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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 2 Annu - Baltic

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Apartment House
Apartment House. In Great Britain, The Term "apartment House" Would Be Understood To Mean A House Let Off In Tenements Or "lodgings." A British Domestic Dwelling Erected For The Specific Purpose Of Providing Separate Dwellings, Each With Its Separate Entrance, Is Termed A Block Of "flats" And Each Of Its ...

Apathy
Apathy. In The History Of Moral Philosophy The Term Apathy Indicates The Negative Side Of An Ideal Of Life That Is Characterized Positively By Peace Of Mind And The Rational Guidance Of Conduct, And Negatively By The Absence Of Passions And Emotional Excitement. Such An Ideal Is Characteristic Of Eastern ...

Apatite
Apatite, A Widely Distributed Mineral, Which, When Found In Large Masses, Is Of Considerable Economic Value As A Phosphate. It Was Named From The Greek 6.7rarav, To Deceive, Because It Had Previously Been Mistaken For Other Minerals, Such As Beryl, Tourmaline, Chrysolite, Amethyst, Etc. Two Chemical Varieties Of Apatite Are ...

Apaturia
Apaturia, An Ancient Greek Festival Which Was Held Annu Ally By Nearly All Of The Ionian Towns (herodotus I. 147). At Athens It Took Place In The Month Of Puanepsion (oct.–nov.), And Lasted Three Days, On Which Occasion The Various Phratries (i.e., Clans) Of Attica Met To Discuss Their Affairs. ...

Ape
Ape, The English Name, Until The 16th Century, For Animals Of The Monkey Tribe, And Now Applied Specifically To The Tailless Rep Resentatives Of The Group. These Comprise The Great Or Anthropoid Apes Of The Family Simiidae, Which Include The Orang-utan, Of Borneo And Sumatra, And The Chimpanzee And Gorilla, ...

Apeldoorn
Apeldoorn, Town In The Province Of Gelderland, Hol Land, And A Junction Station, 261m. By Rail East Of Amersfoort. It Is Connected By Canal North And South With Zwolle And Zutphen Respectively. Pop. (1900) 60,452. The Town Possesses Large Paper-mills. ...

Apella
Apella, The Title Of The Assembly At Sparta, Corresponding To The Ecclesia In Other Greek States. Every Full Citizen Who Had Completed His 3oth Year Was Entitled To Attend The Monthly Meetings. The Presiding Officers Were At First The Kings, But Later The Ephors, And The Voting Was Conducted By ...

Apelles
Apelles (4th Century B.c.), Probably The Greatest Painter Of Antiquity. He Lived In The Time Of Philip Of Macedon And His Son Alexander. He Was Of Ionian Origin But Became A Student At The Celebrated School Of Sicyon, Where He Worked Under Pamphilus. He Thus Combined The Dorian Thoroughness With ...

Apellicon
Apellicon, A Wealthy Native Of Teos, Afterwards An Athenian Citizen, A Famous Book Collector. He Not Only Spent Large Sums On His Library, But Stole Original Documents From The Archives Of Athens And Other Cities Of Greece. Being Detected, He Fled, But Returned When Athenian (or Aristion), An Opponent Of ...

Apennines
Apennines, A Range Of Mountains Traversing Peninsular Italy, Forming The Backbone Of The Country (gr., 'aith'v Vos, Lat. Appenninus—in Both Cases Used In The Singular). The Name Probably Derives From Celtic Pen, A Mountain Top : It Originally Belonged To The Northern Part, From The Maritime Alps To Ancona. Polybius ...

Apex
Apex, The Latin Word (pl. Apices) For The Top, Tip Or Peak Of Anything. The Diminutive, "apiculus," Is Used In Botany Of A Very Small Point Or Tip. ...

Aphanite
Aphanite, A Name Given To Certain Igneous Rocks Which Are So Fine-grained That Their Component Minerals Are Not De Tected By The Unaided Eye. Although A Few Authorities Still Recog Nize The Aphanites As A Distinct Class, Most Systematic Petrologists Have Now Discarded It And Regard These Rocks As Merely ...

Aphasia
Aphasia', A Term Used To Denote Various Defects In The Com Prehension And Expression Of Both Spoken And Written Language Which Result From Lesions Of The Brain. Aphasic Disorders May Be Classed In Two Groups : First, Receptive Or Sensory Aphasia, Which Comprises (a) Inability To Understand Spoken Language (auditory ...

Aphelion
Aphelion, In Astronomy, That Point Of The Orbit Of A Planet At Which It Is Most Distant From The Sun. Apogee, Apo Centre, Aposaturnium, Etc. Are Terms Applied To Those Points Of The Orbit Of A Body Moving Around A Centre Of Force—as The Earth Or Saturn—at Which It Is ...

Aphides
Aphides (pl. Of Aphis), Minute Insects, Often Known As Plant-lice, Blight, Or Greenfly, Belonging To The Family Aphididae Of The Order Hemiptera (q.v.). They Are Characterized By Long Antennae And Legs, Two-jointed Tarsi With Paired Claws And A Long Rostrum Ensheathing The Mouth-parts. Both Winged And Wingless Forms Occur, The ...

Aphorism
Aphorism, A Principle Expressed Tersely In A Few Telling Words Or Any General Truth Conveyed In A Short And Pithy Sen Tence, In Such A Way That When Once Heard It Is Unlikely To Pass From The Memory. The Name Was First Used In The Aphorisms Of Hippocrates, A Long ...

Aphraates
Aphraates (a Greek Form Of The Persian Name Aphrahat Or Pharhadh), A Syriac Writer Belonging To The Middle Of The 4th Century A.d., Who Composed A Series Of 23 Expositions Or Homilies On Points Of Christian Doctrine And Practice. The First Ten Were Written In A.d. 337, The Following Twelve ...

Aphrodisiac
Aphrodisiac, Any Food, Drink Or Drug Which Stimulates Sexual Desire And Power. Popularly, But With Slight Justification, This Property Is Ascribed To Stout, Red Pepper, Oysters, Hard-boiled Eggs And Other Foods. Several Genuine Aphrodisiacs Are Known To Medicine, Some Of Which Are Habitually Used In The East, E.g., Ginseng; But ...

Aphrodite
Aphrodite, Known As The Greek Goddess Of Love And Beauty, The Counterpart Of The Roman Venus. Although Her Myth And Cult Were Essentially Semitic, She Soon Became Hellenized And Was Admitted To A Place Among The Deities Of Olympus. Some Mythologists Hold That There Already Existed In The Greek System ...

Aphthonius
Aphthonius, Of Antioch, Greek Sophist And Rhetorician, Flourished In The Second Half Of The 4th Century A.d., Or Even Later. We Possess By Him Iipoyvuvaiµara, An Introductory Textbook On Rhetoric, With Exercises, Written In A Pure And Simple Style. The Book Maintained Its Popularity As Late As The 17th Century, ...

Aphthous Fever
Aphthous Fever: See Foot And Mouth Disease. Aphthous Stomatitis: See Thrush. ...

Apicius
Apicius, The Name Of Three Celebrated Roman Epicures. The Second Of These, M. Gavius Apicius, Who Lived Under Tiberius (seneca, Consol. Ad Helviam, 1o), Invented Various Cakes And Sauces, And Is Said To Have Written On Cookery. The Extant De Re Coquinaria (edited By Schuch, 1874), A Collection Of Receipts, ...

Apion
Apion, Greek Grammarian And Commentator On Homer, Born At Oasis In Libya. He Was Head Of The School At Alexandria And Led A Deputation Sent To Caligula (in A.d. 38) By The Alexandrians To Complain Of The Jews (see Philo, Head Of The Jewish Deputa Tion, Legatio Ad Gaium). The ...

Apis Or Hapi
Apis Or Hapi (the Bull), A God Of The Ancient Egyptian Pan Theon. His Chief Centre Of Worship Was Memphis And He Was Supposed To Be The Image Of The Soul Of Osiris. He Is Occasionally Represented As A Man With The Head Of A Bull. He Was Also Regarded ...

Aplanatic Refraction
Aplanatic Refraction, Refraction Of 'light, Result Ing In The Occurrence Of No Spherical Aberration. (see Optics.) ...

Aplerbeck
Aplerbeck, A Town Near Horde, In The Arnsberg District Of Germany. Pop. (1925) 10,942. Coal-mining Is The Chief Industry. ...

Aplite
Aplite, In Petrology, The Name Given To Intrusive Rock In Which Quartz And Felspar Are The Dominant Minerals. Aplites Are Usually Very Fine-grained, White, Grey, Or Flesh-coloured, And Their Constituents Are Visible Only With The Help Of A Magnifying Lens. Dykes And Threads Of Aplite Are Very Frequently To Be ...

Apnoea Or Apnea
Apnoea Or Apnea, Is A Suspension Of Breathing. A Person May Voluntarily Hold His Breath For A Limited Length Of Time, As In Swimming Under Water. Respiration Stops During Swallowing, By A Protective Reflex Which Prevents Food From Entering The Wind Pipe. Other Stimuli, Such As Severe Pain, May Cause ...

Apocalypse
Apocalypse.) In Proportion As The Figure Of Nero Again Ceased To Dominate The Imagination Of The Faithful, The Wholly Unhistorical, Unpolitical And Anti-jewish Conception Of Antichrist, Which Based Itself More Especially On Ii. Thess. Ii., Gained The Upper Hand, Having Usually Become Associated With The Description Of The Universal Confla ...

Apocalypse_2
Apocalypse. The Book Called The Apocalypse (or "rev Elation") Of John Is The Last Book In The New Testament Canon As Received Both In East And West, With The Exception Of The Syriac-speaking Church, Which Has Never Officially Accepted It. It Professes To Be The Revelation Of Jesus Christ To ...

Apocalyptic Literature
Apocalyptic Literature. In The Present Survey We Shall Limit Ourselves To The Great Formative Periods In This Literature—in Judaism From 200 B.c. To A.d. And In Chris Tianity From A.d. 50 To 35o Or Thereabouts. The Transition From Prophecy To Apocalyptic Was Gradual And Already Accomplished Within The Limits Of ...

Apocatastasis
Apocatastasis, A Greek Word Used By Aristotle, Mean Ing "re-establishment," Used As A Technical Scientific Term For A Return To A Previous Position Or Condition. ...

Apocentre
Apocentre, The Point In Any Orbit Which Is Farthest From The Centre Of Attraction. ...

Apocryphal Literature
Apocryphal Literature. The Word "apocry Pha" Comes From The Greek Apocryphos, "hidden," Which Is The Equivalent Of A Hebrew Term Derived From A Root Meaning "to Store Up" (ganaz) ; It Means Also "to Store Up In Secret," And In The Technical Sense, Used In Reference To Looks, It Meant ...

Apocynaceae
Apocynaceae, The Dog-bane Family, A Numerous Group Of Dicotyledonous Plants, Composed Chiefly Of Tropical Twining Shrubs But Including Also Various Trees And Perennial Herbs, All With A Milky Often Poisonous Juice. The Leaves Are Simple, Entire And Usually Opposite ; The Flowers Are Regular, Sympetalous, With The Parts In Fours ...

Apocynum
Apocynum Is The Dried Root Of Apocynum Cannabinum, Also Known As American Hemp, Canadian Hemp And Dogbane. The Only Official Preparation For Use As A Drug Is The Fluid Extract Pre Pared From The Powdered Root. The Dose Is Five Minims (0.3cc.) For Therapeutic Purposes. Its Action In This Dosage ...

Apodictic
Apodictic, A Logical Term, Applied To Judgments Which Are Necessarily True, As Of Mathematical Conclusions. The Term In Aristotelian Logic Is Opposed To Dialectic, As Scientific Proof To Probable Reasoning. Kant Contrasts Apodictical With Problematic And Assertorical Judgments. The Apodictic Judgment Has The Form "s Must Be P." It Does ...

Apogee
Apogee, In Astronomy, That Point In The Orbit Of The Moon Which Is Farthest From The Earth, The Distance Being 253,o00 Miles. (see Moon.) ...

Apolda
Apolda, A Town In Saxe-weimar, Germany, 9m. E.n.e. Of Weimar. Pop. 27,834. Christian Zimmermann (1759— 1842) Introduced Hosiery And Cloth Manufacture And The Town Has An Important Wool And Silk Industry. It Has Also Dye-works, Bell Foundries And Manufactures Of Engines, Bicycles, Cardboard And Food Products. It Also Trades In ...

Apolistas
Apolistas, A Tribe Or Small Group Of Tribes Of South American Indians, Regarded As Forming An Independent Linguistic Stock. The Apolistas Lived In The First Half Of The 19th Century, Near Apolo In The Province Of Caupolican, In Bolivia, On The East Ern Slopes Of The Andes In The Latitude ...

Apollinaris
Apollinaris, "the Younger" (died A.d. 39o), Bishop Of Laodicea In Syria. He Collaborated With His Father, Apollinaris The Elder, In Reproducing The Old Testament In The Form Of Homeric And Pindaric Poetry, And The New Testament After The Fashion Of Platonic Dialogues, When The Emperor Julian Had Forbidden Chris Tians ...

Apollo
Apollo, In Greek Mythology, One Of The Most Important And Many-sided Of The Olympian Divinities. The Least Improb Able Etymology Of The Name ('a7r6xxwv, 'airaxcvv) Is Perhaps That Of Usener, Who Connects It With An Obsolete Greek Verb Meaning "to Drive Away" (evil Or Disease ; Cf. Lat. Pellere) . ...

Apollodorus
Apollodorus, An Athenian Painter, Who Flourished At The End Of The 5th Century B.c. He Is Said To Have Introduced Great Improvements In Perspective And Chiaroscuro. ...

Apollodorus_2
Apollodorus, Of Carystus In Euboea, One Of The Most Important Writers Of The New Attic Comedy, Who Flourished At Athens Between 30o And 260 B.c. He Is To Be Distinguished From An Older Apollodorus Of Gela (342-290), Also A Writer Of Comedy, A Contemporary Of Menander. He Wrote 47 Comedies ...

Apollodorus_3
Apollodorus (c. 144 B.c.), An Athenian Grammarian, Pupil Of Aristarchus And Panaetius The Stoic. There Is Extant Under His Name A Treatise On The Gods And The Heroic Age, Entitled Blj3xloorlrcrl, A Valuable Authority On Ancient Mythology. Modern Critics Are Of Opinion That, If Genuine, It Is An Abridgment Of ...

Apollodorus_4
Apollodorus, Of Damascus, A Famous Greek Architect, Who Flourished During The 2nd Century A.d. He Was A Favourite Of Trajan, For Whom He Constructed The Stone Bridge Over The Danube (a.d. 104-05). He Also Planned A Gymnasium, A College, Public Baths, The Odeum And The Forum Trajanum, Within The City ...

Apollonia
Apollonia, The Name Of More Than Thirty Cities Of An Tiquity. The Most Important Are The Following : (1) Apollonia Kar' 'eiribaµvov Or Irpis 'er Now Pollina, On The Right Bank Of The Aous In Illyria, Founded By The Corinthians And Cor Cyraeans. It Soon Became Prosperous As The Most ...

Apollonius Molon
Apollonius Molon (flourished C. 7o B.c.), A Greek Rhetorician, Who Settled At Rhodes. He Twice Visited Rome As An Ambassador, And Cicero And Caesar Went To Rhodes To Take Lessons From Him. He Endeavoured To Moderate The Florid Asiatic Style And Cultivated An "atticizing" Tendency. He Wrote On Homer, And, ...

Apollonius Of Perga Pergaeus
Apollonius Of Perga (pergaeus), Greek Geometer Of The Alexandrian School, Was Probably Born Some Twenty-five Years Later Than Archimedes, I.e. About 262 B.c. He Flourished In The Reigns Of Ptolemy Euergetes And Ptolemy Philopator 205 B.e.). His Treatise On Conics Gained Him The Title Of The Great Geometer, And Is ...

Apollonius Of Rhodes
Apollonius Of Rhodes (rhonrns), A Greek Epic Poet And Grammarian, Of Alexandria, Who Flourished Under The Ptolemies Philopator And Epiphanes (222-181 B.c.) . He Was The Pupil Of Callimachus, With Whom He Subsequently Quarrelled. In His Youth He Composed The Work For Which He Is Known, Argonautica, An Epic In ...

Apollonius Of Tralles
Apollonius Of Tralles (in Caria), A Greek Sculptor, Who Flourished In The 2nd Century B.c. With His Brother Tauriscus, He Executed The Marble Group Known As The Farnese Bull, Representing Zethus And Amphion Tying The Revengeful Dirce To The Horns Of A Wild Bull. ...

Apollonius Of Ty Ana
Apollonius Of Ty Ana, A Greek Philosopher Of The Neo-pythagorean School, Born A Few Years Before The Christian Era. He Studied At Tarsus And In The Temple Of As Clepius At Aegae, Where He De Voted Himself To The Doctrines Of Pythagoras And Adopted The Ascetic Habit Of Life. He ...

Apollonius Of Tyre
Apollonius Of Tyre, A Mediaeval Tale Supposed To Be Derived From A Lost Greek Original. The Earliest Mention Of The Story Is In The Carmina (bk. Vi. 8, 11. 5-6) Of Venantius For Tunatus, In The Second Half Of The 6th Century, And The Romance May Well Date From Three ...

Apollonius
Apollonius, Surnamed The "effeminate," A Greek Rheto Rician Of Alabanda In Caria, Who Flourished About 120 B.c. Among His Pupils Was Mark Antony. ...

Apollonius_2
Apollonius, Surnamed O B Oicoxor ("the Crabbed"), A Grammarian Of Alexandria, Who Lived In The Reigns Of Hadrian And Antoninus Pius. He Was The Founder Of Scientific Grammar And Is Styled Grammaticorum Princeps By Priscian, Who Based His Own Work On That Of Apollonius. Four Of His Works Are Extant ...

Apollonius_3
Apollonius, Surnamed "the Sophist," Of Alexandria, A Grammarian, Who Probably Lived Towards The End Of The 1st Century A.d. He Was The Author Of A Homeric Lexicon (ai E S `oµnpucai), The Only Work Of The Kind We Possess. His Chief Authorities Were Aristarchus And Apion's Homeric Glossary. By Villoison ...

Apollos
Apollos, An Alexandrian Jew, Came To Ephesus, Where He Expounded In The Synagogue The Messianic Prophecies Of The Old Testament. He Was Versed In The Scriptures And Had Been In Touch With The Movement Inaugurated By John The Baptist. Priscilla And Aquila Convinced Him That The Predictions Had Been Fulfilled ...

Apollyon
Apollyon. In Job. Xxvi. 6; Xxviii. 22; The Hebrew Word Abaddon (destruction) Is Coupled With Sheol (the Grave) And Death. In Rev. Ix. 11, A Wicked Angel Presides Over All The Powers Of The Abyss, And Is Called Abaddon. The Greek Name Apollyon ('a Roxavwv, Destroyer) Is The Equivalent. ...

Apologetics
Apologetics Seeks To State Grounds For Faith In God, In Christ, In The Bible And In The Church; Although Protes Tantism Seriously Lowers The Importance Of Church Teaching ("general Councils May Err And Sometimes Have Erred," Say The Anglican Articles) ; And Modern Apologists—from A Convergence Of Reasons—propose A More ...

Apologue
Apologue, A Short Fable Or Allegorical Story, Meant To Serve As A Pleasant Vehicle For Some Moral Doctrine Or To Convey Some Useful Lesson. One Of The Best Known Is That Of Jotham In The Book Of Judges (ix. 7-15) ; Others Are "the City Rat And Field Rat," By ...

Apology Of Aristeides
Aristeides, Apology Of. Until 1878 Our Knowledge Of The Early Christian Writer Aristeides Was Confined To The State Ment Of Eusebius That He Was An Athenian Philosopher, Who Presented An Apology "concerning The Faith" To The Emperor Hadrian. In That Year, However, The Mechitharists Of S. Lazzaro At Venice Published ...

Apology
Apology, In Its Usual Sense, An Expression Of Regret For Something Which Has Been Wrongfully Said Or Done; A Withdrawal Or Retraction Of Some Charge Or Imputation Which Is False. For The Legal Significance Of This See Libel And Slander. The Word "apology" Or "apologia" Is Also Used In The ...

Aporose
Aporose, A Biological Term Meaning Imperforate, Or Not Porous : There Is A Group Of Corals Called Aporosa. ...

Aposiopesis
Aposiopesis, A Rhetorical Device By Which The Speaker Or Writer Stops Short And Leaves Something Unexpressed, But Yet Obvious, To Be Supplied By The Imagination. The Unfinished First Sentence In "as For The Clergy No; If I Say A Word Against Them, I'll Be Shot" (tristram Shandy) Is An Example. ...

Apostasy
Apostasy, A Term Generally Employed To Describe A Com Plete Renunciation Of The Christian Faith, Or Even An Exchange Of One Form Of It For Another, Especially If The Motive Be Unworthy. In The First Centuries Of The Christian Era, Apostasy Was Most Commonly Induced By Persecution, And Was Indicated ...

Apostil Or Postil
Apostil Or Postil, Properly A Gloss On A Scriptural Text, Particularly On A Gospel Text, Hence Any Explanatory Note On Other Writings. The Word Is Also Applied To A General Commentary, And Also To A Homily Or Discourse On The Gospel Or Epistle Appointed For The Day. The Word In ...

Apostle Spoons
Apostle Spoons, A Set Of Spoons, Usually Of Silver Or Silver Gilt, With The Handles Terminating In Figures Of The Apostles, Each Bearing Their Distinctive Emblem. They Were Common Baptismal Gifts During The 15th And 16th Centuries. See C. G. Rupert, Apostle Spoons (oxford, 5929). Apostolic Canons, A Collection Of ...

Apostle
Apostle (one Sent On A Mission, An Envoy, As In Isa. Xviii. 2), A Term Used In The New Testament And In Christian Literature Generally, In An Increasingly Technical Sense, For A Special Envoy Of Jesus Christ. In Its First And Simplest Form, The Idea Is Present Already In Mark ...

Apostolic Brethren Apostolici
Apostolici, Apostolic Brethren. This Name Has Been Applied To Certain Obscure Sects Arising In Eastern Chris Tendom At Various Periods During The First Three Centuries. All That We Know Of Them Is That They Were Celibate Communists, Maintain Ing An Ascetic Rigidity Of Morals (epiphanius, Haereses, 61). Hence They Were ...

Apostolic Constitutions
Apostolic Constitutions, A Collection Of Ecclesiastical Regulations In Eight Books, The Last Of Which Concludes With The 85 Canons Of The Holy Apostles, In Greek, Olarayai Or Olara Sts Twv Ayuov Asroctoacwv &la'kxrlµevtos Tov Paicov Re Kai 7roxitov. Kaooxckij Hulaoeaxia. By Their Title The Constitu Tions Profess To Have Been ...

Apostolic Fathers
Apostolic Fathers, A Term Used To Distinguish Those Early Christian Writers Who Were Believed To Have Been The Per Sonal Associates Of The Original Apostles. While The Title "fathers" Was Given From At Least The Beginning Of The 4th Century To Church Writers Of Former Days, As Being The Parents ...

Apostolic Majesty
Apostolic Majesty, A Title Borne By The Kings Of Hungary. In A.d. 1001 It Was Conferred By Pope Silvester Ii. Upon St. Stephen (975-1038), The First Christian King Of Hungary, In Return For His Zeal In Seeking For The Conversion Of The Heathen. It Was Renewed By Pope Clement Xiii. ...

Apostrophe
Apostrophe, The Name Given To An Exclamatory Rhetorical Figure Of Speech; It Means Also The Sign (') For The Omission Of A Letter Or Letters, E.g., In "don't" (gr. A7ro Rrpock, Turning Away). In Physiology, "apostrophe" Is Used More Precisely In Its Literal Meaning Of "turning Away," E.g., For Movement ...

Apotactites Or Apotactici
Apotactites Or Apotactici, A Sect Of Early Chris Tians, Who Renounced All Their Worldly Possessions (gr. Aurorarros Set Apart). (see Apostolici Ad Init.) ...

Apothecary
Apothecary, By Derivation, A Warehouseman (coroz,ipcn, A Store Or Repository). During The Middle Ages The Application Of The Term Became Restricted To Those Who Prepared And Sold Drugs, And Is Employed In That Sense To Day In America, Scotland And On The Continent. In England, How Ever, The Apothecary Has ...

Apotheosis
Apotheosis, Literally Deification (gr. 6.7roo€oi V, To Make A God, To Deify). The Term Properly Implies A Clear Polytheistic Conception Of Gods In Contrast With Men, While It Recognizes That Some Men Cross The Dividing Line. It Is Characteristic Of Polythe Ism To Blur That Line In Several Ways. Thus ...

Appalachian Way
Appalachian Way, A Highway Connecting Chicago, Illi Nois, With Charleston, South Carolina. It Is About 95om. Long And Is For The Most Part Paved Or Improved Except In South-eastern Kentucky. It Runs From The Great Lakes Across The Ohio River Valley, Through The Picturesque Appalachian Mountains To The Atlantic Ocean ...

Appanage Or Apanage
Appanage Or Apanage, In Its Original Sense The Means Of Subsistence Given By Parents To Their Younger Children As Dis Tinct From The Rights Secured To The Eldest Born By The Custom Of Primogeniture. In Its Modern Usage It Is Practically Confined To The Money Endowment Given To The Younger ...

Apparel
Apparel (fr. Appareil, From Low Lat. Adpariculare, To Make Fit Or Equal), Equipment, Outfit, Things Furnished For The Proper Performance Of Anything, Now Chiefly Used Of Dress. The Word Is Also Applied To Orphreys (q.v.). ...

Apparitions
Apparitions. An Apparition, Strictly Speaking, Is Merely An Appearance Apprehended In Perception When A Stimulus Acts On Any Of The Senses. But In Ordinary Usage The Word Apparition Denotes A Perception (generally Through The Sense Of Sight) Which Cannot, As A Rule, Be Shown To Be Occasioned By An Object ...

Apparitor Or Apparator
Apparitor Or Apparator, An Attendant Who Exe Cuted The Orders Of A Roman Magistrate; Hence A Beadle In A Uni Versity, A Pursuivant Or Herald ; Particularly, In English Ecclesias Tical Courts, The Official Who Serves The Processes Of The Court And Causes Defendants To Appear By Summons. ...

Appassionata
Appassionata (ital., Impassioned), A Musical Term Which May Apply Either To The Nature Of A Piece (e.g., Beethoven's Sonata Appassionata, Op. 5 7) Or, In Its Adverbial Form Appassio Nato, To The Required Manner Of Its Performance. ...

Appeal
Appeal. In The Old English Common Law The Term "appeal" Was Used To Describe A Process Peculiar To English Criminal Pro Cedure. It Was A Right Of Prosecution Possessed As A Personal Privilege By A Party Individually Aggrieved By A Felony, A Priv Ilege Of Which The Crown Could Not ...

Appearance
Appearance, In Law, The Coming Into Court Of Either Of The Parties To A Suit ; The Formal Act By Which A Defendant Submits Himself To The Jurisdiction Of The Court. (see Practice And Pro Cedure.) ...

Appendicitis
Appendicitis, Inflammation Of That Part Of The In Testine Known As The "appendix." It Has No Single Cause. Fre Quently Its Origin Is Quite Obscure, But The Starting Point May Be The Impaction Of A Pin, Shot-corn, Tooth-brush Bristle, Or A Fish Bone In The Appendix. In Many Cases A ...

Appendiculata
Appendiculata, A Zoological Name Introduced By E. Ray Lankester, And Employed To Denote The Large Group Of Animals Comprising The Annelida, Arthropoda And Rotifera: All Animals Composed Of A Larger Or Smaller Number Of Hollow Rings, Each Ring Possessing Typically A Pair Of Hollow Lateral Appendages, Moved By Intrinsic Muscles ...

Appenzell
Appenzell, A Canton 'of North-east Switzerland, Entirely Surrounded By That Of St. Gall; Both Were Formed Out Of The Dominions Of The Prince Abbots Of St. Gall, Whence The Name Appenzell (abbatis Cella). It Belongs To The Limestone Zone On The North Side Of The Main Alpine Lines. The Culminating ...

Appenzell_2
Appenzell, Political Capital Of The Inner Rhoden Half Of The Swiss Canton Of Appenzell, In A Smiling Green Hollow On The Left Bank Of The Sitter, Formed By Union Of Mountain Torrents From The Santis; By Light Railways I 2 2m. From St. Gall Past Gais Or 202m. Past Herisau. ...

Apperception
Apperception, In Psychology, A Term Used To Describe The Presentation Of An Object, On Which Attention Is Fixed, In Rela Tion To The Previous Experiences Of The Mind As A Whole. The Word Was First Used By Leibniz, Practically In The Sense Of The Modern Attention (q.v.), By Which An ...

Appetite
Appetite, An Emotion Of Distinctive Conscious Quality, Ac Companying The Anticipation, Acquisition And Assimilation Of Food Or Other Objects Of Desire. Physiologists Have Shown That The Conscious Experience Of Appetite Is Quite Different From Hunger, Both With Respect To The Sensations Involved And Also With Respect To The Mechanisms Involved ...

Appian
Appian Of Alexandria (gr. 'atrtrcavos), Roman Historian, Flourished During The Reigns Of Trajan, Hadrian, And Antoninus Pius. He Tells Us That, After Having Filled The Chief Offices In His Native Place, He Repaired To Rome, Where He Practised As An Ad Vocate. When Advanced In Years He Obtained, By The ...

Appin
Appin, Coast District, Argyllshire, Scotland, Bounded West By Loch Linnhe, South By Loch Creran, East By Benderloch And Lorne Districts, And North By Loch Leven. It Measures 14m. N.e.—s.w. By 7m. In Breadth. The Coast Is Beautiful, And Inland The Country Is Rugged And Mountainous. The Streams Coe And Laroch ...

Applause
Applause, The Expression Of Approval By Clapping Of Hands, Or Otherwise. Among Civilized Nations Applause Has Been Sub Ject To Certain Conventions. The Romans Had A Set Ritual Of Applause For Public Performances, Expressing Degrees Of Ap Proval : Snapping The Finger And Thumb, Clapping With The Flat Or Hollow ...

Apple
Apple, The Fruit Of Pyrus Malus, A Member Of The Pouroff Deae Division Of The Family Rosaceae. It Is Perhaps The Most Widely Cultivated And Best Known Fruit Of Temperate Climates; It Is Closely Allied To The Pear (pyrus Communis). In Its Wild State, The Crab-apple, It Is Widely Distributed ...

Appleby
Appleby, Municipal Borough And County Town Of West Morland, England; On The L.m.s.r. And A Branch Of The L.n.e.r. Pop. ( 1931) 1,618. It Is Placed In The Richly-wooded Valley Of The Eden, Flanked On The North-east By Spurs Of Milburn Forest And Dufton And Other Fells, Which Rise To ...

Appleton
Appleton, A City Of Wisconsin, U.s.a., On The Lower Fox River, About 90m. N.w. Of Milwaukee, Near Lake Winnebago, The Largest And One Of The Most Beautiful Lakes Of The State; The County Seat Of Outagamie County. It Is On Federal Highway 41, And Is Served By The Chicago And ...

Applications Of Anthropometry
Applications Of Anthropometry One Of The Earliest Statistical Accounts Of The Physique Of Chil Dren Employed In Factories Appeared In 1833, Containing Observa Tions Made At Manchester And Stockport. Records Are Given Of The Stature And Weight Of 1,492 Boys And Girls. Out Of That Num Ber 1,062 Were Engaged ...

Applications
Applications Since The Applications Of Arithmetic Reach Every Branch Of Trade, Industry, Commercial Activity And Science, It Is Evident That An Arbitrary Limit Must Be Placed Upon What The Schools Can Offer. It Is Also Evident That, So Far As The Subject Matter Is Con Cerned, This Limit Must Vary ...

Applied Anthropology
Anthropology, Applied. In Great Britain, Public Recognition Of The Advantages To Be Gained By The Practical Appli Cation Of Anthropological Knowledge Had Scarcely Begun Before The World War, And Naturally Suffered A Severe Setback From Which It Only Slowly Recovered. There Were Administrators Who Recog Nized The Native Point Of ...

Applied Psychology
Applied Psychology Is That Branch Of Technical Service In Which The Facts And Methods Of The Science Of. Psy Chology Are Applied To The Practical Affairs Of Life. Its Boundary Lines Are Vague Because It Merges Imperceptibly Into The Realm Of The Pure Science Of Psychology, And Especially Because The ...