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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 2 Annu - Baltic

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Backward Children
Backward Children. By Backwardness Is Com Monly Meant The Effects Of Delayed Progress Or Development In The Growing Child. Backwardness May Be Either Physical Or Mental. It Is, However, Chiefly In Mental Backwardness That Scientific Interest Has Centred. Apart From Exceptional Cases Of A Medical Or Pathological Nature Such As ...

Backwardation
Backwardation, A Technical Term Employed On The London Stock Exchange To Express The Amount Charged For The Loan Of Stock From One Account To The Other, And Paid To The Pur Chaser By The Seller On A Bear Account (see Bear), In Order To Allow The Seller To Defer The ...

Baco Baconthorpe Bacon
Baconthorpe (bacon, Baco, Bacconils), John (d. 1346), Known As "the Resolute Doctor," A Learned Carmelite Monk, Was Born At Baconsthorpe In Norfolk. He Seems To Have Been The Grandnephew Of Roger Bacon (brit. Mus. Add Ms. 19. 116). Brought Up In The Carmelite Monastery Of Blakeney, Near Wal Singham, He ...

Bacolod
Bacolod, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And Seven Barrios Or Districts), Capital Of The Province Of Occidental Negros, And Port On The Western Side Of The Island Of Negros Opposite The Small Island Of Guimaras, In The Philippine Islands. Pop. (1918), 19,36o, Of Whom 9,785 Were Males And 25 Whites. ...

Bacon
Bacon. The Smoked Meat Product Which Is Prepared From The Sides, Belly Or Back Of Hogs. A Variety Of Bacon Known As "bacon Squares," Which Is Used Chiefly In Cooking (as A Garnish Or Flavouring Agent), Is Prepared From The Jowls. In The British Trade, Bacon Ordinarily Consists Of The ...

Baconian Method
Baconian Method Is The Method Of "interpreting Na Ture" (or Studying Natural Phenomena) Formulated By Francis Bacon (q.v.). It Was Intended To Replace The Method Of Citing The Views Of "authorities" Or Of Having Recourse To Fanciful Guesses. It Insisted On Dismissing Prejudices And Preconceptions Of All Kinds, And On ...

Bacteria In Air And
Bacteria In Air And Water That Bacteria Have Existed From Very Early Periods Is Clear From Their Presence In Fossils; The Researches Of B. Renault And P. Van Tieghem Have Shown That Large Numbers Of Bacteria Existed In Carboniferous And Devonian Times. To-day They Are Universally Present In Still Ponds ...

Bacteria In Milk And
Bacteria In Milk And Dairy Produce It Has Been Stated Already That Milk Is A Perfect Food For The Development Of Bacteria. Without Bacteria Or Other Micro Organisms Milk Undergoes No Change Which Can Be Detected By The Senses And It May Be Kept In Its Original State Almost Indefinitely. ...

Bacteria In Relation To
Bacteria In Relation To Soil Fertility During The Middle Ages And The Early Part Of The Present Era The Fertility Of Soil Was The Subject Of Much Speculation; Varied And Fantastic, And Very Wide Of The Truth Were The Views Regarding The Food Requirements Of Plants. These Views However Were ...

Bacteriology In Industry
Bacteriology In Industry. The Industrial As Pect Of Bacteriology Which, In The Early Days Of The Science, Exercised An Almost Dominating Influence On The Workers Devoting Their Energies To The Study Of The Microscopic World Was Gradually Lost Sight Of When Pasteur, And The Other Early Pioneers With Him, Turned ...

Bacteriology
Bacteriology. The Common Idea Of Bacteria In The Minds Of Most People Is That Of A Hidden And Sinister Scourge Lying In Wait For Mankind. This Popular Conception Is Born Of The Fact That Attention Was First Focused Upon Bacteria Through The Dis Covery, Some 7o Years Ago, Of The ...

Bad Lands
Bad Lands, A Term Originally Applied To Certain Areas In Western South Dakota Which, Because Of Their Extreme Roughness And Inhospitability To Man, Were Called Maka Sicha (maka, Bad; Sicha, Lands) By The Dakota Indians, Mauvaises Terres By The French Canadian Trappers Of The Region, And Later "bad Lands" By ...

Bad Oldesloe
Bad Oldesloe, A Spa In The South-east Of The Prussian Province Of Schleswig-holstein, On The Trave, And A Junction On The Railway From Lubeck To Hamburg. Pop. (1933), ...

Bad
Bad (=bath), A Title Often Prefixed, In Common Usage, To Names Of German Towns Which Are Health Resorts. The Articles On These Are Given Under The Names Of The Towns Apart From The Title Bad. ...

Badajoz
Badajoz, A Frontier Province Of Western Spain, Formed In 1833 Of Districts Taken From The Province Of Estremadura (q.v.). Pop. (1930) 702,418; Area, 8,363sq.m. ; Density, 77.1 Per Sq.m. Badajoz Is Thus The Largest Province Of The Whole Kingdom. It Extends From The Foothills Of The Sierras De San Pedro, ...

Badajoz_2
Badajoz, Capital Of The Spanish Province Of That Name And The See Of A Bishop. Pop. Badajoz Overlooks The Guadiana From A Slight Eminence, Crowned By The Ruins Of A Moorish Castle. A Bastioned Wall With Moat And Outworks And Forts On The Surrounding Heights Give An Appearance Of Great ...

Badakshan
Badakshan, Including Wakhan, A Province On The North East Frontier Of Afghanistan, Adjoining Russian Territory. Its North-eastern Boundaries Were Decided By The Anglo-russian Agree Ment Of 1873, Which Expressly Acknowledged "badakshan With Its Dependent District Wakhan" As "fully Belonging To The Amir Of Kabul," And Limited It To The Left ...

Badalona
Badalona, A Town Of North-eastern Spain, In The Province Of Barcelona; 6m. N.e. Of The City Of Barcelona, At The Mouth Of The Small River Besos. Pop. (1930), 44,291. Badalona Is An Industrial Suburb Of Barcelona, To Which It Is Joined By Railroad, Tramways And Roads ; It Manufactures Chemicals, ...

Baden Or
Baden Or (to Distinguish It From Other Places Of The Name), Fashionable Watering-place, Germany, In The Land Of Baden, 23m. S. By W. Of Karlsruhe. Situated 600ft. High In The Black Forest, The Surroundings Are Laid Out In Gardens And Pleasure-grounds Which Attract Numerous Visitors. Resident Population , 30,082. The ...

Baden
Baden, A Spa In Lower Austria, 17m. South Of Vienna, Beau Tifully Situated At The Foot Of The Wiener Wald, Where It Is Pierced By The Romantic Helenental. The Warm. Springs (72° F-97° F), From Which Its Name And Existence Are Derived, Possess Radioactive Properties And Have A High Content ...

Badenoch
Badenoch, A District Of South-east Inverness-shire, Scot Land, Bounded On The North By The Monadhliath Mountains, On The East By The Cairngorms And Braemar, On The South By Atholl And The Grampians, And On The West By Lochaber. See Inverness-shire. ...

Badenweiler
Badenweiler, Watering Place In The Land Of Baden, Germany, 28m. N. By E. Of Basle At The Western Foot Of The Black Forest, Sheltered By The Blauen (3,82oft.). The 11th Century Castle, Formerly Belonging To The Margraves Of Baden, Was Destroyed By The French In The 18th Century. The Warm ...

Baden_2
Baden, A Land Lying In The South-west Corner Of Ger Many, Bounded On The North By Bavaria And Hesse; On The West By The Rhine With France And The Bavarian Palatinate Beyond; On The South By Switzerland; And On The East By Wurttemberg And Part Of Bavaria. The Country Consists ...

Baden_3
Baden, A Town In The Swiss Canton Of Aargau, On The Left Bank Of The River Limmat, 14m. N.w. Of Zurich. The Much Frequented Hot Sulphur Springs, Mentioned By Tacitus, Were Fashionable In The 15th And 16th Centuries. They Are Efficacious In Cases Of Gouty And Rheumatic Affections, And Attracted ...

Badge
Badge, A Distinctive Emblem, Originally Worn By Knights And Their Followers In Battle As A Mark Of Identification. Badges Are Now Worn As A Sign Of Membership Of A Society, Or Of The Holding Of An Office, Etc. The Heraldic Badge Is Of Great Antiquity, The Plantagenet "broom," For Instance, ...

Badger
Badger, The Name For Any Member Of The Musteline Sub Family Melinae Or The Genus Meles (see Carnivora). A Feature Of The Genus Is The Way In Which The Lower Jaw Is Locked Into A Long Cavity Of The Cranium, Thus Enabling The Animal To Maintain Its Hold With Great ...

Badger_2
Badger. A Term Of Uncertain Derivation (possibly Derived From Bagger, In Allusion To The Hawker's Bag) For A Dealer In F Ood, Such As Corn Or Victuals (more Expressly Fish, Butter Or Cheese), Which He Has Purchased In One Place And Brought For Sale To An Other Place ; An ...

Badghis
Badghis, A District Of North-west Afghanistan, Between The Murghab And Hari Rud Rivers, Extending As Far North As The Edge Of The Desert Of Sarakhs. It Includes The Chul Formations Of The Russo-afghan Boundary Surveyed In 1885. Since That Date It Has Been Largely Settled By The Amir With Purely ...

Badminton Or Great Badminton
Badminton Or Great Badminton, Village In The Cotswold Hills, Gloucestershire, England, 1 Oo M. W. Of London By The Great Western Railway (direct Line To South Wales) . Here Is Badminton House, The Seat Of The Dukes Of Beaufort, Standing In A Park Some Ten Miles In Circumference. The Manor ...

Badminton
Badminton, A Game Played With Rackets And Shuttle Cocks, Its Name Being Taken From The Duke Of Beaufort's Seat In Gloucestershire, England. The Game Appears To Have Been First Played In England About 1873, But Before That Time It Was Played In India, Where It Is Still Popular To Some ...

Badnur
Badnur, A Town Of British India, The Headquarters Of The District Of Betul In The Central Provinces, Pop. About 7,000. Not Far From Badnur Is Kherla, The Former Residence Of The Gond Rajhas, Where There Is An Old Fort, Now In Ruins. ...

Badrinath
Badrinath, A Village And Celebrated Temple In British India, In The Garhwal District Of The United Provinces. It Is Situ Ated Among Mountains Rising To A Height Of 23,000ft., And The Altitude Of The Great Temple Itself Is 10,294 Feet. It Is About 4o Or Soft. In Height, Built In ...

Bael Fruit
Bael Fruit (aegle Ltlarmelos). Aegle Is A Genus Of The Family Rutaceae, Containing Three Species, Two In Tropical Asia And One In West Tropical Africa. The Plants Are Trees Bearing Strong Spines, With Alternate, Compound Leaves Each With Three Leaflets And Panicles Of Sweet-scented White Flowers. Aegle Mar Melos, The ...

Baena
Baena, A Town Of Southern Spain, In The Province Of Cor Dova. Pop. (1930), 21,338. Baena Is Picturesquely Situated Near The River Marbella, On The Slope Of A Hill Crowned With A Castle, Which Formerly Belonged To The Famous Captain Gonzalo De Cor Dova. Farming And Horse-breeding Are The Chief ...

Baetylus
Baetylus (be'te-lus), A Greek Word Of Semitic Origin (=bethel) Denoting A Sacred Stone. Numerous Holy Or Fetish Stones Existed In Antiquity, And Were Generally Attached To The Cult Of Some Particular God, And Looked Upon As His Abiding-place Or Symbol. A Famous Example Is The Holy Stone At Delphi (pau ...

Baeza
Baeza, A Town Of Southern Spain, In The Province Of Jaen; In The Loma De Ubeda, A Mountain Range Between The River Gua Dalquiver On The South And Its Tributary The Guadalimar On The North. Pop. (193o) 16,329. Its Chief Buildings Are Those Of The University (founded In 1533, And ...

Baffin Bay
Baffin Bay And Baffin Land, An Arctic Sea And Island Named After The Explorer William Baffin. The Former Ex Tends From About 69° To 78° N., And Forms Part Of The Long Strait Separating Greenland From Baffin Land. The Latter Is A Barren Tract Included In Franklin District, Canada. Area, ...

Bag Pipe
Bag-pipe, A Complex Reed Instrument Of Great Antiquity. The Bag-pipe Forms The Link Between The Syrinx (q.v.) And The Primitive Organ, By Furnishing The Principle Of A Reservoir For The Wind-supply, Combined With A Simple Method Of Regulating This Air Pressure By Means Of The Arm Of The Performer. The ...

Bag Worm Or Basket Worm
Bag-worm Or Basket-worm, The Caterpillar Of The Moth Thyridopteryx Ephemeraeformis, So Called From Its Habit Of Spinning, As A Protection, A Bag Of Silk With Which It Moves About Head Downwards, And Within Which It Ultimately Pupates. Common In The Northern United States, This Destructive Creature Is Particularly Partial To ...

Baga
Baga, A Coarse-featured People Related To The Nalu And Landuman Who Practise Scarification. They Live On The Coast Of French Guinea Between Cape Verga And Konakri In Independent Villages By Unhealthy Swamps. There Are Traces Of Totemism. Marriage Is Obligatory Between (i.) The Husband's Brothers And His Wife's Sisters, And ...

Bagamoyo
Bagamoyo, Seaport, Tanganyika Territory, East Africa, In 6° 27' S., 55' E. Pop. (1921) 5,20o. As The Mainland Port Nearest Zanzibar, 26m. Distant, Bagamoyo Became The Starting Point For Caravans To The Great Lakes, And Thus An Entrepot Of Trade For The Interior Of The Continent. Of The Explorers Who ...

Bagasse
Bagasse (bti-gas'), The Name Given To The Fibrous Residue Resulting From The Crushing Of Sugar-cane And The Expression Of Its Juices. Originally The Term Was Applied In Provence, France, To Refuse From Olive-oil Mills, Hence Anything Worthless. The Word Was Also Used To Describe A Disreputable Woman, And It Appears ...

Bagatelle
Bagatelle, Primarily A Thing Of Trifling Importance (fr. From Ital. Bagatella, Bagata, A Trifle). The Name, Though French, Is Given To A Game Which Is Probably Of English Origin, Though Its Connection With The Shovel-board Of Cotton's Complete Gamester Is Very Doubtful. Strutt Does Not Mention It. The Game Is ...

Baggagemaster
Baggagemaster, In The United States The Official Re Sponsible For The Transportation Of Passenger Baggage And Mail On Railways, Steamship Lines And Other Systems Of Public Convey Ance. In England The Army Officer In Charge Of Brigade Or Divisional Baggage In The Field Is Called The Baggagemaster. This Position In ...

Baggara
Baggara (cattlemen), African "arabs" Of Semitic Origin, Great Cattle Owners And Breeders, Found West Of The White Nile Between The Shilluk Territory And Dar Nuba, Principally In Kor Dofan. They Intermarried Little With The Nuba. The Date Of Their Arrival In The Sudan Is Uncertain. They Move From Pasture To ...

Bagging And Bags
Bagging And Bags. The Textile Stuff Used For Making Bags Was Originally Baltic Hemp, While In The Beginning Of The I 9th Century Sunn Hemp Or India Hemp Was Also Employed. Modern Requirements Call For So Many Different Types Of Bagging That Many Kinds Of Fibres Are Used For This ...

Baghal
Baghal, A Small Native State In The Punjab, India. It Is One Of The Simla Hill States And Has An Area Of 124sq.m. Pop. 26,352. The Revenue Amounts To £3,300 Per Annum. ...

Baghdad Railway
Baghdad Railway. The Baghdad Railway In Its Origin Was Essentially A German Enterprise. Politically, Its Bear Ings Were Far Reaching And Formed The Keystone Of German Ac Tivities In The Near East, Especially In The Ottoman Empire. It Was Therefore A Considerable Menace To British Interests, To Rus Sia, And ...

Baghdad
Baghdad. The Foremost City Of Mesopotamia And The Capital Of Modern Iraq Is Situated In Lat. 33° 20' N. And Long. 24' E. On The Tigris At The Point Where That River And The Euphrates Approach Their Closest Approximation—to 25 Miles. The City Was Originally Built On The West Bank ...

Baghelkhand
Baghelkhand, A Tract Of Country In Central India, Occu Pied By A Collection Of Indian States. The Baghelkhand Agency Is Under The Political Superintendence Of The Governor-general's Agent For Central India, And Under The Direct Jurisdiction Of A Political Agent Who Is Also Superintendent Of The Rewa State, Residing Ordi ...

Bagheria
Bagheria, City, Province Of Palermo, Sicily, 8m. By Rail S.e. Of Palermo. Pop. (1931) 21,908. It Contains Many Villas Of The 18th Century Aristocracy Of Palermo, Many Now In Decay. The Ruins Of Soluntum (q.v.) Are 2m. To The East. ...

Bagillt
Bagillt, Town, Flintshire, Wales, 14m. From Chester On The Estuary Of The Dee, In The Ancient Parish Of Holywell. Pop. (1931) Of Holywell Rural C.p. 3,423. Its Situation On The Welsh Border Brought It Into Prominence In The Middle Ages. Near By Is Mostyn Hall, Dating From The Time Of ...

Bagimonds Roll
Bagimond's Roll. In 12i4 The Council Of Lyons Im Posed A Tax Of A Tenth Part Of All Church Revenues During The Six Following Years For The Relief Of The Holy Land. In Scotland Pope Gregory X. Entrusted The Collection Of This Tax To Master Boia Mund (better Known As ...

Bagirmi
Bagirmi, A Country Of North-central Africa, Lying S.e. Of Lake Chad And Forming Part Of The Chad Colony Of French Equatorial Africa. It Extends Some 24om. N. To S. And Has A Maximum Breadth Of 15om., With An Area Of 25,000sq.m. Pop. (1926) 1j3,706. The Surface, Which Lies About I,000ft. ...

Bagnun
Bagnun, A Mild-mannered, Long-headed, Senegalese Peo Ple Who File Their Incisor Teeth, Occupying The Territory Between The Lower Kasamansa And Lower Cacheu Rivers. The Men Shave Their Heads And The Women Net Their Hair. They Have Independent Villages Inhabited By The Extended Family Group. The Hereditary Chieftainship Descends In The ...

Bagoas
Bagoas, A Persian Name (bagoi), A Shortened Form Of Names Like Bagadata, "given By God," Often Used For Eunuchs. The Best Known Of These ("bagoses" In Josephus) Became The Confidential Minister Of Artaxerxes Iii. He Threw In His Lot With The Rhodian Condottiere Mentor, And With His Help Succeeded In ...

Bagobo
Bagobo, A Malayan Tribe Of Mindanao Island In The Phil Ippines With A Negrito Strain, Remarkable As Horsemen And Horse Breeders From Remote Times. Polygyny Is Practised ; There Seems To Be No Exogamous System, But Marriage Is Barred To Three De Grees Of Blood-relationship. They Believe In A Creator ...

Bags
Bags, A Town And Municipality Of The State Of Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil, About 176m. By Rail W.n.w. Of The City Of Rio Grande Do Sul. Pop. Of The Municipality (1920) 46,298; Of The Town 24,424. It Is Situated In A Hilly Region 7 74f T. Above Sea-level, And ...

Baguio
Baguio, A City (besides Manila, The Only Incorporated City In The Philippine Islands) And Capital Of Benguet Province, In The Island Of Luzon. Pop. (1918), 5,464, Of Whom 3,333 Were Males And 192 Whites. Camp John Hay, A U.s. Military Encampment, Had A Population In 1918 Of 1,486, Of Whom ...

Bahadur Khel
Bahadur Khel, A Salt-mine In The Kohat District Of The North-west Frontier Province Of India, In The Range Of Hills South Of The Village Of Bahadur Khel Between Kohat And Bannu. For A Space Of 4m. In Length By 4m. In Breadth There Exists An Exposed Mass Of Rock-salt With ...

Bahadur Shah I
Bahadur Shah I. (ba-hah'door), A Mogul Emperor Of Hindustan, 1707-12, The Son And Successor Of Aurangzeb. At The Time Of The Latter's Death His Eldest Surviving Son, Prince Muazim, Was Governor Of Kabul, And In His Absence The Next Brother, Azam Shah, Assumed The Throne. Muazim Came Down From Kabul, ...

Bahadur Shah Ii
Bahadur Shah Ii. (d. 1862), The Last Of The Mogul Em Perors Of Hindustan, 1837-57. He Was A Titular Emperor Only, Since From The Time Of The Defeat Of Shah Alam At Buxar In 1764 All Real Power Had Resided With The East India Company; But All Proclamations Were Still ...

Bahai Faith
Baha'i Faith, The Religion Founded By Baha'u'llah (b. 1817, In Persia, D. 1892 At `akka, Palestine) Who, After The Mar Tyrdom Of His Forerunner, The Bab (see Babirsm), Was Imprisoned In Tihran And Exiled Successively To Baghdad, Constantinople, Adrianople And To `akka. His Fundamental Teachings Are: That God Is Unknowable ...

Bahawalpur Or Bhawalpur
Bahawalpur Or Bhawalpur, An Indian State, Within The Punjab, Stretching More Than 3oom. Along The Left Bank Of The Sutlej, Punjnud And Indus, The Chief Mohammedan State In The Punjab. Area 15,003sq.m. ; Pop. (1931) 984,612; Estimated Gross Revenue £375,000. The Chief, Whose Title Is Nawab, Is A Mohammedan Of ...

Bahia Blanca
Bahia Blanca, A City And Port Of Argentina, On The Na Posta River, 3m. From Its Outlet Into A Deep, Well-sheltered Bay Of The Same Name. Pop. (1934 Estimate) Ioo,000, With Suburbs. It Is Situated In The Extreme Southern Part Of The Province Of Buenos Aires And Is 398m. By ...

Bahia Or Sao Salvador
Bahia Or Sao Salvador, The Oldest City Of Brazil, For 250 Years The Capital Of The Country And Now The Capital Of The State Of Bahia, Was Founded By Thome De Souza In 1549. Lat. S. And Long. 3o° 31' W. Pop. Est., 852,081. A Pictur Esque And Bluff-formed Peninsula ...

Bahia
Bahia, An Atlantic State Of Brazil, Bounded On The North By The States Of Piauhy, Pernambuco And Sergipe, East By Sergipe And The Atlantic, South By Espirito Santo And Minas Geraes, And West By Minas Geraes And Goyaz. Its Area Is 164,65osq.m., A Great Part Of Which Is An Arid ...

Bahr Or Bahar
Bahr Or Bahar, The Arabic For "sea," With The Diminutive Bahira Or Bolieira. Bahr Also Signifies A River, Especially One With A Large Body Of Water, E.g., The Nile, And Is Occasionally Used To Designate The Dry Bed Of A River. ...

Bahraich
Bahraich, A Town And District Of British India, Situated In The Fyzabad Division Of The United Provinces. The Town Is On The River Sarju. It Contains The Most Popular Place Of Pilgrimage In Oudh, The Tomb Of Masaud, A Champion Of Islam, Slain In Battle By The Confederate Rajputs In ...

Bahram
Bahram, The Name Of Five Sassanid Kings (varahre N, In Gr. Ovapapavqs Or Ovpapavns, The Younger Form Of The Old Vere Thragna, The Name Of A Persian God, "the Killer Of The Dragon Verethra"). ...

Bahrein
Bahrein, An Archipelago Named From Its Chief Island, In The Gulf Of The Same Name Occupying The Angle Formed By The Qatar Peninsula And The Hasa Coast Of Arabia. Bahrein Island, 27m. Long And Loin. Wide, Lying North And South Is A Low Flat Expanse Of Sand, With A Number ...

Bahut
Bahut (a French Word Of Unknown Origin), A Portable Coffer Or Chest, With A Rounded Lid Covered In Leather, Garnished With Nails, Used For The Transport Of Clothes Or Other Personal Luggage, —it Was, In Short, The Original Portmanteau. (see Chest.) ...

Baiae
Baiae, Ancient City, Campania, Italy, I Om. W. Of Neapolis, On The Sinus Baianus, A Bay On The West Coast Of The Gulf Of Puteoli. The Grave Of Baios, Helmsman Of Ulysses, Was Shown There ; It Was Originally, Perhaps, The Harbour Of Cumae. Its Warm Sulphur Springs Are Remarkable ...

Baiburt
Baiburt, A Town Of Asiatic Turkey, On The Direct Carriage Road From Trebizond To Erzerum, Situated On Both Banks Of The Churuk River, Which Here Traverses An Open Cultivated Plateau (altitude, 5,iooft.), Before Turning East. It Is The Chief Place Of A Kaza In The Vilayet Of Gumush Khane ; ...

Baidawi
Baidawi (`abdallah Ibn `umar Al-baidawi) (died C. 1286), Mohammedan Critic. His Chief Work Is The Commentary On The Koran Entitled The Secrets Of Revelation And The Secrets Of Inter Pretation (asrdr Ut-tanzil Wa Asreir Ut-ta' Wil). This Work Is In The Main A Digest Of The Great Mu`tazalite Commentary (al ...

Baikal
Baikal, A Lake Of East Siberia (known To The Mongols As Dalai-nor, And To The Turkish Tribes As The Sixth In Size In The World And The Largest Fresh-water Basin Of Eurasia. It Stretches From South-west To North-east (52° And 56° N. And To E.), Lying In The Buriat-mongol A.s.s.r., ...

Bail
Bail, In English Common Law, The Freeing Or Setting At Lib Erty Of One Arrested Or Imprisoned Upon Any Action, Either Civil Or Criminal, On Surety Taken For His Appearance On A Certain Day And At A Place Named. The Surety Is Termed Bail, Because The Per Son Arrested Or ...

Bailen Or Baylen
Bailen Or Baylen, A Town Of Southern Spain, In The Province Of Jaen. Pop. (1930) 9,554. Bailen Is Probably The An Cient Baecula, Where The Romans, Under P. Cornelius Scipio The Elder, Signally Defeated The Carthaginians In 209 And 206 B.c. In Its Neighbourhood, Also, In 1212, Was Fought The ...

Bailey
Bailey, An Open Space Enclosed By A Fortification, Sometimes Known As The "ward." If More Than One Line Of Fortification Is Present There Will Be An Inner And An Outer Bailey. The Word Per Sists Chiefly In Proper Names, Such As The Old Bailey In London Whose Name Is Derived ...

Bailiff And Bailie
Bailiff And Bailie, A Legal Officer To Whom Some Degree Of Authority, Care Or Jurisdiction Is Committed. The Term Was First Applied In England To The King's Officers Generally, Such As Sheriffs, Mayors, Etc., And More Particularly To The Chief Officer Of A Hundred. The County Within Which The Sheriff ...

Bailment
Bailment, A Delivery Of Specific Goods By One Person, Called The Bailor, To Another Person, Called The Bailee, Upon An Under Standing, Express Or Implied, That The Identical Goods Shall Be Re Stored To The Bailor, Or In Accordance With His Direction, As Soon As The Time Or Purpose, For ...

Bailys Beads
Baily's Beads, A Phenomenon Seen During A Total Eclipse Of The Sun. Just Before The Moon's Disc Completely Covers The Sun The Narrow Crescent Of Sunlight Is Broken In Several Places, Giving An Appearance Roughly Compared To A String Of Beads. This Is Due To Irregularity (mountains And Valleys) On ...

Bainbridge
Bainbridge, A City Near The South-western Corner Of Georgia, U.s.a., On The Flint River And Federal Highway 84; The County Seat Of Decatur County. It Is Served By The Atlantic Coast Line And The Seaboard Air Line Railways, And By River Steamers. The Population Was 4,792 In 1920 (46% Negroes), ...

Baindir
Baindir, A Town In Turkey In The Smyrna Vilayet, Situated In The Valley Of The Kuchuk Menderes. Pop. (1927), It Is Connected With Smyrna By A Branch Of The Aidin Railway, And Has A Trade In Cotton, Figs, Raisins And Tobacco. ...

Bairam
Bairam, A Perso-turkish Word Meaning "festival," Applied In Turkish To The Two Principal Festivals Of Islam. The First Of These, According To The Calendar, Is The "lesser Festival," Called By The Turks Kuchuk Bairdm ("lesser Bairam"), Or Sheker Bairdm ("sugar Bairam"), And By Arabic-speaking Muslims Id Al-fitr ("festival Of Fast-breaking"), ...

Bairnsdale
Bairnsdale, A Town Of Tanjil County, Victoria, Aus Tralia, On The Mitchell River, 171 M. By Rail E. Of Melbourne. Pop. About 4,000. It Lies Near The Head Of A Lagoon (lake King), Which Is Open To The Sea, And Affords Regular Communication By Water With Melbourne. In The District, ...

Baize
Baize, A Material Probably Named From Its Original Colour, Though A Derivation Is Also Suggested From The Fr. Baie, As The Cloth Is Said To Have Been Originally Dyed With Avignon Berries. It Is Generally A Coarse, Woollen Cloth With A Long Nap, And Is Com Monly Dyed Green Or ...

Bajour Or Bajaur
Bajour Or Bajaur, A Small District Peopled By Pathan Races Of Afghan Origin, In The North-west Frontier Province Of India. It Is About 45m. Long By Tom. Broad, And Lies At A High Level To The East Of The Kunar Valley, From Which It Is Separated By A Continuous Line ...

Bakalai
Bakalai, A Bantu Negroid Tribe Inhabiting The French Congo. They Appear To Be Immigrants From The South-east, And Are Perhaps Connected Racially With The Galoa, One Of The Mpongwe Tribes And The Chief River-people Of The Ogowe. Their Women Display Considerable Ingenuity In Dressing Their Hair, Often Taking A Whole ...

Bakelite
Bakelite, A Synthetic Resin Developed By Dr. L. H. Baekeland In America. It Has Many Industrial Applications, But Chiefly As An Electrical Insulator. It Is Prepared By The Chemical Interaction Of Phenolic Substances, Such As Phenol And Cresol Found In Coal-tar, And Aldehydes Such As Formaldehyde, A Deriva Tive Of ...

Baker
Baker, One Whose Business Is To Bake Bread, Biscuits, Cakes, Rolls, Etc., For The Market. The Term Is Often Extended To Include Those Who Simply Sell Bread, Cakes And Pastry. In The United States, In 1928, There Was Approximately One Baker For Every 750 People. The Term—baker—is Sometimes Applied To ...

Bakersfield
Bakersfield, A City Of California, U.s.a., On The Kern River, Loom. N.w. Of Los Angeles, In The Southern Part Of The San Joaquin Valley; The County-seat Of Kern County. It Is On Federal Highway 99; Is Served By The Santa Fe And The Southern Pacific Railways, And By Auto-stage Lines ...

Baker_2
Baker, The Largest City Of Eastern Oregon, U.s.a., About E. By S. Of Portland, On The Old Oregon Trail And The Main Line Of The Union Pacific Railroad; It Is The County-seat Of Baker County. The Sumpter Valley Railway Connects At Prairie (8om. S.w.) With Stage Lines For Various Points. ...

Bakewell
Bakewell, Urban District, Derbyshire, England, On The River Wye, 25m. N.n.w. Of Derby On The L.m.s. Railway. Pop. (1931) 3,012. On Castle Hill, In The Vicinity, Are Remains Of Earth-works Said To Have Been Raised By Edward The Elder In 924. There Was A Settlement At The Time Of Domesday, ...

Bakhchi Sarai
Bakhchi-sarai (turkish For "garden Palace"), A Town In The Autonomous Crimean Socialist Soviet Republic. Lat. 47' N., Long. 33° 56' E., On The Railway Tom. S.s.w. Of Simferopol. Pop. (1926) 9,55o, Mainly Tatar, Making Morocco Leather, Sheepskin Cloaks, And Small Metal Goods. From The 15th Century To 1783 It Was ...

Bakhtiari
Bakhtiari, One Of The Great Nomad Tribes Of Persia, Whose Camping-grounds Are In The Hilly District, Known As The Bakhtiari Province. The Bakhtiari Are Divided Into The Two Great Divisions, Haft-lang And Chahar-lang, And A Number Of Branches And Clans, And Were Known Until The 15th Century As The "great ...

Baking Powder
Baking Powder, A Prepared Mixture To Replace Yeast In Baking, Containing As Active Ingredients, Customarily, Sodium Bicarbonate (baking Soda), And Either Potassium Acid Tartrate (cream Of Tartar), Tartaric Acid, Or Potassium Aluminium Sulphate (alum) Or Other Material Which, When Moistened, Acts As An Acid To Liberate Carbon Dioxide From The ...

Bakkara
Bakkara, A Tribe Of Sudan Arabs. The Young Men Are Described As Great Dandies, And, Though Dark Skinned, Well Formed Noses Seem To Predominate. Their Women, Or At Least The Younger, Wear The Rahad (a Deeply Fringed Belt Of Cut Leather) Or A Width Of Cloth Round The Loins, But ...

Bakst
Bakst, (1866-1924), Russian Painter, Passed His Childhood In St. Petersburg (leningrad). He Attended The Impe Rial Academy Of Arts, But Left After Painting A Too Realistic "pieta." A Member Of The Society Of Painters In Water Colours And A Teacher To The Children Of The Grand Duke Vladimir, He Succeeded ...

Baku
Baku, Chief City Of The Azerbaijan S.s.r., On The West Coast Of The Caspian Sea, South Of The Apsheron Peninsula, 40° 2 2' N., 50' E. Av. Rainfall 9.5 Inches. Av. Temp. Jan. 38.1° F, July 78.8° F. A Violent North-north-west Wind Blows In Winter. It Is The Centre Of ...