1824-25, And From 1825 To 1829 Was Professor Of Mathematics And Natural Philosophy In ...

Jacob Anatoli
Anatoli, Jacob (c. 1194-1256), Hebrew Translator From The Arabic. He Was Invited To Naples By Frederick Ii., And, In Association With Michael Scot, Made Arabic Learning Accessible To Western Readers. Among His Most Important Services Were Translations Of Works By Averroes. ...

Jacques Amyot
Amyot, Jacques French Writer, Was Born Of Poor Parents, At Melun, On Oct. 3o, 1513. He Was Educated At The University Of Paris And Then At Bourges, Where He Was Made Professor Of Greek And Latin Through The Influence Of Margaret Of Valois. Here He Translated Theagene Et Chariclee From ...

James Albert Edward Hamilton
Abercorn, James Albert Edward Hamilton, 3rd Duke Of (1869— ), British Politician, Son Of The Preceding, Was Born On Nov. 1, 1869, And Was Educated At Eton. Lord James Hamilton Was M.p. For Londonderry, 1900-13, A Leader Of The Unionist Party In Ulster, And Treasurer Of H.m. Household In 1903-05. ...

James Anderson
Anderson, James (1662-1728), Scottish Genealogist, Antiquary And Historian, Was Born At Edinburgh On Aug. 5, 1662. Just Before The Union The Scottish Parliament Commissioned Him To Prepare For Publication What Remained Of The Public Records Of The Kingdom. The Work Was Not Completed At His Death In 1728. The Book ...

James Barr Ames
Ames, James Barr (1846-1910), American Educator And Legal Scholar, Was Born In Boston, Mass., On June 22, 1846. He Graduated From Harvard University In 1868 And From Its Law School In 1872. Entering The Faculty Of Harvard As Instructor In History, He Was Made Associate Professor Of Law In 1873 ...

James Burrill Angell
Angell, James Burrill American Educationalist And Diplomat, Was Born In Scituate, R. I., On Jan. 7, 1829. He Graduated In 1849 At Brown University, At Which, After Travel In Europe, He Was Professor Of Modern Languages And Liter Ature In 1853-60. In 186o-66 He Was Editor Of The Providence Daily ...

James Hamilton Abercorn
Abercorn, James Hamilton, 1st Earl Of (c. 1575-1618), Was The Eldest Son Of Claud Hamilton, Lord Pais Ley (4th Son Of James, 2nd Earl Of Arran, And Duke Of Chatel Herault), And Of Margaret, Daughter Of George, 6th Lord Seton. He Was Made Sheriff Of Linlithgow In 1600, Received Large ...

James Hamilton Abercorn_2
Abercorn, James Hamilton, 2nd Duke Of (1838-1913), British Politician, Born On Aug. 24, 1838, Succeeded His Father, The 1st Duke, In 1885. His Sister, The Duchess Of Buccleuch, Was For Many Years Mistress Of The Robes To Queen Victoria And To Queen Alexandra. The Duke Became A Member Of The ...

James Lane Allen
Allen, James Lane 0849-1925), American Author, Was Born Dec. 2i, 1849, On A Small Plantation Near Lexington, Ky., Where He Passed Most Of His Early Life. He Acquired A Scholarly Background For His Creative Work Through His Study At Transyl Vania University (then Called Kentucky University), His Professor Ship Of ...

James Pettit Andrews
Andrews, James Pettit (c. English Historian And Antiquary, Was Born At Shaw House, Newbury, Berkshire, And Died In London On Aug. 6, 1797. He Was One Of The Magistrates At The Police Court In Queen Square, Westminster, From 1792 To His Death. His Chief Work Was A History Of Great ...

James Rowland Angell
Angell, James Rowland ), American Educationalist, Was Born At Burlington, Vt., May 8, 1869. He Was A Son Of James Burrill Angell (1829-1916). In 1893 He Was Appointed Instructor In Philosophy At The University Of Minnesota. In 1894 He Was Called To The University Of Chicago As Assistant Professor Of ...

James Scarlett Abinger
Abinger, James Scarlett, Ist Baron (1769 1844), English Judge, Was Born On Dec. 13, 1769 In Jamaica, Where His Father, Robert Scarlett, Had Property. He Was Educated At Trinity College, Cambridge, And The Inner Temple. From 1816 When He Became A K.c., To 1834 He Was The Most Successful Lawyer ...

Jane Addams
Addams, Jane (1860-1935), American Sociologist, Was Born At Cedarville (ill.), On Sept. 6, 1860. After Graduating At Rockford (ill.) Female Seminary (now Rockford College) In 1881, She Spent Several Years In The Study Of Economic And Sociological Questions In Both Europe And America, And In 1889, With Miss Ellen Gates ...

Janet Mrs C Charrington
Achurch, Janet (mrs. C. Charrington ) 1916), English Actress, Was Born In Manchester. She First Ap Peared At The Olympic Theatre, London, Jan. 8, 1883, With Gene Vieve Ward In The Farce Of Betsy Baker. Two Years Later She Joined Frank Benson's Company And Played Shakespearean Hero Ines; But Her ...

Jean Delphin Alard
Alard, Jean Delphin ( Famous French Violinist And Teacher, Was Professor At The Paris Conservatoire From 1843 To 1875. Sarasate Was One Of His Pupils. ...

Jean Francois Victor Aicard
Aicard, Jean Francois Victor French Poet And Dramatist, Was Born At Toulon. He Went To Paris To Study Law, And His First Visit Was To Victor Hugo, Who Returned The Young Man's Admiration In Kind, And Is Reported To Have Said In The Academie Francaise, "je Promets Ce Poke A ...

Jean Jacques Ampere
Ampere, Jean Jacques (1800-1864), French Philol Ogist And Man Of Letters, Only Son Of Andre Marie Ampere, Born At Lyons. In An Extended Tour In Northern Europe, He Studied The F Olk-songs And Popular Poetry Of The Scandinavian Countries. Returning To France, He Delivered In 183o A Series Of Lectures ...

Jean Joseph Marie Amiot
Amiot, Jean Joseph Marie French Jesuit Missionary, Was Born At Toulon In Feb. 1718. He Entered The Society Of Jesus In 1737 And Was Sent In 175o As A Missionary To China. He Soon Won The Confidence Of The Emperor Kien-lung, And Spent The Remainder Of His Life At Peking, ...

Jean Le Rond D
Alembert, Jean Le Rond D' (1717-1783)., French Mathematician And Philosopher, Was Born At Paris In Nov. 1717. He Was A Foundling But It Afterwards Became Known That He Was The Illegitimate Son Of The Chevalier Destouches And Madame De Tencin. The Infant Was Entrusted To The Wife Of A Glazier ...

Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz
Agassiz, Jean Louis Rodolphe 73) , Swiss-american Naturalist, Geologist And Teacher, Was Born On May 20, 1807, The Son Of The Protestant Pastor Of Motier, On The Shore Of Lake Morat, Switzerland. His Father Was The Last Of A Long Line Of Clergymen, The First Of The Series Having Been ...

Jeffrey Amherst Amherst
Amherst, Jeffrey Amherst, Baron British Field-marshal, Served In Germany And The Low Countries As Aide-de-camp To Gen. (lord) Ligonier, And Was Present At Dettingen, Fontenoy And Roucoux. He Then Served On Cumber Land's Staff, And Took Part With The Duke In The Later Campaigns Of The Austrian Succession War, In ...

Jellaladin Mohammed Akbar
Akbar, Jellaladin Mohammed (1542-1605), The Greatest And Wisest Of The Mogul Emperors Of India. He Ceeded To The Throne In 1556, But His Position Was Not An Enviable One. He Was Under The Regency Of Bairam Khan, A Despotic Koman Noble, Until In 156o He Took The Government Into His ...

Jerome Alexander
Alexander, Jerome (1876— ), American Chemist, Was Born In New York City, On Dec. 21, 1876. He Graduated In 1896 From The College Of The City Of New York From Which In 1899 He Received The Degree Of Master Of Science. He Was An Offi Cial And Chief Chemist For ...

Joaquin Acosta
Acosta, Joaquin (c. 1795-1852), Colombian Historian And Soldier, Was An Officer In Bolivar's Army, And A Member Of Congress. He Travelled In Colombia And In Spain, Collecting Ma Terial For His Compendio Historic° Del Descubrimiento Y Coloni Zacion De La Nueva Granada, Which Was Published In Paris In 1848. ...

Joel Asaph Allen
Allen, Joel Asaph (1838-1921), American Zoologist, Was Born In Springfield, Mass., On July Io, 1838. He Attended Wilbraham Academy And Then Studied Zoology Under Louis Agassiz In The Lawrence Scientific School, Harvard University. From 1865 To 1869 And Again In 1873 He Was A Member Of Scien Tific Expeditions To ...

Johann Baptist Alzog
Alzog, Johann Baptist (1808-78), German The Ologian, Was Born At Ohlau, In Silesia, June 29 1808. Together With Dollinger, Alzog Was Instrumental In Convoking The Famous Munich Assembly Of Catholic Scholars In 1863. He Also Took Part, With Bishops Hefele And Haseberg, In The Preparatory Work Of The Vatican Council, ...

Johann Christoph Adelung
Adelung, Johann Christoph (1732-1806), Ger Man Grammarian And Philologist, Was Born At Spantekow, In Pomerania, On Aug. 8, 1732. In 1787 He Was Made Principal Librarian To The Elector Of Saxony At Dresden, Where He Lived Until His Death On Sept. 10, 1806. By His Grammars, Dictionary, And Various Works ...

Johann Conrad Amman
Amman, Johann Conrad 1730), Swiss Physician, Was Born At Schaffhausen And Practised At Amsterdam. He Was One Of The Earliest Writers On The Instruction Of The Deaf And Dumb And First Called Attention To His Method In His Surdus Loquens (amsterdam, 1692), Which Was Often Reprinted And Was Reproduced By ...

Johann Heinrich Alsted
Alsted, Johann Heinrich German Protestant Divine. He Was Sometime Professor Of Philosophy And Theology At Herborn, In Nassau, And Afterwards At Weissenburg In Transylvania, Where He Remained Till His Death In 1638. He Was A Marvellously Prolific Writer. His Encyclopaedia (163o), The Most Considerable Of The Earlier Works Of That ...

Johann Peter Friedrich Ancillon
Ancillon, Johann Peter Friedrich (1766 1837), Prussian Historian And Statesman, Great-grandson Of Charles Ancillon, Was Born At Berlin, April 3o 1766. He Studied Theology At Geneva, And After Finishing His Course Was Appointed Minister To The French Community At Berlin. Ancillon Wrote A Tableau Des Revolutions Du Systeme Politique De ...

Johann Philipp Abelin
Abelin, Johann Philipp, (d. C. 1635) German Chronicler. He Wrote Numerous Histories Over The Pseudonyms Of Philipp Arlanibaus, Abeleus And Johann Ludwig Gottfried Or Gotofredus. His Best Known Work Is The T/ieatrum Europaeum, A Series Of Chronicles Of The Chief Events In The History Of The World Down To 1619. ...

Johannes Agricola
Agricola, Johannes (originally Schneider, Then Schnitter) (1494-1566), German Protestant Reformer, Was Born April 20, At Eisleben, Whence He Is Sometimes Called Magister Islebius. He Studied At Wittenberg, Where He Met Luther. In 1519 He Accompanied Luther To The Great Assembly Of German Divines At Leipzig, And Acted As Recording Secretary. ...

John Abernethy
Abernethy, John Irish Presbyterian Divine, Was Born At Coleraine, County Londonderry, On Oct. 19 1680. He Was Educated At Glasgow, Edinburgh And Dublin, And Was Pastor Of A Church At Antrim For 14 Years. In 1717 He Was Assigned By The Synod To Usher's Quay, Dublin. He Declined To Obey, ...

John Abernethy_2
Abernethy, John (1764-1831), British Surgeon, Was Born In London On April 3 1764. He Was Apprenticed In 1779 To Sir Charles Blicke, Then Assistant Surgeon To St. Bartholomew's Hospital, And Studied Under Sir William Buzard At The London Hospital And Under John Hunter. When Blicke Became Surgeon To The Hospital, ...

John Adair
Adair, John (d. 1722), Scottish Surveyor And Map-maker Of The I7th Century. In 1703 He Published The First Part Of His Description Of The Sea-coasts And Islands Of Scotland, For The Use Of Seamen. The Second Part Never Appeared. Some Of His Work Is Preserved In The Advocates' Library (now ...

John Adams
Adams, John (1735-1826), Second President Of The United States Of America, Was Born Oct. 3o, 1735, In What Is Now The Town Of Quincy (mass.). His Father, A Farmer, Also Named John, Was Of The Fourth Generation In Descent From Henry Adams, Who Emi Grated From Devonshire, Eng Land, To ...

John Aikin
Aikin, John (1747-1822), English Physician And Author, Was Born At Kibworth-harcourt On Jan. And Died At Stoke Newington, London, On Dec. 7, 1822. He Practised As A Con Sulting Physician In London From 1792 Onwards, But Gradually Became Absorbed In Literary Pursuits. Aikin And His Sister, Anna Letitia Barbauld, Wrote ...

John Aislabie
Aislabie, John (167o-1742), English Politician, Born Dec. 7, 167o. He Was Made Chancellor Of The Exchequer In 1718, And Supported The Proposal Of The South Sea Company To Pay Off The National Debt. At The Collapse Of The Company He Was Imprisoned In The Tower With Other Politicians Accused Of ...

John Albion Andrew
Andrew, John Albion (1818-1867), American Polit Ical Leader, "war Governor" Of Massachusetts, Was Born At Wind Ham, Me., On May 31, 1818. He Graduated At Bowdoin College In 1837, Studied Law In Boston, Was Admitted To The Suffolk Bar In 184o, And Practised His Profession In Boston. He Also Took ...

John Alcock
Alcock, John (c. 1430-1500), English Divine, Was Born At Beverley In Yorkshire And Educated At Cambridge. He Was Bishop Successively Of Rochester, Worcester And Ely, And Twice Held The Office Of Lord Chancellor. He Died At Wisbech Castle Oct. 1500. Alcock Was One Of The Most Eminent Pre-reformation Divines; He ...

John Alden
Alden, John One Of The "pilgrims" Who In 1620 Emigrated To America In The "mayflower" And Founded The Plymouth Colony. He Was A Settler Of Duxbury (mass.), Where He Lived For Most Of His Life. From 1633 Until 1675 He Was An "assistant" To The Governor Of The Colony, Frequently ...

John Allen
Allen, John (1476-1534), English Divine, After Studying At Both Oxford And Cambridge, Was Sent By Archbishop Warham On An Ecclesiastical Mission To Rome. He Was One Of Wolsey's Agents In The Suppression Of, The Minor Monasteries In 1524-25, And In 1528 Became Archbishop Of Dublin: For Four Years He Was ...