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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 2 Annu - Baltic

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Artemon
Artemon (fl. C. A.d. 23o), A Prominent Christian Teacher At Rome, Who Held Adoptianist (see Adoptianism), Or Human Itarian, Views Of The Same Type As His Elder Contemporaries The Theodotians, Though Perhaps Asserting More Definitely Than They The Superiority Of Christ To The Prophets In Respect Of His Super Natural ...

Artemovsk
Artemovsk (formerly Bakhmut), A Town And Railway Junction In The Artemovsk Province Of The Ukrainian S.s.r. Lat. N., Long. 38° E. Pop. (1926) 37,354. Its Salt Springs And Salt Mines Have Been Worked Since The 17th Century; 403,00o Tons Were Produced In 1925. Coal, Alabaster And Quicksilver Are Mined, And ...

Artena
Artena, Village, Province Of Rome, Italy, At North-north West Extremity Of Volscian Mountains; 36m. S.e. By Rail, And 24m. Direct From Rome. Pop. Of The Commune , 5,923. On The Mountain Above (2,o73ft.) Are Fine Remains Of A Fortified City Built In Rough Blocks Of Local Limestone ; Within The ...

Arteries
Arteries, In Anatomy, The Elastic Tubes Which Carry The Blood Away From The Heart To The Tissues. As, After Death, They Are Always Found Empty, The Older Anatomists Believed That They Contained Air, And To This Belief They Owe The Name, Which Was Originally Given To The Windpipe (trachea). Two ...

Artern
Artern, A Town Of Germany, In Prussian Saxony, On The Unstrut, At The Influx Of The Helme, At The Junction Of Railways To Erfurt, Naumburg And Sangerhausen, 8 M. S. Of The Last Named. Pop. 5,890. Its Brine Springs, Known As Early As The 15th Century, Are Still Frequented. ...

Artesian Wells
Artesian Wells, Named After Artois, The Ancient Artesium, A French Province, Where The Method Of Boring Was First Adopted In Europe. A Bore Hole Is Carried Down Into Water Bearing Strata, And The Water, In Certain Formations, Rises By Hy Drostatic Pressure, Or Is Pumped Up. There Is A Well ...

Arth
Arth, A Picturesque Little Town Of Switzerland, Situated At The Southern End Of Lake Zug. Its Origin Probably Goes Back To Roman Times. Pop. About 5,000. ...

Arthritis
Arthritis, Inflammation Of The Joints, Occurring In Acute And In Chronic Forms As The Result Of Injury Or In The Course Of Other Diseases, E.g., Gout, Rheumatism, Gonorrhoea. It May End In Fixation Of The Joint And Sometimes Is Suppurative. (see Joints, ...

Arthropoda
Arthropoda, A Phylum Of The Animal Kingdom, Corn Prising Animals With A Segmented Body Enclosed In A Firm In Tegument Or Exoskeleton, Provided With Jointed Limbs Some Of Which Are Modified To Serve As Jaws. The Group Includes The Classes Crustacea, Myriopoda, Insecta And Arachnida, Together With Several Less Extensive ...

Arthur I
Arthur I. (1187-1203), Duke Of Brittany, Was The Posthumous Son Of Geoffrey, The Fourth Son Of Henry Ii. Of Eng Land, And Constance, Heiress Of Conan Iv., Duke Of Brittany. The Bretons Hoped That Their Young Prince Would Uphold Their Independence, Which Was Threatened By The English. Henry Ii. Tried ...

Arthur Iii
Arthur Iii. (1393-1458), Earl Of Richmond, Constable Of France, And Afterwards Duke Of Brittany, Was The Third Son Of John Iv., Duke Of Brittany, And Joan Of Navarre, Afterwards Wife Of Henry Iv. Of England. His Brother, John V., Gave Him His Earl Dom Of Richmond In England. From 1410 ...

Arthur James Balfour Balfour
Balfour, Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl Of British Statesman, Eldest Son Of James Maitland Balfour Of Whittingehame, Haddingtonshire, And Of Lady Blanche Gascoyne Cecil, A Sister Of The 3rd Marquess Of Salisbury, Was Born On July 25, 1848. Educated At Eton And Trinity College, Cambridge, In 1874 He Became M.p. ...

Arthur
Arthur, British King, And Subject Of The Romance Cycle, Described Below, S.v. Arthurian Legend. Our Sources For The Historical Arthur Are The Historia Britonum Of Nennius, The Annales Cambriae, And The Gesta Regum Of William Of Malmes Bury. In Caradoc Of Llancarfan And In Geoffrey Of Monmouth The Myth Is ...

Arthur_2
Arthur (1688-1746), 6th Lord Balmerino, Joined The Parti Sans Of James Edward, The Old Pretender, After The Battle Of Sheriffmuir In Nov. 1715, And Then Lived For Some Time In Exile, Returning To Scotland In 1733 When His Father Had Secured For Him A Pardon. He Was One Of The ...

Artichoke
Artichoke. The Common Artichoke, Cynara Scolymus, Is A Plant Belonging To The Family Compositae, Bearing Some Resem Blance To A Large Thistle. It Has Long Been Esteemed As A Culinary Vegetable, The Parts Chiefly Employed Being The Immature Recepta Cle Or Floret Disc, With The Lower Part Of The Surrounding ...

Artillery
Artillery, A Term Originally Applied To All Engines For Discharging Missiles, And In This Sense Used In English In The Early 17th Century. In A More Restricted Sense, Artillery Has Come To Mean All Firearms Too Heavy Or Bulky To Be Carried By Hand, And Also The Personnel And Organization ...

Artiodactyla
Artiodactyla. To Some Of Our Domestic Animals The Term "cloven-hoofed" Is Commonly Applied. These Are The Cow, The Sheep, The Goat And The Pig. Deer Are Also "cloven-hoofed" Animals, As Are Giraffes, Camels, Antelopes And Certain Other Ani Mals Less Well-known To Us. Scientifically Speaking, However, "cloven-hoofed" Is Not A ...

Artisan Or Artizan
Artisan Or Artizan, A Mechanic, A Handicraftsman In Contradistinction To An Artist. The English Word At One Time Meant "artist," But Has Been Restricted To Signify The Operative Workman Only. ...

Artois
Artois, An Ancient Province Of France, Corresponding To The Present Department Of Pas De Calais, Less The Arrondisse Ments Of Boulogne And Montreuil, Which Belonged To Picardy. Its Capital Was Arras, And Other Important Places Were Saint Omer, Bethune, Aire, Hesdin, Bapaume, Lens, Lillers, Saint-pol And Saint-venant. The Names Artois ...

Arts And Crafts
Arts And Crafts, A Comprehensive Title For The Arts Of Decorative Design And Handicraft—all Those Which, In Association With The Mother-craft Of Building (or Architecture), Go To The Making Of The House Beautiful. Accounts Of These Will Be Found Under Separate Headings. "arts And Crafts" Are Also Associated With The ...

Art_2
Art. In Any Attempt To Arrive At A Clear And Comprehensive Definition Of The Meaning Of Art It Is Necessary To Disregard All Philological Or Etymological Derivations Which, In The Past, Have Led To Much Confusion Of Thought And To An Expansion Of The Human Activities Embraced By This Term, ...

Aru Islands
Aru Islands, In The Residency Of Amboina, Dutch East Indies, Between 5° 18' And 5' S. And 134° And 135° E. The Nearest Point On The South-west Coast Of New Guinea Is Tom. Distant. They Are Composed Of One Large Island, Tana-besar, 122m. Long And 58m. Wide, And Nearly Zoo ...

Arum
Arum, A Genus Of Monocotyledonous 'plants Of The Family Araceae (q.v.), Containing 12 Species Found In Europe And The Mediterranean Region, And Represented In The British Isles By The Well-known Lords-and-ladies, Cuckoo-pint (q.v.) Or Wake-robin (a. Maculatum), Native To Europe And Northern Africa. The Black Calla (a. Palaestina), Native To ...

Arundel
Arundel, Municipal Borough, Sussex, England, 58m. S.s.w. Of London By The Southern Railway. Population (1931) 2,489. It Lies On A Hill Slope Above The River Arun, Which Is Navigable For Small Vessels To Littlehampton At The Mouth, Six Miles South. Arundel Castle, Rising From The Summit Of The Hill, Was ...

Arunta
Arunta. In Central Australia, Around Alice Springs, Are Still Found Representatives Of The Arunta Tribe—a Typical Stone Age Hunting People With Peculiar Beliefs, Ritual And Customs. The Tribe Is Divided Into Two Patrilineal, Exogamous Intermarrying Sections Which Are Split Into Two, And In Some Cases Into Four. The Natives Believe ...

Arval Brothers
Arval Brothers, In Roman Antiquities, A College Or Priesthood (fratres Arvales, "brothers Of The Field"), Consisting Of Twelve Members, Elected For Life From The Highest Ranks In Rome, And Always Apparently, During The Empire, Including The Emperor. Their Chief Duty Was To Offer Annually Public Sacrifice For The Fertility Of ...

Arvels Or Arthels Arvals
Arvals, Arvels Or Arthels, Primarily The Funeral Dinner, And Later, A Thin, Light, Sweet Cake, Spiced With Cinnamon And Nutmeg, Served To The Poor At Such Feasts. The Funeral Meal Was Called The Arvel-dinner. The Custom Seems To Have Been To Hold On Such Occasions An Informal Inquest, When The ...

Arverni
Arverni (ahr-vur'ni), An Ancient Gaulish Tribe In The Auvergne, Which Still Bears Its Name. It Resisted Caesar Longer Than Most Of Gaul; When Once Vanquished It Adopted Roman Civilization Readily. Its Tribal Deity, The God Of The Mountain, The Puy De Dome, Rechristened In Roman Phrase Mercurius Dumias, Was Famous ...

Arviculture
Arviculture Is That Branch Of Agronomy (q.v.) Which Relates To The Culture Of Field Crops Specifically And To Their Actions And Reactions Under Agronomic Or Horticultural Conditions. De Rived From L. Arvum, Field, And Cultus, Cultivation. ...

Arya Bhatta
Arya-bhatta (b. 476), Indian Astronomer And Mathe Matician, Was Born At Patalipatua On The Upper Ganges. He Was The Author Of The Aryabathiyam, Written In Verse Couplets, Which Gives The Rules Of Mathematics As Known In His Time. The Greater Part Of This Work Is Astronomy And Spherical Trigonometry, The ...

Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj, A Hindu Reforming Sect, Founded By Day Anand Saraswati, A Brahman Of Guzerat, Who, Born In 1825, Was Brought Up As A Shiv-worshipper, But Renounced Idol-worship. He Sought In The Vedas A Solution Of The Problems Of Human Misery And Final Salvation. After 1866 He Gathered Disciples And ...

Aryans
Aryans. This Word Is Used By Some Of The "satem" Speakers Of Indo-european Languages (q.v.) With The Meaning "noble" And Is The Name Of One Of The Tribes Of These People. As Sir George Grierson Points Out "indians And Iranians Who Are Descended From An Indo-european Stock Have A Perfect ...

Aryballos
Aryballos, A Greek Vase, Sometimes Used As A Drinking Vessel, With A Wide Base And Small, Flaring Mouth. One Variety Has A Jug-like Handle Near The Mouth. The Decorations On These Vases Were Often Executed In The Asiatic Style, The Designs Including Fan Tastic Animals, Monsters And Winged Goddesses. ...

Arytenoid
Arytenoid, A Term Meaning "funnel-shaped," Applied To Cartilages, Such As Those Of The Larynx. ...

Asa
Asa, In The Bible, Son (or Perhaps, Rather Brother) Of Abijah, The Son Of Rehoboam And King Of Judah (i. Kings Xv. 9-24). He Was A Contemporary Of Baasha, Zimri And Omri Of Israel, But Little Is Recorded Of His Long Reign Except Some Religious Reforms And Conflicts With The ...

Asaf Ud Dowlah
Asaf-ud-dowlah, Nawab Wazir Of Oudh From 1775 To 1797, Was The Son Of Shuja-ud-dowlah, His Mother And Grand Mother Being The Begums Of Oudh, Whose Spoliation Formed One Of The Chief Counts In The Charges Against Warren Hastings. When Shuja-ud-dowlah Died He Left £2,000,000 Sterling Buried In The Vaults Of ...

Asafoetida
Asafoetida, A Gum-resin Obtained Chiefly From An Urn Belliferous Plant (ferula Foetida), Allied To The Giant Fennel (q.v.), Native To Persia And Afghanistan. It Grows To 5 Or 6 Ft., And When Four Years Old Is Ready For Yielding Asafoetida. The Stems Are Cut Down Close To The Root, And ...

Asarabacca
Asarabacca (asarum Europeum), A Low, Stemless Perennial Plant Of The Birthwort Family (aristolochiaceae), Native To The Woods Of Europe And North Temperate Asia, And Occurring Wild In Some English Counties. It Is A Small Creeping Herb With A Pungent-aromatic Rootstock, Kidney-shaped Leaves And Small Pur Plish Bell-shaped Flowers. It Was ...

Asbestic
Asbestic, A Fine Ground Serpentine Sand Containing Small Quantities Of Short Fibred Chrysotile Asbestos. This Is A Trade Name For The Mill-treated Residue From Which The Shortest Commercial Fibre Has Been Extracted; The Product, Almost White In Colour, Is Used To Strengthen Certain Plasters And Stuccos, And Can Be Used ...

Asbestine
Asbestine, Looasite, Snofibre, Synthetic Trade Names Used In The United States To Describe Short Fibred Talc Products (q.v.) Produced In New York State And Used As Mineral Fillers In Many Industries. See Also Micro-asbestos. ...

Asbestos
Asbestos, A Generic Name For A Group Of Minerals Possess Ing Crystalline Fibrous Structure And Which Can Be Spun Or Felted To Make Non-combustible Fabrics For Heat Insulation And For Other Purposes Where Resistance To Fire Is Essential. The Name Is Derived From The Ancient Greek Name (acrf3ecftos) For A ...

Asbury Park
Asbury Park, A City Of Monmouth County, N.j., U.s.a., On The Atlantic Ocean, About 35m. S. Of New York City (5om. By Rail). It Is Served By The Central Railroad Of New Jersey, The Pennsylvania And The New York And Long Branch Railways. The Population In 192o Was 12,400, And ...

Ascanius Or
Ascanius Or Iulus, In Roman Legend, The Son Of Aeneas (q.v.) By Creusa Or Lavinia, And Ancestor Of The Gens Iulia. On The Death Of Aeneas, The Government Of Latium Was Left In The Hands Of Lavinia, Ascanius Being Too Young To Undertake It. After 3o Years He Left Lavinium, ...

Ascaris
Ascaris, The Generic Name Of Certain Round Worms, Which Are Parasitic On Various Animals. A. Lumbricoides Is Found In The Human Intestine, The Closely Allied A. Suilla In The Pig And A. Sncgalocephala In The Horse. Ascaris, Which Belongs To The Nema Toda (q.v.), Has Only Two Chromosomes (q.v.) In ...

Ascension
Ascension, A Small Island In The South Atlantic, Loom. N.w. Of St. Helena. Area, 34 Sq. Miles. The Island Lies Within The Influence Of The South-east Trades (8° South Lat.). The Lee Side Is Subject To "rollers," Which Break On The Shore With Great Violence. The Island Is Of Volcanic ...

Asceticism
Asceticism, The Theory And Practice Of Bodily Abstinence And Self-mortification, Generally Religious. The Word Is Derived From A Greek Word (aoithw) Meaning "to Practice," Or "to Train," And It Embodies A Metaphor Taken From The Ancient Wrestling Place, Where Victory Rewarded Those Who Had Best Trained Their Bodies. The Ultimate ...

Aschaffenburg
Aschaffenburg, Bavaria, Germany, On Right Bank Of The Main, Near The Foot Of The Spessart, 26m. S.e. Of Frankfurt. Pop. Called In The Middle Ages Aschafaburg (or Askenburg), It Was Originally A Roman Settlement. On The Site Of The Castrum The Frankish Mayors Of The Palace Built A Castle. Bonifacius ...

Aschersleben
Aschersleben, A Town In Prussian Saxony, Germany, 36m. N.w. Of Halle. Pop. (5933) The Town Was Probably Founded In The Ilth Century By Count Esico Of Ballenstedt, An Cestor Of The House Of Anhalt. On The Death Of Otto Iii. (ii) It Passed To The Bishop Of Halberstadt, And, After ...

Asciano
Asciano, A Town In Tuscany, 19m. S.e. Of Siena By Rail. Pop. 4,022 (town), 8,771 (commune). Surrounded By Walls Built By The Sienese In 1351, It Has Some 14th Century Churches With Paintings Of The Period. Remains Of Roman Baths, With A Fine Mosaic Pavement, Have Been Found In The ...

Ascites
Ascites, The Term In Medicine Applied To An Effusion Of Non Inflammatory Fluid Within The Peritoneum. It Is Not A Disease In Itself, But Is One Of The Manifestations Of Disease Elsewhere—usu Ally In The Kidneys, Heart, Or In Connection With The Liver (portal Obstruction). Portal Obstruction Is The Commonest ...

Asclepiadaceae
Asclepiadaceae, The Milkweed Family, A Distinctly Marked Group Of Dicotyledonous Plants Comprised Chiefly Of Shrubs And Woody Vines, Though Many Are Perennial Herbs, Mostly With A Milky Juice. Like The Apocynaceae (q.v.), To Which They Are Closely Related, Most Of The Species, About 1,700 In Number And Divided Into Some ...

Asclepiades
Asclepiades, Of Samos, Epigrammatist And Lyric Poet, Friend Of Theocritus, Flourished About 270 B.c. He Was The Earliest And Most Important Of The Convivial And Erotic Epigrammatists. The Majority Of His Compositions Are Love-songs. It Is Doubtful Whether He Is The Author Of All The Epigrams (some 4o In Number) ...

Asclepiades_2
Asclepiades, Greek Physician, Was Born At Prusa In Bithynia In 124 B.c., And Flourished At Rome At The End Of The 2nd Century B.c. He Travelled Much When Young, And Seems At First To Have Settled At Rome As A Rhetorician. In That Profession He Did Not Succeed, But He ...

Asclepiodotus
Asclepiodotus, Flourished In The I St Century B.c., The Supposed Author Of A Treatise On Graeco-macedonian Tactics (taktucd K€4 &xaca), Which Is Probably The Outline Of The Lec Tures Of His Master, Posidonius The Stoic. ...

Ascoli Piceno
Ascoli Piceno' (anc. Asculum), Episcopal See, Marches, Italy, Capital Of Province Of Ascoli Piceno, 17m. W. Of Porto D'ascoli (station On Coast Railway, 56m. S.s.e. Of Ancona), And 53m. S. Of Ancona Direct, On South Bank Of Tronto (anc. Truen Tus) At Its Confluence With The Castellano, 5ooft. Above Sea-level, ...

Ascos
Ascos, A Greek Vase Of The Drinking-vessel Type, With A Handle Extending Over The Top And Connecting With A Large Spout, Giving It A Appearance. (see Pottery, Greek And Roman.) ...

Ascot
Ascot, Village Of Berkshire, England, In The South-east Of The County, Famous For Its Race-meetings. The Station On The Southern Railway, 2g M. From London, Is Called Ascot And Sun Ninghill. The Race-course Is On Ascot Heath, In Which Parish The Village Of Ascot Is Included, And Was Laid Out ...

Ascus
Ascus, A Botanical Term For The Membranous Sacs Containing The Reproductive Spores Of Fungi (q.v.) Belonging To The Group Ascomycetes (gr. Aokos, A Bag) . Various Compounds Of The Word Are Used, E.g., Ascophorous, Producing Asci; Ascospore, The Spore Developed In The Ascus ; Ascogonium, The Organ Producing It, Etc. ...

Asellius Or Asellio Aselli
Aselli, Asellius Or Asellio, Gasparo (1581- I626), Italian Physician, Was Born At Cremona About 1581, Became Professor Of Anatomy And Surgery At Pavia, And Practiced At Milan Where He Died In 1626. To Him Is Due The Discovery Of The Lacteal Vessels, Published In De Lactibus (milan, 1627). ...

Asen Or Assen
Asen Or Assen, The Name Of The Greatest Mediaeval Bulgarian Dynasty. Its Real Surname Was Apparently Belgun. The Family Is Said To Have Been Of Vlach Origin ; Nicetas States That A Prisoner Spoke To Asen In Vlach, "which Was Also His Own Lan Guage"; The Crusader Chroniclers (e.g., Villehardouin, ...

Ash Handling
Ash Handling. The Boilers Required For Generation Of Power In A Large Electric Or Industrial Plant Often Burn Thousands Of Tons Of Coal A Day; And Since Perhaps Io To Of The Average Coal Is Incombustible Ash, Hundreds Of Tons Must Be Removed Each Day. The Handling Of Such Volumes ...

Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday, In The Western Church, The First Day Of Lent (q.v.), So-called From The Ceremonial Use Of Ashes, As A Symbol Of Penitence, In The Service Prescribed For The Day. The Custom Is Still Retained In The Roman Catholic Church, The Day Being Known As Dies Cinerum (day Of ...

Ash
Ash, A Common Name Given To Certain Trees. The European Ash (fraxinus Excelsior) Belongs To The Family Oleaceae, A Group Of Trees And Shrubs Which Includes Also Olive, Lilac, Privet And Jas Mine. The Hebrew Word Oren, Translated "ash" In Isaiah Xliv. 14, Cannot Refer To An Ash Tree, As ...

Ashanti
Ashanti, An Inland Country Of West Africa, Annexed By Great Britain In 1901. It Lies Immediately North Of The Gold Coast Colony, And While Preserving A Separate Entity Is Adminis Tered By A Chief Commissioner Under The Authority Of The Governor Of The Gold Coast. Area 24,379sq.m. ; Pop. (1931 ...

Ashari
Ashari Hasan `ali Ibn Ismail Ul-ash`ari) (873- 93 5) , Arabian Theologian, Was Born Of Pure Arab Stock At Basra, But Spent The Greater Part Of His Life At Baghdad. Although Be Longing To An Orthodox Family, He Became A Pupil Of The Great Mu`tazalite Teacher Al-jubba`i, And Himself Remained ...

Ashbourne
Ashbourne, Urban District, Derbyshire, England, 13m. W.n.w. Of Derby. Population It Is Pleasantly Situated On Rising Ground Between Two Small Valleys Opening Into That Of The Dove, And The Beautiful Scenery Of Dovedale Is Not Far Distant. The Church Of St. Oswald Is Cruciform, Early English And Later; A Fine ...

Ashburton
Ashburton, An Urban District, South Devonshire, Eng Land, On A Branch Of The Great Western Railway From Totnes. Population (193i) 2,505. It Lies Under Dartmoor, In A Valley Sur Rounded By Hills, At A Short Distance From The River Dart. Ash Burton (essebretona, Asperton, Ashperton) Is A Borough By Prescription ...

Ashburton_2
Ashburton, A River In The North-west Division Of Western Australia. It Drains North-westward From The Interior Plateau (average Elevation : 2,000-3,000f T.) Which Its Upper Tributaries Dissect. The Greater Part Of Its Course Of 400m., However, Is Through Wide Alluvial Plains Traversed By Low Ridges, Though There Are Gorge Sections ...

Ashby De La Zouch
Ashby-de-la-zouch, Urban District, Leicestershire, England; On The River Mease, 21 M. N.w. Of Leicester And I I 8m. From London By The London Midland And Scottish Railway. Population (1931) 5,093. At The Time Of The Domesday Survey Ashby (essebi) Formed Part Of The Estates Of Hugh De Grent Maisnel, Passing ...

Ashdod
Ashdod, An Ancient Village In Palestine, Pop. C. 4,500, About 3m. Inland From The Mediterranean And About Equidistant (18m.) From Gaza And Jaffa. It Is Now On The Railway. It Stands Close To A Large Hillock Of Red Sand (137ft.), Probably The Mt. Azotus On Which Judas Maccabaeus Fell (i. ...

Asher
Asher, A Tribe Of Israel, Called After The Son Of Jacob And Zilpah, Leah's Maid (gen. Xxx. Seq.). The District Held By This Tribe Bordered Upon Naphtali, And Lay To The North Of Issachar And Zebulun, And To The South Of Dan. Asher Is Blamed For Tak Ing No Part ...

Asheville
Asheville, A City Of North Carolina, U.s.a., The County Seat Of Buncombe County; In The Southern Appalachian Highlands, About 21om. W. Of Raleigh, At The Junction Of The French Broad And Swannanoa Rivers; On A Plateau 2,300f T. Above Sea-level, Which Extends From The Blue Ridge On The East To ...

Ashford
Ashford, Urban District, Kent, England, 56 M. S.e. Of London By The Southern Railway. Population (1931) 15,239. It Lies On A Slight Hill In The Plains Under The Downs Near The Con Fluence Of The Upper Branches Of The River Stour, And Is A Con Siderable Road And Rail Centre. ...

Ashington
Ashington, Urban District, Northumberland, England, 4 M. E. Of Morpeth, On The Newbiggin Branch Of The L.n.e. Railway. Population (1931) 29,418. The District, Especially Along The River Wansbeck, Is Not Without Beauty, But There Are Numerous Collieries, Mostly To The North-east Of The Town, From The Existence Of Which Springs ...

Ashkhabad
Ashkhabad, Formerly Poltoratsk. (1) A District In The Turkmenistan S.s.r. Area 195,0o0sq.km. Pop. (1926) (2) A Town, The Centre Of The District, In 38°n. And 58' 2o°e. Pop. (1926) 54,107. It Is Situated In The Fertile Akkal Oasis, Wa Tered By Hill Streams From The Kopet Dagh, Which Lose Them ...

Ashland
Ashland, A City Of Boyd County, Ky., U.s.a., On The Ohio River, 1 I 5m. S.e. Of Cincinnati, And A Few Miles Above The Mouth Of The Big Sandy, Where Ohio, Kentucky, And West Virginia Meet. It Is On The Midland Trail, Is Served By The Chesapeake And Ohio Railway ...

Ashland_2
Ashland, City Of Ohio, U.s.a., The County Seat Of Ashland County; S5m. South-west Of Cleveland, On The Erie Railroad And An Electric Railway Running From Cleveland To Bucyrus. The Population Increased From 4,087 In 1900 To 6,795 In 1910, And To In 5920, 97% Being Native-born White, And Was 11,141 ...

Ashland_3
Ashland, A City Of Oregon, U.s.a., On Bear Creek, In The Southern Part Of The State. It Is On Federal Highways 97 And 99, And Is Served By The Southern Pacific Railway. The Population Was 4,283 In 1920, And Was 4,544 In 1930 By The Federal Census. It Lies In ...

Ashland_4
Ashland, A Borough Of Schuylkill County, Pa., U.s.a., In The Anthracite Region, About 4o M. S.w. Of Wilkesbarre. It Is Served By The Lehigh Valley And The Reading Railways. The Population In 193o Was 7,164. The Borough Is Built On The Slope Of Locust Mountain, About 885 Ft. Above Sea-level.* ...

Ashland_5
Ashland, A Town Of Hanover Co., Virginia, U.s.a., On A High Plateau 15m. N. Of Richmond; On The Richmond, Fred Ericksburg And Potomac Railroad, And Connected With Rich Mond By An Electric Line. The Population In 1930 Was 1,297. Ashland Is The Seat Of Randolph-macon College, The Oldest Mem Ber ...

Ashland_6
Ashland, A City In The Northern Part Of Wisconsin, U.s.a., On The Chequamegon Bay, An Arm Of Lake Superior; At An Altitude Of 66o Ft., About 6o M. E. By S. Of Duluth And Su Perior; County Seat Of Ashland County. It Is On Federal High Way 2, And Is ...

Ashlar
Ashlar, Also Written Ashler, Ashelere, In Archi Tecture, Squared Stone Used For Facing Walls ; Also As An Adjective, Of A Wall Built Of Squared Stones. Sometimes The Word Is Used Of Any Stone Wall Facing Which Is Worked Or Tooled, Whether Squared Or Not, But Such Work Is Usually ...

Ashraf
Ashraf (plural Of Arabic Sharaf, "noble," "revered"), A Term Applied Throughout The Muslim World To Descendants Of The Prophet Mohammed, But More Particularly To A Small Arab Tribe Scattered Around Suakin, Who Call Themselves Bani Hashim, "sons Of Hashim," The Prophet's Uncle. In India The Term Is Said To Include ...

Ashtabula
Ashtabula, A City Of Ashtabula County, O., U.s.a., On Lake Erie, At The Mouth Of The Ashtabula River, 55m. N.e. Of Cleveland. It Is On The Yellowstone Trail, And Is Served By The New York Central, The Nickel Plate And The Pennsylvania Rail Ways. The Population Was 22,082 In 192o, ...

Ashton In Makerfield
Ashton-in-makerfield, Urban District, Lancashire, England, 4m. S. Of Wigan, On The London And North-eastern Rail Way. Population (1901) 18,687; (193i) 20,541. It Is Situated On The Lancashire Coalfield And Its Development Has Been En Tirely Due To The Mining Of Coal And Iron During The Last Century. Most Of The ...

Ashton Under Lyne
Ashton-under-lyne, Municipal And Parliamentary Borough, Lancashire, England, On The River Tame, A Tributary Of The Mersey, 62m. E. Of Manchester. Population (1891) 40,486; 51,573. It Is Served By The London Midland And Southern And London And North-eastern Lines. The Derivation From The Saxon Aesc (ash) And Tun (an Enclosed Place) ...

Ashur Assur
Assur, Ashur, Asur, Name Of The Ancient Capital Of Assyria, The Modern Ruins, Kalat Sherghat, Built On A Rocky Headland On The West Bank Of The Tigris, 4o Miles Above The Mouth Of The Lower Zab. It Is First Mentioned In The 46th Year Of Dungi Of Ur, 2376 B.c., ...

Ashur
Ashur (ashshur, Modern Kala'at Shergat), The Ancient Capital Of Assyria. The City Lay On The West Bank Of The Tigris In N., 43° 2o' E., Half-way Between The Greater And The Lesser [geography Zab, About Zoom. North Of Baghdad. There Was A Sumerian City Here In Pre-sargonic Times, But No ...

Asia Minor
Asia Minor, The General Geographical Name For The Penin Sula Forming The Bulk Of The Republic Of Turkey, On The Extreme West Of The Continent Of Asia, Bounded On The North By The Black Sea, On The West By The Aegean, And On The South By The Medi Terranean, And ...

Asia
Asia, The Name Of One Of The Great Continents Of The Earth's Surface, Embracing The North-east Portion Of The Great Land Mass Constituting The Old World, Of Which Europe Forms The North West And Africa The South-west Region. Much Doubt Attaches To The Origin Of The Name. The Early Greek ...

Asianic Languages
Asianic Languages. The Languages Described As Asianic Were Spoken In Asia Minor By Non-hellenic Peoples Before The Arrival Of Greek, By Which Most Of Them Have Been Slowly Ousted Or Absorbed. The Term Is Purely Geographical And Comprises A Number Of Ancient Languages, Of Different Families And Modes Of Writing ...

Asisium
Asisium (mod. Assisi), Ancient Town, Umbria, In A Lofty Situation About 15m. E.s.e. Of Perusia. Finds Include Traces Of City Walls, The So-called Temple Of Minerva (with Six Corinthian Travertine Columns Of The Augustan Era), Now A Church, Part Of The Pavement Of The Forum, And Remains Of The Amphitheatre ...

Askalon
Askalon, Now A Desolate Site On The Sea-coast I2m. N. Of Gaza And About 3m. From El-majdal On The Kantara-jerusalem Railway. It Occupies A Rocky Amphitheatre Embracing About 4m. Of Shore With Traces Of An Old Harbour In The South-west Corner. Protruding From This Sand-swept Terrain Shattered Columns And The ...

Askaules
Askaules, Probably The Greek Word For Bag-piper, Al Though There Is No Documentary Authority For Its Use. Neither It Nor Aakavxos (which Would Naturally Mean The Bag-pipe) Has Been Found In Greek Classical Authors, Though J. J. Reiske—in A Note On Dio Chrysostom, Orat. Lxxi. Ad Fin., Where An Unmistak ...

Asked Price
Asked Price, The Price Which The Owner Of Any Property Places Upon It For The Purpose Of Sale. A Prospective Buyer Will Usually Make An Offering Price Or "bid" At A Lower Figure. When The Bid And Asked Price Coincide, Either Through The Purchaser's Raising His Offer To Meet The ...

Asmai
Asma`i, Abd Al-malik Ibn Kuraib (c. Arabian Scholar, Was Born Of Pure Arab Stock In Basra And Died In Bagh Dad. He Became Tutor To The Son Of Harun-al-rashid, And Acquired Property In Basra, Where He Again Settled For A Time. Asma`i Was One Of The Greatest Scholars Of His ...

Asmara
Asmara, The Capital Of The Italian Colony Of Eritrea, North East Africa. It Is Built On The Hamasen Plateau, Near Its Eastern Edge, At An Elevation Of 7,765f T. It Is Some 40m. W.s.w. In A Direct Line From The Seaport Of Massawa But 75m. By Railway. (the Line From ...

Asmodeus Or Ashmedai
Asmodeus Or Ashmedai, An Evil Demon Who Appears In Later Jewish Tradition As "king Of Demons." He Is Sometimes Identified With Beelzebub Or Apollyon (rev. Ix. Ii). In The Tal Mud He Plays A Great Part In The Legends Concerning Solomon. In The Apocryphal Book Of Tobit (iii. 8) Occurs ...

Asmoneus Or Asamonaeus
Asmoneus Or Asamonaeus (so Josephus), Great Grandfather Of Mattathias, The Father Of Judas Maccabaeus. Nothing More Is Known Of Him, And The Name Is Only Given By Josephus (not In I Macc. Ii. I). But The Dynasty Was Known To Josephus And The Mishna (once) As "the Sons (race) Of ...

Asnieres
Asnieres, A Town, Department Of Seine, France, On The Left Bank Of The Seine, Practically An Extension Of Paris And 12m. N.n.w. Of Its Fortifications. Pop. (1931) 63,069, Compared With In 2906. It Is A Boating Centre For Parisians. Industries Include Boat-building And The Manufacture Of Perfumery, Colours, Etc. ...