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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 3 Baltimore - Braila

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Big Game Hunting
Big Game Hunting. The Pursuit Of Large Game Prob Ably Shares With The Lust For Gold The Credit For Drawing The Majority Of Explorers Into The Unknown, And There Can Be No Doubt That Such Pursuit Has Always Exercised The Greatest Fascination For Mankind. In The Past Fifty Years Conditions ...

Big Hole Battle Field
Big Hole Battle Field, A Tract Five Acres In Extent In Southwestern Montana, U.s.a., Set Apart In 1910 As A National Monument. It Is The Scene Of A Battle Which Was Won On Aug. 9, 1877, By A Small Force Of United States Troops Over A Large Num Ber Of ...

Big Rapids
Big Rapids, A City Of Michigan, U.s.a., On The Muskegon River, 56m. North By East Of Grand Rapids; The County Seat Of Mecosta County, Which Contains Go Lakes. It Is Served By The Pennsylvania And The Pere Marquette Railways. The Population In 193o Was 4,671. The Principal Manufactures Are Veneer, ...

Big Spring
Big Spring, A City Of Western Texas, U.s.a., On Federal Highways 8o And 385, Girauds Creek, And The Texas And Pacific Railway; The County Seat Of Howard County. The Population Was In 1920; 1930 It Was 13,735. It Is A Division Headquarters Of The Railroad, Which Has Offices, Round-houses And ...

Bigamy
Bigamy, In Law, Is Defined In The English Statute Now In Force (offences Against The Person Act 1861, S. 57), Is The Offence Committed By A Person Who "being Married Shall Marry Any Other Person During The Life Of The Former Husband Or Wife, Whether The Second Marriage Shall Have ...

Biggleswade
Biggleswade, Urban District, Bedfordshire, England, M. N. By W. Of London By The L.n.e. Railway. Pop. (1931) 5,844. It Lies On The East Bank Of The Ivel, A Tributary Of The Ouse, On A Plain In Which Vegetables Are Largely Grown For London Mar Kets. Biggleswade (bichelswade, Beckeleswade, Bickleswade) Is ...

Bighorn
Bighorn, The Common Name Of The Rocky Mountain Sheep (ovis Cervina), So Called From The Size Of The Horns In The Male. The Female Bears Shorter, Ribbed Horns. The Bighorn Is The Only Wild Sheep Indigenous To The New World, Where It Was Formerly Found From Mexico To Alaska In ...

Bight
Bight, A Nautical Term For The Loop Or Bent Part Of A Rope, As Distinguished From The Ends; It Is Used As A Geographical Term For A Slightly Receding Bay Between Two Distant Headlands, E.g., The Bight Of Benin, The Great Bight Of Australia. The Name Is Occasionally Used For ...

Bigot
Bigot, One Obstinately And Intolerantly Holding Particular Opinions, Generally Religious. The Early Meaning Of The Word In English, At The End Of The 16th Century, Was That Of A Religious Hypocrite. It Was Applied In French, In The 12th Century, To Cer Tain Tribes Of Southern Gaul, And, In An ...

Bihari Language
Bihari Language (properly Bihdri), The Most West Ern Speech Of The Eastern Group Of Modern Indo-aryan Languages. "bihari" Means The Language Spoken In The Province Of "bihar." To The West It Extends Over The Province Of Agra So Far As The Longitude Of Benares, And To The South It Covers ...

Biisk
Biisk (bnrsic), A Town In The Siberian Area Of The Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic, Situated At The Point Where The Ob River Is Formed By The Junction Of The Biya And The Katun. Lat. 52° 4o' N., Long. 85° 4o' E. Pop. (1926) 45,574. It Has Stor Age Plant ...

Bijapur
Bijapur, An Ancient City And Modern District Of British India In The Southern Division Of Bombay. It Is A Station On The Southern Mahratta Railway, 6om. S. Of Sholapur. The Ancient City Was Supplied With Water By An Elaborate Underground System Of Reservoirs And Aqueducts, Which Has Been Restored In ...

Bijawar
Bijawar, A State Of Central India, In The Bundelkhand Agency. Area, 973 Sq.m.; Pop. (1931) 115,852. Forests Cover Nearly Half The State, Which Is Believed To Be Rich In Minerals, But Lacks Transport Facilities The State Takes Its Name From The Chief Town, Bijawar (pop. In 1931, 5,748), Founded By ...

Bijnor
Bijnor, A Town And District Of British India In The Bareilly Division Of The United Provinces. The Town Is About 3m. From The Left Bank Of The Ganges. The Population In 1931 Was 23,52o. There Is A Large Trade In Sugar. The District Of Bijnor Has An Area Of 1,793 ...

Bikaner
Bikaner, An Indian State In The Rajputana Agency, With An Area Of 23,317 Sq.m., A Desolate Tract, Without A Single Per Manently Running Stream. It Is Overspread With Undulating Sand Hills, 20 To 10o Ft. Above The Average Level, And So Loose That Men And Quadrupeds Stepping Off The Beaten ...

Bilaspur
Bilaspur, A Town And District Of British India In The Chhat Tisgarh Division Of The Central Provinces, Situated On The Right Bank Of The River Arpa. From A Small Village Said To Have Been Founded By A Fisherwoman Named "bilasa," It Became A Mahratta Post And, After The Lapse Of ...

Bilbao
Bilbao, Formerly Sometimes Written Bilboa, The Capital Of The Province Of Biscay, In Northern Spain. Pop. (193o), 161,987. Bilbao Is One Of The Principal Seaports Of Spain, And The Greatest Of Basque Towns. It Is Situated Picturesquely Among Hills On Both Sides Of The River Nervion And About 8m. From ...

Bilbes
Bilbes, A Town Of Lower Egypt, On The Eastern Arm Of The Nile, 36m. N.n.e. Of Cairo By Rail. The Coptic Name, Phelbes, Seems Derived From Egyptian, But Nothing Is Known Of The Place Before Mediaeval Times. Considered The Bulwark Of The Kingdom On That Side, Bilbes Was Strongly Fortified ...

Bilbo
Bilbo (from The Spanish Town Bilbao, Formerly Called In England "bilboa," And Famous, Like Toledo, For Its Sword-blades), In The Earliest English Use, A Sword, Especially One Of Superior Temper. In The Plural Form (as In Shakespeare's Phrase "me Thought I Lay Worse Than The Mutines In The Bilboes") It ...

Bilejik
Bilejik, Chief Town Of The Ertoghrul Vilayet In Asia Minor, Altitude ',goof T., Situated On A Hill 21m. From Its Station On The Ismid-angora Railway. Pop. (1927), 21,427. It Is An Important Centre Of The Silk Industry, And Has Several Silk-spinning Factories. ...

Bilge
Bilge, The Widest Part Or "belly" Of A Cask; The Broad Horizontal Part Of A Ship's Bottom Above The Keel; Also The Lowest Interior Part Of The Hull; Hence, "bilge-water," The Foul Water Which Collects In The Bilge. "bilge-keels" Are Pieces Of Timber Fastened To The Bottom Of A Ship ...

Bilharziasis Or Schistosomiasis
Bilharziasis Or Schistosomiasis, A Disease Char Acterized By Hamaturia Or By Discharge Of Blood And Mucus By The Rectum Caused By The Fluke Parasite Schistosoma And Endemic Throughout Africa, South America And The West Indies, China, Japan, The Philippines, Formosa, Burma, India And Western Australia. One European Country Only, South ...

Bilina
Bilina, A Small Town Of Bohemia, Czechoslovakia, Situated On The Biele Within The Germanized Belt Of The Country. Like Many Towns In This Region It Is Famous For Its Mineral Springs, The Biliner Sauerbrunnen, Which Have A Temperature Of 45.6° F And Contain Bicarbonate Of Soda. The Water Is Bottled ...

Bilingualism
Bilingualism. In Many Parts Of The World People Use One Language Inside The Family Circle And Speak Another, Some Times Of A Different Type, Freely And Naturally, Outside The Family Circle. Or Two Languages May Exist Side By Side In The Same Coun Try And Be Used Freely By The ...

Bill Broker
Bill-broker, A Broker Who Deals In Bills Of Exchange. Bill-brokers Specialize In Bill-discounting, And Their Operations Are Very Varied In Character. They May Deal For Themselves As Princi Pals Or For Others As Agents. When They Sell Bills Of Exchange On Commission, They Are Purely Brokers; This Function Has Become ...

Bill Of Exchange
Bill Of Exchange, A Form Of Negotiable Instrument, Defined Below, The History Of Which, Though Somewhat Obscure, Was Ably Summed Up By Lord Chief Justice Cockburn In His Judgment In Goodwin V. Robarts (1875), L.r. Io Ex. Pp. 346 Bills Of Exchange Were Probably Invented By Florentine Jews. They Were ...

Bill Of Health
Bill Of Health, A Document Given To The Master Of A Ship By The Consul Or Other Proper Authority Of The Port From Which He Clears, Describing The Sanitary State Of The Place. A Bill Of Health May Be Either "clean," "suspected," "touched" Or "foul." A "clean" Bill Imports That ...

Bill Of Mortality
Bill Of Mortality. In England This Was A Weekly Return Issued Under The Supervision Of The Company Of Parish Clerks Showing The Number Of Deaths In A Parish. During The Tudor Period England Suffered Much From Plague, And Various Precautionary Measures Became Necessary. Quarantine Or Isola Tion Was The Most ...

Bill Of Sale
Bill Of Sale, A Legal Document Assigning Personal Chat Tels, And Also Used In Connection With The Transference Of Property In Ships. The Term Has Come To Be Applied To Mortgages As Well As To Sales, And The Expression "bill Of Sale" May Now Be Under Stood To Signify Generally ...

Bill Of Sight
Bill Of Sight, A Document Furnished To The Customs By An Importer Of Goods In Great Britain Who, Being Unable For Want Of Full Information To Make A Perfect Entry Of Goods Consigned To Him, Describes Them To The Best Of His Knowledge And Information. The Goods May Then Be ...

Bill Of Store
Bill Of Store, A Licence Granted By The Custom House Permitting The Re-importation Of British Goods Into Great Britain. All British Goods Re-imported Into Great Britain Are Entered As Foreign, Unless Re-imported Within Ten Years After Their Exportation And Unless The Property In The Goods Continues And Remains In The ...

Bill Of Victualling
Bill Of Victualling, In Its Original Meaning A List Of All Stores For Shipment, But Now An Order From An Export Officer Of The Customs For The Shipment From A Bonded Warehouse Or For Drawback Of Such Stores As May Be Required And Allowed With Reference To The Number Of ...

Bill
Bill. There Are Three Words In English With Distinct Mean Ings And Derivations. (i) A Written, Originally Sealed, Document. The Word Is Derived From The Early English Bille, Anglo-latin Billa, From Latin Bulla, In The Mediaeval Sense Of "seal." It Is A Doublet, Therefore, Of "bull." (2) A Common Teutonic ...

Billboards
Billboards, The General Term Which In The United States And Canada Designates Advertising By Means Of Painted Or Proc Essed Bulletins And Posters. In Great Britain The Term "hoardings" Is Used Rather Than Billboards. This Name Was Derived From The Hoardings Upon Which Posters Were So Frequently Placed. From The ...

Billet I
Billet. (i) A Small Paper Or "note," Commonly Used In The I8th And Early 19th Centuries As A "billet Of Invitation" (fr. Billet, Diminutive Of Bilk, A Writing). A Particular Use Of The Word Is To Denote An Order Issued To A Soldier Entitling Him To Quarters With A Certain ...

Billet Moulding
Billet-moulding, In Architecture, A Type Of Moulding Much Used In The Norman, Anglo-norman And Early Gothic Styles; It Consists Of A Series Of Small Sections Of Torus (q.v.) Or Bead-moulding (q.v.) With Spaces Between Them. Frequently, Two Or Three Rows Of Billet-moulding Are Combined, The Projecting Por Tions Of One ...

Billeting
Billeting, A Method Of Providing Temporary Accommo Dation For Military Forces By Lodging Them In Parties On The Inhabitants Of A District. (see Cantonment: Military Terms.) ...

Billiards
Billiards, An Indoor Game Of Skill, Played On A Rectangular Table, And Consisting In The Driving Of Small Balls With A Stick Called A Cue Either Against One Another Or Into Pockets Ac Cording To The Methods Described Below. The Revised Rules Of All The Recognized Games (as Authorized By ...

Billings Cody Way
Billings-cody Way, A Thoroughfare Extending From Billings, Mont., To Cody, Wyoming. It Is About 13om. In Length. Touching Upon Laurel, Bridger And Powell, It Passes By The Pryor Mountains And Furnishes Interesting Scenery Along Its Entire Course. ...

Billings
Billings, A City In Southern Montana, U.s.a., On The Yel Lowstone River, 3,000ft. Above Sea-level; The County Seat Of Yel Lowstone County. It Is On The Yellowstone Trail, The Custer Battle Field, And The National Parks Highways, And Is Served By The Bur Lington, The Great Northern, And The Northern ...

Billiton
Billiton (dutch, Blitoeng), Island, Dutch East Indies, Between Banka And Borneo And Separated Respectively By The Gaspar And Karimata Straits. It Forms An Assistant-residency, Under Sumatra. Roughly Square In Shape, It Is 55m. Long By 43 Wide, And Its Area Is 1,86osq.m. Included With It Are Small Adjacent Islands With ...

Bilma Or Kawar
Bilma Or Kawar, A Saharan Oasis, 6o M. By 1 O. The In Habitants Are Tibbu And Kanuri. The Name Bilma Belongs Strictly To The South Part Near The Chief Settlement, Bilma Or Garu. This Place Is Boo M. S. Of The Town Of Tripoli And About 3 5o N. ...

Biloxi
Biloxi, A City Of Harrison County, Mississippi, U.s.a., About Half-way Between Mobile And New Orleans, On A Narrow Peninsula Extending Into Mississippi Sound, A Part Of The Gulf Of Mexico. It Is On The Old Spanish Trail And The Louisville And Nashville Railway, And Is Connected By A Bus Line ...

Bilston
Bilston, Urban District, Staffordshire, England, 2-im. S.e. Of Wolverhampton, In The Black Country. Pop. (i 931) 31,248. It Is Served By The G.w. And L.m.s. Railways. In The Vicinity Are Very Productive Mines Of Coal And Ironstone, Sand Of Fine Quality For Casting, And Grinding-stones For Cutlers. Bilston Contains Numerous ...

Bimetallism
Bimetallism. The Very General Employment Of Both Gold And Silver For Currency Purposes (see Money) Has Given Rise To Serious Practical Difficulties Which Have In Turn Led To Keen Theoretical Discussion As To The Proper Remedies To Be Employed. Though Every Arrangement Under Which Two Metals Form The Money Of ...

Bimlipatam
Bimlipatam, A Town Of British India, In The Vizagapatam District Of Madras, On The Sea-coast 18m. North-east Of Vizagapa Tam, And 16m. From A Station On The Bengal-nagpur Railway. Pop. (1931) 9,629. It Was Formerly A Dutch Factory And Is Now The Principal Port Of The District. The Anchorage Is ...

Binary System
Binary System, In Astronomy, A System Composed Of Two Stars Revolving Around Each Other Under The Influence Of Their Mutual Attraction. It Is Probable That At Least One-third Of The Stars Are Binary Systems. In Some Cases (visual Binaries) A Tele Scope Will Show The Two Components Separated. In Others ...

Bingen
Bingen (ancient Vincum Or Bingivm), Town, Germany, In The Province Of Rhein-hessen, In The Folk-state Of Hesse Hesse Darmstadt, On The Left Bank Of The Rhine, 15m. N.w. Of Mainz. Pop. (1933) 14,085. The Romans Erected A Castellum Here, And There Remains A Bridge Of Roman Origin Over The Nahe. ...

Binghamton
Binghamton, A City Of New York, U.s.a., Picturesquely Situated On The Susquehanna River, At The Mouth Of The Chenango, 125m. S.w. Of Albany, Near The Pennsylvania Border; The County Seat Of Broome County. It Is On The Appalachian Scenic Highway, And Is Served By The Erie, The Delaware And Hudson, ...

Bingley
Bingley, Urban District, West Riding Of Yorkshire, Eng Land, On The Aire, 52m. N.w. Of Bradford, On The L.m.s. Railway. Pop. (1931) 20,553. The Area Is In The Midst Of The Yorkshire Industrial Region, But In Spite Of The Many Factories It Still Retains Much Open Land In The Aire ...

Biniou Or Bignou
Biniou Or Bignou, A Primitive Kind Of Bagpipe Consist Ing Of A Leather Bag Inflated By Means Of A Short Valved Insuffla Tion Tube Or Blow-pipe. The Biniou Is Still The Traditional And Popular Instrument Of The Breton Peasants Of Cornouailles And Morbihan, Brittany. (see Bag-pipe.) ...

Binmaley
Binmaley, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 18 Barrios Or Districts), Of The Province Of Pangasinan, Luzon, Philippine Islands, On The Delta Of The Agno River, About 5m. W. Of Dagupan Which Has Railway Connections With Manila. Pop. (1918), 18,243, Of Whom 9,140 Were Males And None White. L Has ...

Binocular Instrument
Binocular Instrument, An Optical Apparatus Or Instrument Through Which Objects Are Viewed With Both Eyes. Such Instruments Can Be Conveniently Dealt With As Belonging To Two Classes : (i) Instruments F Ot Viewing Solid Objects Or Objects In Space. (2) In Struments For The Presentation Of Plane Views To Both ...

Binomial Formula
Binomial Formula. Binomial Theorem Is The Name At Tached To An Algebraic Formula Widely Used For Transforming And Simplifying Algebraic Expressions And Also In Processes Of Approxi Mation. Positive Integral Exponents. If A And B Stand For Any Real Numbers, And N Is A Positive Integer, Then The Binomial (a-l-b), ...

Binturong
Binturong (arctictis Binturong), The Single Species Of The Genus, Ranging From Nepal Through The Malay Peninsula To Sumatra And Java. This Animal Is Allied To The Palm-civets, But Differs From That Family By Its Tufted Ears And Long, Bushy, Pre Hensile Tail, Which Is Thick At The Root And Almost ...

Bio Bio
Bio-bio, An Inland Province Of Southern Chile, Bounded North And West By The Province Of Concepcion, South By Malleco And Cautin, And East By Argentina. It Has An Area Of About 7,700 Sq.m. Of Well-wooded And Mountainous Country, Including, Since 1928, Most Of The Former Province Of Malleco, And Exports ...

Biochemistry
Biochemistry. Biochemistry May Be Defined As The Study Of The Chemical Or Physico-chemical Processes Which Play A Part In The Life Phenomena Of Plants And Animals. The Sub Division Of The Science Of Chemistry Into A Number Of Special Branches, Physical, Inorganic, Organic, Biological, Etc., Has Been The Natural Consequence ...

Biogenesis
Biogenesis, A Biological Term For The Theory According To Which Each Living Organism, However Simple, Arises By A Process Of Budding, Fission, Spore-formation Or Sexual Reproduc Tion From A Parent Organism. Under The Heading Of Abiogenesis (q.v.) Is Discussed The Series Of Steps By Which The Modern Acceptance Of Biogenesis ...

Biography
Biography, That Form Of History Which Is Applied, Not To Races Or Masses Of Men, But To An Individual. The Idea Of The Dis Tinction Between Biography And History Is A Modern Thing; We Speak Of "antique Biography," But It Is Doubtful Whether Any Writer Of Antiquity, Even Plutarch, Clearly ...

Biological Survey
Biological Survey. The Biological Survey Is One Of The Eleven Bureaus Among Which Are Distributed The Various Lines Of Research And Most Of The Allied Activities Of The United States Department Of Agriculture. Its Functions Are Investigations For The Classification, Conservation, Utilization, And Control Of The Wild Life Of The ...

Biology
Biology Itself Is Treated In An Article Outlining The Scope And Applications And History Of The Science. In Addition To The Article On Evolution, There Are Separate Articles On Such Branches As ...

Biology_2
Biology, The Science Of Organisms, An Inquiry Into The Na Ture, Continuance And Evolution Of Life. The Term May Also Be Used Comprehensively To Include Botany, Zoology, Bacteriology (qq.v.), Protistology And The Other Special Sciences That Have To Do With Particular Kinds Of Living Creatures. Thus In Herbert Spencer's Classification ...

Biometry
Biometry, A Word To Which Three Somewhat Different Meanings May Be Given. (a) Just As The Word Geometry, Origi Nally Denoting Land-measurement, Has Come To Refer Strictly To The Mathematical Study Of The Properties Of Space, So Biometry May Be Taken To Mean The Mathematical Study Of The Properties Of ...

Bion
Bion, Greek Bucolic Poet, Was Born At Phlossa, Near Smyrna, And Flourished Somewhere About I Oo B.c. Nothing Is Known Of Him, Except That He Probably Lived In Sicily. The Story That He Died Of Poison Is Probably Only An Invention Of The Author Of The Epita Phios Bionos (see ...

Bionomics
Bionomics, The Study Of An Organism In Relation To Its Environment. See Zoology ; Ecology : Animal; Plants : Ecology. ...

Bion_2
Bion, Of Borysthenes (olbia), In Sarmatia, Greek Moralist And Philosopher, Flourished In The First Half Of The 3rd Century B.c. He Was Of Low Origin And Was Sold As Slave To A Rhetorician, Who Gave Him His Freedom And Made Him His Heir. After The Death Of His Patron, Bion ...

Biotite
Biotite, An Important Rock-forming Mineral Belonging To The Group Of Micas (q.v.). The Name Was Given In Honour Of The French Physicist, J. B. Biot, Who In 1816 Found The Magnesia Micas To Be Optically Uniaxial Or Nearly So. The Magnesia-micas Are Now Referred To The Species Biotite And Phlogopite, ...

Biplane
Biplane, A Form Of Aero Plane (q.v.) In Which The Support Ing Surface Is Arranged In Two Planes One Above The Other. This Is The Most Widely Adopted Ar Rangement, Its Only Important Competitor Being The Monoplane (q.v.). The Chief Advantages Of A Biplane Are Compactness And Light Weight Of ...

Bipont Editions
Bipont Editions, The Name Of A Famous Series Of Edi Tions, In 5o Volumes, Of Greek And Latin Classical Authors, So Called From Bipontium, The Modern Latin Name Of Zweibrucken Or Deux-ponts In Bavaria, Where They Were First Issued In 1779. Their Place Of Publication Was Afterwards Transferred To Stras ...

Biquadratic
Biquadratic, An Adjective Used In Mathematics To Refer To The Fourth Power Of A Quantity; That Is, To The Square Of A Square. It Is Used In Connection With Equations Or Algebraic Func Tions. The Equation Ax4-1-bx3+cx2-1-dx+e=o Is A Biquadratic Equation, Since The Highest Power Of The Unknown Quantity (x) ...

Biran
Biran, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 16 Barrios Or Districts), Of The Province Of Laguna, Luzon, Philippine Islands, On The West Shore Of Laguna De Bay, About 20m. S.s.e. Of Manila. Pop. (1918), O,692, Of Whom 5,183 Were Males And None White. The Fertile Region Roundabout Produces Corn, Abaci, ...

Birbhum
Birbhum, A District Of British India In The Burdwan Di Vision Of Bengal, Bounded On The South By The River Ajai. The Administrative Headquarters Are At Suri (pop. Io,9o8). The District Has An Area Of 1,699sq.m. And A Population (1931) Of 947,554. The Eastern Portion Is The Ordinary Alluvial Plain ...

Birch
Birch, (betula), A Genus Of Plants Allied To The Alder (alnus), And Like It A Member Of The Family Betulaceae. The Various Species Of Birch Are Mostly Trees Of Medium Size, But Several Of Them Are Merely Shrubs. They Are As A Rule Of A Very Hardy Character, Thriving Best ...

Bird Louse
Bird-louse, Any Small Flattened Degenerate Wingless Insect Of The Suborder Mallophaga Of The Order Anoplura (see Insects ) Parasitic Upon Birds And Mammals And Living Upon Feathers, Hair, And Other Epidermal Products. Their Biting Mouth-parts Serve To Distinguish Them From True Lice Of The Suborder Siphunculata, In Which The Mouth-parts ...

Bird Population
Bird Population During 1899-19o1 F. L. Burns Carried Out A Sectional Bird Census At Berwyn, Chester County (pa., U.s.a.), And Reported 588 Pairs Of Native Birds And Io6 Of English Sparrows (passer Domesticus) On One Square Mile Of Ground. Since That Time A Certain Amount Of Work Has Been Done ...

Bird Sanctuaries
Bird Sanctuaries. The Provision Of Sanctuaries In Which Birds May Nest And Live Safe From Molestation Is The Most Effective Method Of Protecting Birds. A Sanctuary May Be A Nature Reserve, Where All Wild Life Is Encouraged, Or Be Maintained For The Benefit Of Certain Species. Protection May Be Afforded ...

Birds Of Paradise
Birds Of Paradise, A Large Family (paradiseidae) Of Remarkably Handsome Birds All Native To The Papuan Region ; Their Nearest Allies Are The Crows. In Brilliance And Beauty Of Plumage The Males Are Unequalled, But The Females Are Duller. The Largest, The Great Bird Of Paradise (paradisea Apoda), Is Confined ...

Birds
Birds, A Class (aves) Of Animals So Conspicuously Different From All Other Classes That They Can Be Separated Off By The Two Words "feathered Bipeds." A Little More Content Is Given To The Definition If Two Other Terms Be Added—"warm-blooded" And "oviparous." But An Attempt Must Be Made To Reach ...

Biren
Biren (or Biihren), Ernst Johann Duke Of Courland, Was The Grandson Of A Groom In The Service Of Duke Jacob Iii. Of Courland, Who Bestowed Upon Him A Small Estate, Which Biren's Father Inherited. He Received What Little Education He Had At The Academy Of Konigsberg, From Which He Was ...

Biretta
Biretta, A Cap Worn By The Catholic Clergy. It Is Square And Stiff, Being Made Of A Framework Of Cardboard Covered With Cloth Or Silk; On The Top, Along The Sutures Of The Stuff, Are Three Or Four Raised, Board-like, Arched Ridges, At The Junction Of Which In The Centre ...

Birger
Birger (d. 1266), Swedish Statesman, Nephew Of Birger Brosa, And The Most Famous Member Of The Ancient Noble Family Of The Folkungeatten, Was Created Jarl Of Bjalbo By King Erik Eriksson In 1248 And Married The King's Sister. On Erik's Death (125o) Birger's Son Valdemar Was Elected King While His ...

Biribi Or Cavagnole
Biribi Or Cavagnole, A French Game Of Chance, Pro Hibited By Law Since 1837. In The French Army "to Be Sent To Biribi" Is A Cant Term For Being Sent To The Disciplinary Battalion In Algeria. ...

Birijik
Birijik, A Town On The Euphrates In 3 7 ° N., 3 8 ° E., About 15m. Above The Railway Bridge At Jerablus; It Is On The Telegraph Line And The Caravan Route To Aleppo, Diarbekr, Etc., And Has An Estimated Population (1928) Of 19,000, Among Whom Are Arme Nians, ...

Birjand
Birjand, A Town Of Persia In The Kain District Of The Prov Ince Of Khurasan, 53' N. And S9° So' E., Built On Low Hills In A Barren And Treeless Valley, On A Plateau 4,440f T. In Elevation, And Divided By The Broad Bed Of A River. The Population Is ...

Birkenfeld
Birkenfeld, A Market Town In West Germany, 2 5m. E.s.e. Of Trier, Capital And Seat Of Government Of The Province Of Birkenfeld, In The Land Of Oldenburg. Pop. 3,194. Above The Town Lie The Ruins Of A Castle (r4th Century), Once The Resi Dence Of The Counts Palatine Of Zweibrucken. ...

Birkenhead
Birkenhead, A Municipal, County And Parliamentary Bor Ough And Seaport Of Cheshire, England, On The River Mersey, Op Posite To Liverpool, And 195 M. Nav. Of London. Pop. In 1931 147,946; Area 5,995 Ac.; Under A Mayor, 15 Aldermen And 45 Councillors. Rateable Value L983,6o6. A Benedictine Monastery Was Founded ...

Birmingham
Birmingham, City, County And Parliamentary Borough, England, In The North-west Of Warwickshire, But With Suburbs Extending Into Staffordshire On The North And West And Into Worcestershire On The South, '13 M. N.w. Of London By Rail. Pop. (1931) 1,002,413. Birmingham Is Built Upon The New Red Sandstone, And Situated In ...

Birmingham_2
Birmingham, The Largest City Of Alabama, U.s.a., In The North-central Part Of The State. It Is On Federal Highways I I, 31, And 78; And Is Served By The Atlanta, Birmingham And Coast, The Central Of Georgia, The Frisco, The Illinois Central, The Louis Ville And Nashville, The Mobile And ...

Birr Or Parsonstown
Birr Or Parsonstown, Urban District, Offaly Co. (for Merly King's Co.), Ireland, On Rising Ground On A Branch Of The Great Southern Railway, By Which It Is 87m. W.s.w. From Dublin. Pop. (1926) 3,391. Cumberland Square Is The Point From Which The Several Principal Streets Diverge In Regular Form. There ...

Birth Control
Birth Control. This Term Is The Popular Name For Con Trol Of Conception, The Deliberate Restriction Of Births By Chemical And Mechanical Means, Instead Of By Abstention From Intercourse. The Term Was Probably First Used By Mrs. Margaret Sanger In The Woman Rebel (april 1914). The Use On A Large ...

Birth
Birth. In Law, A Child Not Actually Born, But En Ventre Sa Mere, Is Supposed For Many Purposes To Be Actually Born, And May Take Any Benefit To Which It Would Have Been Entitled If Actually Born, I.e., It May Take As Legatee Or Devisee, Or Even As Next-of-kin Or ...

Biruni Abu R Raihan Muhammad Al Birun
Biruni (abu-r-raihan Muhammad Al-birun) (973 1048 ), Arabian Scholar Of Persian Parentage, Was A Shiite In Reli Gion. He Pursued The Study Of History, Chronology, Mathematics, Astronomy, Philosophy And Medicine. He Corresponded With The Ibn Sina (see Avicenna), And The Answers Of The Latter Are Still Preserved In The British ...

Bis
Bis (lat.), Twice. A Term Employed In Music To Signify, When Printed In A Score, That The Passage In Question Is To Be Repeated; Also Used By French Audiences As An Exclamation Equivalent To "encore." ...

Bisaltae
Bisaltae, A Thracian People On The Banks Of The Lower Strymon, In The District Between Amphipolis And Heraclea Sintica On The East And Crestonice On The West. They Also Made Their Way Into The Peninsulas Of Acte And Pallene In The South, Beyond The River Nestus In The East. Under ...

Bisbee
Bisbee, A Mining City Of Cochise County, Arizona, United States, Cn The Southern Pacific Railway, 7m. From The Mexican Bor Der. The Population In 1930 Was 8,023 ; In That Year, Including The Residential Suburbs Of Warren And Lowell, It Was Over 20,000 Fed Eral Census. The Main Street, Which ...

Biscay
Biscay, A Maritime Province, And Former Seigneurie, Of Northern Spain. Pop. (1930), 485,205. The Seigneurie Was Vested In The Crown Of Castile And Leon In 1379, But The Province, Like Alava And Guipuzcoa, Still Enjoys A Certain Measure Of Autonomy. In Particular The Relations Of These Basque Provinces (vascon Gadas) ...

Bisceglie
Bisceglie (perhaps Anc. Natiolum), Episcopal See, Apulia, Italy, On The East-south-east Coast, Province Of Bari, 211m. By Rail N.w. From Bari. Population In 1931 Was 31,477 (com Mune). Three Towers, One Some 9oft. High, Of A Strong Norman Castle Still Remain; The Cathedral And S. Adoeno Belong To The Same ...

Bischofswerda
Bischofswerda, A Town In The Land Of Saxony, 22m. E. Of Dresden, In The Governmental Division Of Bautzen. Pop. (1933) 9,346. There Are Factories For Cloth And Artificial Flowers; Also Glass-wprks And Potteries; And In The Neighbourhood Large Granite Quarries. It Is Famous As The Scene Of A Battle, May ...

Biscuit
Biscuit. The Variety Of Products Embraced By The Term Biscuits Has Shown A Marked Increase Since The Beginning Of The 2oth Century, And The Output Of The Large Modern Biscuit Factory Includes A Great Number Of Specialized Articles Of Which The Com Position And Methods Of Manufacture Differ Very Widely. ...

Bisector
Bisector, A Point Which Divides A Line Segment Into Two Equal Parts (also Used In The Latin Feminine Form "bisectrix") ; A Line Which Divides A Plane Angle Into Two Equal Angles; A Plane That Divides A Dihedral Angle In The Same Way; Or, More Generally Speaking, Any Line Or ...