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Encyclopedia Brittanica

Volume 5, Part 1: Cast-Iron to Cole

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Chandausi
Chandausi, A Town Of British India In The Moradabad District Of The United Provinces; An Important Junction (for Aligarh) On The Oudh And Rohilkand Rail Way. Pop. C. 27,000. It Exports Cotton, Hemp, Sugar And Stone. ...

Chandernagore Or Chandarnagar
Chandernagore Or Chandarnagar, A French Settlement In India, With A Small Adjoining Territory, Situ Ated On The Right Bank Of The River Hugli, 2om. Above Calcutta. Area 3 Sq.m. ; Pop. (1931) 27,262. Chandernagore Has Played An Important Part In The European History Of Bengal. It Became A Permanent French ...

Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya (reigned 321-296 B.c.), Known To The Greeks As Sandracottus, Founder Of The Maurya Em Pire And First Paramount Ruler Of India, Was The Son Of A King Of Magadha By A Woman Of Humble Origin, Whose Caste He Took And Whose Name, Mura, Is Said To Have Been ...

Chang Tso Lin
Chang Tso-lin (1873-1928), Chinese Military Leader, Born In The Province Of Fengtien. Of Humble Origin And Without Education, He Was Successively A Swineherd, A Menial In The Catholic Mission At Newchang And A Labourer On The Peking Mukden Railway. Later He Abandoned Regular Employment And Rose To Prominence In 1904 ...

Change
Change, The Substitution Of One Thing For Another, Hence Any Alteration Or Variation, So Applied To The Moon's Passing From One Phase To Another. The Use Of The Word For A Place Of Com Mercial Business Has Usually Been Taken To Be A Shortened Form Of Exchange (q.v.) And So ...

Changeling
Changeling, The Term Used Of A Child Substituted Or Changed For Another. It Was Formerly Believed That Infants Were Sometimes Stolen From Their Cradles By The Fairies Before Christen Ing, So That In The Highlands Of Scotland Babies Were Strictly Watched Till Then. Any Specially Peevish Or Weakly Baby Was ...

Changoan
Changoan, A Tribe Or Small Group Of Tribes Of South American Indians, Forming An Independent Linguistic Stock. The Changos Occupied The Arid Coast Of The Desert Of Atacama In North Ern Chile. They Are An Almost Dwarfish, Fisher Folk Of Very Simple Culture, And Are Now Nearly Extinct, Except In ...

Changra Or Kanghari
Changra Or Kanghari (anc. Gangra; Called Also Till The Time Of Caracalla, Germanicopolis, After The Emperor Claudius), The Chief Town Of A Vilayet Of The Same Name In Asia Minor, Sit Uated In A Rich, Well-watered Valley ; Altitude 2,500 Ft. The Ground Is Impregnated With Salt, And The Town ...

Channel Ferry
Channel Ferry. In The World War The Necessity Of Utilizing The Canals And Waterways Of France And Belgium For Transport In Order To Relieve The Pressure On The Railways Was Early Recognized, And To Take Over And Develop This Work Behind The British Lines The Inland Water Transport Section Of ...

Channel Islands
Channel Islands, A Group Of Islands In The English Channel (french Iles Normandes), Belonging (except The Iles Chausey) To Great Britain. They Lie Between 48° 50' And 45' N., And I° 5o' And 2° 45' W., And Diagonally From South-east To North-west Across The Shallow Rectangular Bay, Formed By The ...

Channel Tunnel
Channel Tunnel. A Tunnel Under The English Channel Would Be One Of The Engineering Wonders Of The World, And The Longest Ever Made. The Simplon Tunnel Through The Alps Is 12 Miles Long; The Channel Tunnel Would Be Over 3o Miles Long, Of Which More Than 20 Would Be Under ...

Chansons De Geste
Chansons De Geste, The Name Given To The Epic Chron Icles Which Take So Prominent A Place In The Literature Of France From The Ii Th To The I 5th Century. Gaston Paris Defined A Chanson De Geste As A Song The Subject Of Which Is A Series Of Historical ...

Chant Royal
Chant Royal, One Of The Fixed Forms Of Verse Invented By The Ingenuity Of The Poets Of Mediaeval France. It Is Com Posed Of Five Verses, Identical In Arrangement, Of 11 Lines Each, And Of An Envoi Of Five Lines. All The Verses Are Written On The Five Rhymes Exhibited ...

Chant
Chant, The Name Given To The Tunes Used In The English Church Since The Reformation For The Psalms And Canticles (fr. Chant, From Lat. Cantare, To Sing). For The Chant Or Cantus Firmus Of The Roman Church See Plain Song. In The English Chant Each Section Consists Of A Reciting ...

Chantabun Or Chantaburi
Chantabun Or Chantaburi, The Principal Town Of The Siamese Province Of The Same Name, On The East Side Of The Gulf Of Siam, In 102° 6' E., 38' N. It Has A Small, Very Mixed Population Of Annamese, Shans, Burmese And Cambodians And Lies About 12m. From The Sea On ...

Chantada
Chantada, A City Of North-western Spain, In The Province Of Lugo. It Is Situated On The Left Bank Of The Rio De Chantada, A Small Right-hand Tributary Of The River Mino, And On The Main Road From Lugo To Orense. Pop. (1930) 14,694. Chantada Is The Chief Town Of The ...

Chantage
Chantage, A Demand For Money Backed By The Threat Of Scandalous Revelations, The French Equivalent Of "blackmail." ...

Chantarelle
Chantarelle, An Edible Fungus, Known Botanically As Cantharellus Cibarius (family, Hymenomycetes) Found In Woods In Summer. It Is Golden Yellow, Somewhat Inversely Conical In Shape And About 2in. Broad And High. The Cap Is Flattened Above With A Central Depression And A Thick Lobed Irregular Margin. Run Ning Down Into ...

Chantilly
Chantilly, A Town Of Northern France, In The Department Of Oise, 25 M. N. Of Paris On The Northern Railway To St. Quentin. Pop. (1931) 4,848. It Is Situated To The North Of The Forest Of Chantilly And Is One Of The Favourite Parisian Resorts. Its Name Was Long Associated ...

Chantrey Bequest
Chantrey Bequest. By The Will Dated Dec. 31, 1840, Sir Francis Chantrey (q.v.), Left His Whole Residuary Personal Estate After The Decease Or On The Second Marriage Of His Widow (less Certain Specified Annuities And Bequests) In Trust For The President And Trustees Of The Royal Academy (or In The ...

Chantry
Chantry, A Small Chapel In Or Adjoining A Church, Endowed For Maintaining Priests To Chant Masses For The Soul Of The Foun Der Or Of Some One Named By Him. It Generally Contained The Founder's Tomb And Had An Entrance From The Outside For The Chantry Priest. The Word Is ...

Chanute
Chanute, A City Of Neosho County, Kansas, U.s.a., 12om. S. S.w. Of Kansas City, Near The Neosho River. It Is On Federal Highway 73w, And Is Served By The Missouri-kansas-texas And The Santa Fe Railways. The Population In 1925 (state Census) Was 9,829; In 1930, 10,277. Chanute Is In The ...

Chapacuran
Chapacuran, A Tribe Or Small Group Of Tribes Of South American Indians, Regarded On Rather Slender Evidence As Consti Tuting An Independent Linguistic Stock. The Stock, Which Corn Prises The Ites, Pawumwas And Other Smaller Tribes In Addition To The Chapacuras, Seems To Have Occupied The Whole Of The Basin ...

Chaparral
Chaparral, A Mixed Forest Formation Of Low Hard-leaved, Stunted Trees And Shrubs Resulting From Short, Wet, Cool Winters And Long, Arid, Hot Summers. The Word Is Believed To Have Been Derived From Chaparro, The Spanish Name For Live Oak. Chaparral Grows Slowly And Shrubs 25 Years Old Will Usually Average ...

Chapbook
Chapbook, The Comparatively Modern Name Applied By Booksellers And Bibliophiles To The Little Stitched Tracts Written For The Common People And Formerly Circulated In England, Scot Land And The American Colonies By Itinerant Dealers Or Chapmen, Consisting Chiefly Of Vulgarized Versions Of Popular Stories, Such As Tom Thumb, Jack The ...

Chapel Hill
Chapel Hill, A Town Of Orange County, North Carolina, U.s.a., On A High Ridge 28m. N.w. Of Raleigh, In A Tobacco And Cotton-growing District. It Is On Federal Highway 15, And Is Served By The Southern Railway. The Population In 193o Was 2,699. It Is The Seat Of The University ...

Chapel
Chapel, A Place Of Religious Worship, Either A Subordinate Division Of A Church, Or A Separate Building Distinguished From A Church By The Special Conditions Of Its Foundation Or Use. Capella, The Diminutive Of Cappa, A Cloak, Was The Name Given To The Shrine In Which The Cloak (cappa Brevior) ...

Chapelle Ardente
Chapelle Ardente, The Chapel Or Room In Which The Corpse Of A Sovereign Or Other Exalted Personage Lies In State Pending The Funeral Service. The Name Is In Allusion To The Many Candles Which Are Lighted Round The Catafalque. This Custom Is First Chronicled As Occurring At The Obsequies Of ...

Chapel_2
Chapel. In The Printing Trade, The Name Of The Fellowship Of Compositors (and, Nowadays, Of All Crafts) In A Printing Works. The President Is Termed The "father Of The Chapel." In The United States He Is Called "the Chairman." The Name Chapel Is Used Not Only Of The Fellowship Itself ...

Chaperon
Chaperon, Originally A Cap Or Hood (fr. Chape) Worn By Nobles And Knights Of The Garter In Full Dress, And After The 16th Century By Middle-aged Ladies. In The 19th Century The Word Was Used Of A Married Or Elderly Lady (cf. "duenna") Escorting Or Pro Tecting A Young And ...

Chaplain
Chaplain, Originally, According To Du Cange (gloss. Med. Et Inf. Lat.), The Custodian Of The Cloak (cappa Or Capella) Of St. Martin Of Tours, Which Was Preserved As A Relic By The French Kings, And Carried With The Army In Wartime, When It Was Kept In A Tent Known Itself ...

Chapman
Chapman, One Who Buys Or Sells, A Trader Or Dealer, Espe Cially An Itinerant Pedlar. The Word "chap," Now A Slang Term, Meant Originally A Customer. The Word Chapman Is From Mid. Eng. Cheap, To Barter, From Which We Get The Name Of The Famous London Thoroughfare "cheapside." ...

Chapter House
Chapter-house, The Chamber In Which The Chapter Or Heads Of The Monastic Bodies (see Abbey And Cathedral) Assem Ble To Transact Business. They Are Of Various Forms; Some Are Oblong Apartments, As Canterbury, Exeter, Chester, Gloucester, Etc. ; Some Octagonal, As Salisbury, Westminster, Wells, Lincoln, York, Etc. That At Lincoln ...

Chapter
Chapter, A Principal Division Or Section Of A Book, And So Applied To Acts Of Parliament, As Forming "chapters" Of The Legis Lation Of A Session. The Name Is Also Given To The Permanent Body Of Canons Of A Cathedral Or Collegiate Church And To The Meet Ings Of The ...

Chapu
Chapu, A Port Of China On The North Shore Of Hangchow Bay 39' N., 121° 6' E.). It Is Built On A Series Of Low Hills And Was Long An Out-port Of Hangchow. Being The Only Possible Har Bour Site On Hangchow Bay Near To Shanghai (5o M. Distant), Chapu ...

Chapultepec
Chapultepec, A Suburb, And Ancient Seat Of The Monte Zumas, Situated About Two Mites Southwest Of The City Of Mexico. On Its Rocky Heights Stands The Summer Palace Of The President Of The Republic, In Which Is Housed Also The National Military School. At The Base Of This Rising Ground ...

Char
Char, The Name Given To Fishes Of The Genus Salvelinus, Which Differs From Salmo (salmon And Trout) In Having The Vomerine Teeth Present Only On The Head Of The Bone, Which Is Raised And Has A Boat-shaped Depression Behind It. Salvelinus Alpinus Of The Arctic Ocean Is A Marine Fish ...

Charabanc
Charabanc, A Large Form Of Wagonette-like Vehicle For Passengers, But With Benched Seats Arranged In Rows, Looking For Ward, Commonly Used For Large Parties, Whether As Public Con Veyances Or For Excursions. The Word Is French For Benched Carriage; In The English Motor Trade The Term "motor Coach" Is Preferred. ...

Character
Character. To Ask What Character Is, Reveals The Con Fusion Of Ordinary Thought About It. Instincts, Habits, Impulses, Desires, Emotions, Sentiments All Belong To It. But What Relation Do They Bear To One Another? What Is The Part Of Character That Has To Be Controlled And What Is Its Controlling ...

Charade
Charade, A Kind Of Riddle, Probably Invented In France During The 18th Century, In Which A Word Of Two Or More Syllables Is Divined By Guessing And Combining Into One Word (the Answer) The Different Syllables, Each Of Which Is Described, As An Inde Pendent Word, By The Giver Of ...

Charadriiformes
Charadriiformes, An Order Of Birds, Also Called Limicolae, Most Members Of Which Are Shore Haunting Waders. The Young Are Active And Down-clad At Hatching. See Ornithol Ogy, Curlew, Phalarope, Plover, Sheathbill, Snipe, Wood Cock. ...

Charcoal
Charcoal. Charcoal Is The Residue Obtained When Car Bonaceous Materials, Of Either Animal Or Vegetable Origin, Are Partially Burned Or Heated So That The Tarry And Volatile Matter Is Removed : In Most Cases The Residues May Be Roughly Described As Impure Carbon (q.v.). The Same Process Of "carbonization" Or ...

Chard Or Swiss Chard
Chard Or Swiss Chard, A Name Given To The Edible Leaf-beet (beta Vulgaris Var. Cichla), A Variety Of The Beet (q.v.) In Which By Long Cultivation The Leaves And Leaf-stalks, Instead Of The Roots, Have Become Greatly Developed. The Plant Is A Biennial With Somewhat Branched And Thickened But Not ...

Chard
Chard, A Market Town And Municipal Borough In The Yeovil Parliamentary Division Of Somersetshire, England, 12 M. S.s.e. Of Taunton. Pop. (1931) 4,053. It Stands On High Ground Within I M. Of The Devonshire Border With Railway Stations S.r. (chard Town) And G.w.r. (chard Joint Station). Chard (cerdre, Cherdre, Cherde) ...

Charente
Charente, An Inland Department Of South-western France, Comprehending The Ancient Province Of Angoumois, And Small Por Tions Of Saintonge, Poitou, Marche, Limousin And Perigord. It Is Bounded North By The Departments Of Deux-sevres And Vienne, East By Those Of Haute Vienne And Dordogne, South By Dordogne And Charente-inf Erieure, And ...

Charenton Le Pont
Charenton-le-pont, A Town Of Northern France In The Department Of Seine, Situated On The Right Bank Of The Marne, At Its Confluence With The Seine. Pop. (1931) 20,529. Le Pont Refers To The Stone Bridge Of Ten Arches Which Crosses The Marne And Unites The Town With Alfortville, Well Known ...

Chares
Chares, Of Lindus In Rhodes, A Sculptor Pupil Of Lysippus, Who Fashioned For The Rhodians A Colossal Bronze Statue Of The Sun-god, The Cost Of Which Was Defrayed By Selling The Warlike Engines Left By Demetrius Poliorcetes After The Siege In 303 B.c. (pliny, Nat. Hist. _cxxiv. 41). The Colossus ...

Chares_2
Chares, Of Mytilene, A Greek Belonging To The Suite Of Alexander The Great, To Whom He Was Appointed Court-marshal. He Wrote A History Of Alexander In Ten Books, Dealing Mainly With The Private Life Of The King. The Fragments Are Chiefly Preserved In Athenaeus. See Scriptores Rerum Alexandri (pp. In ...

Chares_3
Chares, Athenian General, Is First Heard Of In 366 B.c. As Assisting The Phliasians Against Argos And Sicyon. In 361 He Helped The Oligarchs At Corcyra To Expel The Democrats. In 357 He Was Appointed To The Command In The Social War, Together With Chabrias, After Whose Death Before Chios ...

Charge
Charge, A Load (late Lat. Carricare, To Load In A Carrus Or Wagon) ; Cf. "cargo," "charger," A Large Dish. The Word Is Used Also For The Powder And Shot To Load A Firearm, The Accumulation Of Electricity In A Battery, The Necessary Quantity Of Dynamite Or Other Explosive In ...

Charger
Charger, A Riding Horse Allotted To A Military Officer For War; Any Mechanism Adapted For Charging, As For Placing Explosives In Bore-holes For Blasting, And That Used In Loading A Magazine Rifle Or A Machine Gun, Etc. ; A Large Shallow Dish. ...

Charibert
Charibert (d. 567), King Of The Franks, Was The Son Of Clotaire I. On Clotaire's Death In 561 His Estates Were Divided Be Tween His Sons, Charibert Receiving Paris As His Capital, Together With Rouen, Tours, Poitiers, Limoges, Bordeaux And Toulouse. Besides His Wife, Ingoberga, He Had Unions With Merofleda, ...

Charidemus
Charidemus, Of Oreus In Euboea, Greek Mercenary Leader. About 367 B.c. He Fought Under The Athenian General Iphicrates Against Amphipolis, But Later Joined Cotys, King Of Thrace, Against Athens. Soon Afterwards He Fell Into The Hands Of The Athenians And Accepted The Offer Of Timotheus To Re-enter Their Service. Having ...

Charing Cross
Charing Cross, The Locality About The West End Of The Strand And The North End Of Whitehall, On The South-east Side Of Trafalgar Square, London. It Falls Within The Bounds Of The City Of Westminster. Here Edward I. Erected The Last Of The Series Of 'according To Some Authorities, This ...

Chariot
Chariot. In Antiquity, A Car Used In Battle, For The Chase, In Public Processions And In Games. The Greek Chariot Had Two Wheels And Was Made To Be Drawn By Two Horses; If A Third, Or More Commonly, Two Reserve Horses Were Added, They Were Attached On Each Side Of ...

Chariton
Chariton, Of Aphrodisias, In Caria, The Author Of A Greek Romance Entitled The Loves Of Chaereas And Callirrhoe, Probably Flourished In The 4th Century A.d. The Action Of The Story, Which Is To A Certain Extent Historical, Takes Place During The Time Of The Peloponnesian War. Editions By J. P. ...

Chariton_2
Chariton, A City Of Southern Iowa, U.s.a., On The Chari Ton River, 53 M. S.e. Of Des Moines; The County Seat Of Lucas County. It Is On Federal Highway 34, And Is Served By The Burling Ton And Rock Island Railways. The Population In 193o Federal Census Was 5,365. Coal ...

Charity Commissioners Casual Ward
Charity Commissioners; Casual Ward; Old Age Pensions; Unemployment Insurance ; Elberfeld System.) ...

Charity Commissioners For England
Charity Commissioners For England And Wales. Between The Years 1818 And 1850 Prolonged Investigations Were Made Into The Condition Of British Charities By A Parliamentary Commission Of Enquiry (1818-37), By A Select Committee Of The House Of Commons (1835), And A Royal Commission Appointed In 1849. The Reports Made By ...

Charity
Charity. Few Words Have Suffered Greater Changes Either In Meaning Or In Application Than The Word "charity." It Repre Sents Both A Personal And A Social Endeavour To Ameliorate The Conditions Which Prevail In Society. The Endeavour Should Be Founded On An Intelligent Examination Of The Factors That Go To ...

Charivari
Charivari, A French Term Of Uncertain Origin, But Prob Ably Onomatopoeic, For A Mock Serenade, "rough Music," Made By Beating On Kettles, Fire-irons, Tea-trays Or Tin Pans. The Charivari Was Anciently In France A Regular Wedding Custom, All Bridal Couples Being Thus Serenaded. Later It Was Reserved For Ill Assorted ...

Charkhari
Charkhari, An Indian State In The Bundelkhand Agency Of Central India. Area, 88o Sq.m. ; Pop. (1931) 120,3 51. It Is Surrounded On All Sides By Other States Of Central India, Except Near Charkhari Town, Where It Meets The United Provinces. It Was Founded By Bijai Bahadur, A Sanad Being ...

Charlatan
Charlatan, Originally One Who "patters" To A Crowd To Sell His Wares (ital. Ciarlatano, From Ciarlare, To Chatter), Like A "cheap-jack" Or "quack" Doctor—"qua.ck" Being Similarly Derived From The Noise Made By A Duck; So An Impostor Who Pretends To Have Some Special Skill Or Knowledge. ...

Charlemagne Legends
Charlemagne Legends. Innumerable Legends Soon Gathered Round The Memory Of The Great Emperor. He Was Repre Sented As A Warrior Performing Superhuman Feats, As A Ruler Dis Pensing Perfect Justice, And Even As A Martyr Suffering For The Faith. It Was Confidently Believed Towards The Close Of The Loth Cen ...

Charleroi Carolus
Charleroi (carolus Rex), A Town In The Province Of Hainaut, Belgium. Pop. (193o) 28,640. It Was Founded In 1666 On The Site Of A Village Called Charnoy, By The Spanish Governor Roderigo, And Named After His Sovereign Charles Ii. Of Spain. Charleroi Is The Centre Of The Chief Coalfield Of ...

Charleroi
Charleroi, A Borough Of Washington County, Pennsyl Vania, U.s.a., On The Monongahela River, 23m. S. By E. Of Pitts Burgh ; Served By The Pennsylvania Railroad. The Population In 192o Was 11,516 (26% Foreign-born White), And Was 11,260 In 1930 By The Federal Census. It Is In The "pittsburgh" Coal-field, ...

Charles Albert Carlo Alberto
Charles Albert (carlo Alberto) (1798-1849), King Of Sardinia (piedmont), Son Of Prince Charles Of Savoy-carignano And Princess Albertine Of Saxe-courland, Was Born On Oct. 12, 1798, A Few Days Before The French Occupied Piedmont And Forced His Cousin, King Charles Emmanuel, To Take Refuge In Sardinia. In 1802 King Charles ...

Charles Augustus Karl August
Charles Augustus (karl August) Grand-duke Of Saxe-weimar, Friend And Patron Of Goethe, Was The Son Of Constantine, Duke Of Saxe-weimar-eisenach, And Anna Amalia Of Brunswick. Educated Under The Regency Of His Mother —his Father Died In Augustus Assumed The Reins Of Government In 1775, In Which Year He Married Princess ...

Charles Chauncy
Chauncy, Charles (1592-1672), President Of Harvard College, Was Born At Yardley-bury, England, In Nov. 1592, And At Tended Trinity College, Cambridge. He Was In Turn Vicar At Ware And At Marston St. Lawrence, But Twice Incurred Censure From The Authorities For Nonconformity. His Formal Recantation In Feb. 1637 Caused Him ...

Charles City
Charles City, A City Of Northern Iowa, U.s.a., On Cedar River; The County Seat Of Floyd County. It Is On Federal Highways 18 And 218 And Served By The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul And Pacific, Illinois Central, And Charles City Western Railways. The Population In 1930 Federal Census Was 8,039. ...

Charles Cornwallis Chesney
Chesney, Charles Cornwallis British Soldier And Military Writer, The Third Son Of Charles Corn Wallis Chesney, Bengal Artillery, And Nephew Of Gen. F. R. Ches Ney, Was Born In Co. Down, Ireland, On Sept. 29, 1826. Educated At Blundell's School, Tiverton, And Afterwards At The Royal Mili Tary Academy, Woolwich, ...

Charles Edward Charles Edward
Charles Edward (charles Edward Louis Philip Casimir Stuart) 72o-1788), English Prince, Called The "young Pretender" And Also The "young Chevalier," Was Born At Rome On Dec. 31, 172o. He Was The Grandson Of King James Ii. Of England And Elder Son Of James, The "old Pretender," By Whom (as James ...

Charles Emmanuel I Carlo
Charles Emmanuel I. (carlo Emanuele) (1562-163o), Duke Of Savoy, Succeeded His Father, Emmanuel Philibert, In 1580. His Three Chief Objects Were The Conquest Of Geneva, Of Saluzzo And Of Monferrato. Saluzzo He Succeeded In Wresting From France In In 1590 He Sent An Expedition To Provence In The Interests Of ...

Charles Hi
Charles Hi. King Of Spain, Born On Jan. 20, 1716, Was The First Son Of The Second Marriage Of Philip V. With Elizabeth Farnese Of Parma. In 1732 He Was Sent To Rule As Duke Of Parma By Right Of His Mother, And Two Years Later, 1734, Made Himself Master ...

Charles I
Charles I. (1887-1922), Emperor Of Austria And King Of Hungary, Born Aug. 17, 1887, In Persenbeug, In Lower Austria, Was The Son Of The Archduke Otto (1863-1906), And Princess Maria Josepha Of Saxony (b. 1867). The Death Of His Father In 1906 And The Renunciation By His Uncle, The Archduke ...

Charles Ii Charles Louis
Charles Ii. (charles Louis De Bourbon) (1799-1883), Duke Of Parma, Succeeded His Mother, Maria Louisa In The Duchy Of Lucca In 1824. He Introduced Economy Into The Administration, Increased The Schools, And In 1832 Became A Prot Estant. In 1842 He Returned To The Catholic Church And Made Thomas Ward, ...

Charles Ii
Charles Ii.,' Called The Bald (823-877), Roman Emperor And King Of The West Franks, The Son Of The Emperor Louis The Pious, Was Born In 823. The Death Of The Emperor In 84o Was The Signal For The Outbreak Of War Between His Sons. Charles Allied Himself With His Brother ...

Charles Iii Or Ii
Charles Iii. Or Ii. Called The Great, Duke Of Lorraine, Was A Son Of Duke Francis I. (d. 1545), And A De Scendant Of Rene Of Anjou. Born At Nancy On Feb. 18, 1543, He Was Brought Up At The Court Of Henry Ii. Of France, Marrying Henry's Daughter Claude ...

Charles Iii
Charles Iii. (1361-1425), Called The Noble, King Of Navarre And Count Of Evreux, Was The Eldest Son Of Charles Ii. The Bad (q.v.), And Was Married In 1375 To Leonora, Daughter Of Henry Ii., King Of Castile. He Became King Of Navarre In 1387, And, In Contrast To His Father's ...

Charles Ii_2
Charles Ii. (163o-1685), King Of Great Britain And Ire Land, 2nd Son Of Charles I. And Henrietta Maria, Was Born On May 29, 1630. About 1638 The Duke Of Newcastle Was Appointed As His Governor, But His Education Was Interrupted By The Civil War. In 1645 Charles I. Sent Him ...

Charles Ii_3
Charles Ii. (1250-13o9), King Of Naples And Sicily, Son Of Charles I., Had Been Captured By Ruggiero Di Lauria In The Naval Battle At Naples In 1284, And When His Father Died He Was Still A Prisoner In The Hands Of Peter Of Aragon. In 1288 Charles Was Liberated On ...

Charles Ii_4
Charles Ii. (1332-1387), Called The Bad, King Of Navarre And Count Of Evreux, Was A Son Of Jeanne Ii., Queen Of Navarre, By Her Marriage With Philip, Count Of Evreux. He Succeeded His Mother In 1349, And In 1352 Married Jeanne, Daughter Of John Ii. Of France. Trouble Soon Arose ...

Charles Ii_5
Charles Ii. (1661-170o), King Of Spain, The Son Of Philip Iv. By His Second Marriage With Maria, Daughter Of The Emperor Ferdinand Iii., Was Born On Nov. Ii, 1661. Weak, Indolent And Almost Imbecile From His Birth, Charles Was Brought Up Under The Tutelage Of His Austrian Mother, Who Was ...

Charles Ii_6
Charles Ii. (d. 1431), Duke Of Lorraine, Called The Bold, Is Sometimes Referred To As Charles I. A Son Of Duke John I., He Succeeded His Father In 139o; But He Neglected His Duchy And Passed His Life In Warfare. He Died On Jan. 25, 1431, Leaving Two Daughters, One ...

Charles Iv Or Iii
Charles Iv. Or Iii. (1604-1675), Duke Of Lorraine, Son Of Duke Francis Ii., Was Born At Nancy On April 5, 1604. He Be Came Duke On The Abdication Of His Father, And Obtained The Duchy Of Bar Through His Marriage With His Cousin Nicole, Daughter Of Duke Henry Ii. Mixing ...

Charles Iv
Charles Iv. (1316-1378), Roman Emperor And King Of Bohemia, The Eldest Son Of John Of Luxemburg, King Of Bohemia, And Elizabeth, Sister Of Wenceslas Iii., Was Born At Prague On May 14, 1316, And In 1323 Went To The Court Of His Uncle, Charles Iv., King Of France, Where He ...

Charles Iv_2
Charles Iv. King Of France, Called The Fair, Was The Third And Youngest Son Of Philip Iv. The Fair And Jeanne Of Navarre. In 1316 He Was Created Count Of La Marche, And Succeeded His Brother Philip V. As King Of France And Navarre Early In 1322. He Followed The ...

Charles Iv_3
Charles Iv. (1748-1819), King Of Spain, Second Son Of Charles Iii. And His Wife Maria Amelia Of Saxony, Was Born On Nov. 11, 1748. The Elder Brother Was Set Aside As Imbecile And Epileptic. Charles Married Maria Luisa Of Parma, His First Cousin, Who, On His Succession To The Throne ...

Charles Ix
Charles Ix. (1550-1574), King Of France, Was The Second Son Of Henry Ii. And Catherine De' Medici. He Became King In 156o By The Death Of His Brother Francis Ii., But As He Was Only Ten Years Old The Power Was In The Hands Of The Queen-mother, Catherine. Charles Seems ...

Charles Ix_2
Charles Ix. King Of Sweden, The Youngest Son Of Gustavus Vasa And Margareto Lejonhufrud, Was Born On Oct. 4, 1550. By His Father's Will He Received The Duchy Of Soder Manland (sudermania) In 156o. In 1568 He And His Brother John Led The Rebellion Against Eric Xiv., But When John ...

Charles I_2
Charles I. (160o--1649), King Of Great Britain And Ire Land, Second Son Of James I. And Anne Of Denmark, Was Born At Dunfermline On Nov. 19, 1600. At His Baptism He Was Created Duke Of Albany, And On Jan. 16, 1605 Duke Of York. In 1612, By The Death Of ...

Charles I_3
Charles I. And Ii., Kings Of France. By The French, Charles The Great, Roman Emperor And King Of The Franks, Is Reckoned The First Of The Series Of French Kings Named Charles (see Charles The Great). Similarly The Emperor Charles Ii. The Bald (q.v.) Is Reckoned As Charles Ii. Of ...

Charles I_4
Charles I. (1288-1342), King Of Hungary, The Son Of Charles Martell Of Naples, And Clemencia, Daughter Of The Emperor Rudolph, Was Known As Charles Robert Before His En Thronement As King Of Hungary In 1309. He Claimed The Hun Garian Crown, As The Grandson Of Stephen V., Under The Banner ...

Charles I_5
Charles I. (1226-1285), King Of Naples And Sicily And Count Of Anjou, Was The Seventh Child Of Louis Viii. Of France And Blanche Of Castile. Louis Died A Few Months After Charles's Birth And Was Succeeded By His Son Louis Ix. (st. Louis), And On The Death In 1232 Of ...

Charles I_6
Charles I. (c. 950–c. 992), Duke Of Lower Lorraine, Was A Younger Son Of The Frankish King Louis Iv., And Consequently A Member Of The Carolingian Family. In 977 He Received From The Emperor Otto Ii. The Duchy Of Lower Lorraine, Where His Authority Was Nominal; But He Aided Otto ...

Charles Julien Lioult De
Chenedolle, Charles Julien Lioult De (1769-1833), French Poet, Was Born At Vire (calvados). Emi Grating In 1791, He Fought Two Campaigns In The Army Of Conde. On His Return To Paris In 1799 He Met Chateaubriand And His Sister Lucile (mme. De Caud), To Whom He Became Deeply At Tached. ...

Charles Karl Alexander
Charles (karl Alexander) (1712-1780) , Prince Of Lor Raine, The Youngest Son Of Leopold, Duke Of Lorraine, And Grandson Of Charles V., Duke Of Lorraine (see P. 289), Was Born At Luneville On Dec. 12, 171 2. After His Elder Brother Francis, The Duke, Had Exchanged Lorraine For Tuscany And ...

Charles Karl Eitel
Charles (karl Eitel; In Rum. Carol), King Of Ruma Nia (1839-1914), Second Son Of Prince Karl Anton Of Hohenzol Lern-sigmaringen, Was Born On April 20, 1839. He Was Educated At Dresden (1850-1856), And Passed Through His University Course At Bonn. Entering The Prussian Army In 1857, He Served In The ...

Charles Karl Ludwig
Charles [karl Ludwig] (1771-1847), Archduke Of Aus Tria And Duke Of Teschen, Third Son Of The Emperor Leopold Ii., Was Born At Florence (his Father Being Then Grand-duke Of Tus Cany) On Sept. 5, 1771. His Youth Was Spent In Tuscany, At Vi Enna And In The Austrian Netherlands, Where ...

Charles Martel
Charles Martel, "the Hammer," (c. 688-741), Frank Ish Ruler, Son Of Pippin Ii., Mayor Of The Palace, And Chalpaida. Charles Was Baptized By St. Rigobert, Bishop Of Reims. At The Death Of His Father In 714, Pippin's Widow Plectrude Claimed The Government In Austrasia And Neustria In The Name Of ...