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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 5, Part 2: Cast-Iron to Cole

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Chippenham
Chippenham, Market Town And Municipal Borough In The Chippenham Parliamentary Division Of Wiltshire, England, 94m. W. Of London By The G.w.r. On The South Side Of The Upper Avon. Pop. 8,493. St. Andrew's Church, Originally 12th Century Norman, Has Been Enlarged In Different Styles. Chippen Ham (chepeham, Chippeham) Was The ...

Chippewa Falls
Chippewa Falls, A City Of North-western Wisconsin, U.s.a., On The Chippewa River, Loo M. E. Of St. Paul, The County Seat Of Chippewa County. It Is On Federal Highway 53, And Is Served By The Chicago And North Western, The Chicago, Mil Waukee, St. Paul And Pacific, And The Soo ...

Chippewa
Chippewa. The Canadian Branch Of The Chippewa, One Of The Largest Tribes North Of Mexico, Lives In The Woodlands North And West Of Lake Superior. Their Culture Was Typical In Many Respects Of The Central Algonquians. Moose, Deer, Beaver And Rabbits Were Snared Or Killed With Arrows ; Wild-fowl Were ...

Chipping Campden
Chipping Campden, Market Town, Gloucestershire, England, On The Oxford And Worcester G.w.r. Line. Pop. (1921) 1,627. It Is Picturesquely Situated Towards The North Of The Cots Wold Hills. A Ruined Manor House Of The I6th Century And Some Almshouses Complete, With The Church, A Picturesque Group Of Buildings. Apart From ...

Chipping Norton
Chipping Norton. Municipal Borough, Oxfordshire, England, 16m. N.w. Of Oxford By A Branch Of The G.w.r. Pop. It Lies On The Steep Flank Of A Hill, And Consists Mainly Of One Very Wide Street. Chipping Norton (chepyngnor Ton) Was Of Some Importance In Saxon Times. At The Domesday Survey It ...

Chiquitan
Chiquitan, An Independent Linguistic Stock Of South American Indians, So Called From The Chiquitos Who Are The Best Known Of Its Tribes. The Stock Occupies A Considerable Area In Eastern Bolivia, In The Forested Hilly Country On The Northern Border Of The Chaco. In Recent Times They Have Held The ...

Chirdptera
Chirdptera (greek For "hand-wings"), An Order Of Mammals Containing The Bats, All Of Which Are Unique In The Class In Possessing The Power Of True Flight, And Have Their Fore-limbs Specially Modified For This Purpose. The Mammals Comprising This Order Are At Once Distinguished By The Possession Of True Wings; ...

Chiricahua National Monument
Chiricahua National Monument, A Tract Of 4,480 Ac. In The Coronado National Forest In Arizona, U.s.a., Set Apart As A Government Reservation In 1924 And Remarkable For Its "pinnacle" Formations. It Is Administered By The Department Of Agriculture. ...

Chiromancy
Chiromancy, The Art Of Telling Character Or Fortune By Studying The Lines Of The Hands (see Palmistry) . ...

Chiron Or Cheiron
Chiron Or Cheiron, In Greek Mythology, One Of The Centaurs, The Son Of Cronus And Philyra, A Sea Nymph. He Dwelt At The Foot Of Mount Pelion, And Was Famous For His Wisdom And Knowledge Of The Healing Art. He Offers A Remarkable Contrast To The Other Centaurs In Manners ...

Chiropodist
Chiropodist, Properly One Who Treats The Ailments Of The Hands And Feet, Or Is Consulted As To Keeping Them In Good Condition ; The Use Of The Word Is Now Restricted, However, To The Care Of The Feet, "manicurist" Having Been Invented For The Corresponding Attentions To The Fingers. The ...

Chiropractic
Chiropractic, A Method Of Treatment Employed In The United States Based On The Assumption That Most Disease Results From Displacement Of The Vertebrae And Pressure Upon The Nerves As They Emerge, Whereby They Are Prevented From Transmitting To The Various Bodily Organs The Mental Impulse Necessary For Proper Functioning. The ...

Chiru
Chiru, A Graceful Tibetan Antelope (pantholopus Hodgsoni), Of Which The Bucks Are Armed With Long, Slender And Heavily Ridged Horns Of A Peculiar Type. Chiru Are Very Wary And Difficult To Approach ; They Are Generally Found In Small Parties. They Inhabit The Desolate Plateau Of Tibet, At Elevations Of ...

Chirurgeon
Chirurgeon, One Whose Profession It Is To Cure Disease By Operating With The Hand. The Word In Its Original Form Is Now Obsolete. It Derives From The Mid. Eng. Cirurgien Or Sirurgien, Through The Fr. From The Gr. Words Meaning Hand And Work; From The Early Form Is Derived The ...

Chisel
Chisel, A Sharp-edged Tool For Cutting Metal, Wood Or Stone. There Are Numerous Varieties Of --- - - - Chisels Used In Different Trades; The Carpenter's Chisel Is Wooden Handled With A Straight Edge, Transverse To The Axis And Bevelled On One Side; Stone Masons' Chisels Are Bevelled On Both ...

Chisholm
Chisholm, A Mining Village Of St. Louis County, Minnesota, U.s.a., On The Mesabi Iron Range, 75m. N.w. Of Duluth. It Is Served By The Duluth, Missabe And Northern And The Great Northern Railways. The Population Was 9,039 In 1920, Of Whom Were Foreign-born White, And Was 8,308 In 1930 By ...

Chislehurst
Chislehurst, An Urban District Of Kent, England, S.e. Of London, By The S.r. Pop. (1931) 9,876. It Is 3ooft. Above Sea-level On A Spur Of The North Downs In The Midst Of A Common Of Furze And Heather. The Church Of St. Nicholas (perpendicular With Early English Portions, Much Restored) ...

Chiswick
Chiswick, A Town Of Middlesex, England, And Western Sub Urb Of London, On The Thames, 7-1 M. W. By S. Of St. Paul's Cathe Dral; United In 1927 With Brentford Into A Municipal Borough. Pop. (1931), 62,617. In 1928 The Borough Council Bought Chis Wick House, Formerly A Seat Of ...

Chita
Chita, A County, Town And River In The Far Eastern Area Of The Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic. The Area Of The County Is 181,o39sq.km. And Its Population (1926) 380,000, Urban 65,032 And Rural 314,968. It Consists Of The South-western Tongue Of The Far Eastern Area Lying Between Mongolia And ...

Chitaldroog
Chitaldroog, A District And Town In The Native State Of Mysore, India. The District Has An Area Of 4,022 Sq.m. And A Population (1931) Of 656,569. The Rainfall Is Low, And The Veda Vati Or Hagari River, In Whose Valley The Town Lies, Is Mostly Dry In The Hot Season. ...

Chitral
Chitral, A Native State In The North-west Frontier Prov Ince Of India. The State Of Chitral (see Also Hindu Rusk') Is Somewhat Larger Than Wales, And Supports A Population Of About 35,000 Rough, Hardy Hillmen. Both The State And Its Capital Are Called Chitral, The Latter Being Situated About 47 ...

Chittagong
Chittagong, Town And Port Of British India, Giving Its Name To A District And Division Of Bengal. It Is Situated On The Right Bank Of The Karnaphuli River, About From Its Mouth. It Is The Terminus Of The Assam-bengal Railway And A Port Of Call For The Clan Line Of ...

Chittoor
Chittoor, A Town And District Of The Madras Presidency, British India. The District Which Has An Area Of 5,9o1 Sq.m. And A Population (1931) Of 1,447,103, Was Formed In Recent Years From The Northern Part Of North Arcot. It Is In Great Part Hilly, Being Traversed By Spurs Of The ...

Chiusi
Chiusi, A Town Of Tuscany, Italy, Province Of Siena, 55m. S.e. By Rail From The Town Of Siena, And 26m. N.n.w. Of Orvieto By The Main Line From Rome To Florence. Pop. 2,307 (town), 6,746 (commune) . The Ancient Name Was Clusium (q.v.). It Is On A Hill 1,305ft. Above ...

Chivalry
Chivalry, The Knightly Class Of Feudal Times. (see Knighthood And Chivalry.) The Primary Sense In The Middle Ages Is "knights" Or "fully Armed And Mounted Fighting Men." Thence The Term Came To Mean That Gallantry And Honour Ex Pected Of Knights. Lastly, The Word Came To Be Used In Its ...

Chivasso
Chivasso, A Town, And Episcopal See Of Piedmont, Italy, Province Of Turin, I 8m. N.e. By Rail From That Town, 600ft. Above Sea-level. Pop. (1921) 5,359 (town) ; 10,932 (commune). It Is On The Left Bank Of The Po, Near The Influx Of The Orco. The Cathedral (i 5th Century) ...

Chive
Chive (allium Schoenoprasum), A Hardy Perennial Plant, With Small Narrow Bulbs Tufted On Short Root-stocks And Long Cylindrical Hollow Leaves. It Is Found In The North Of England And In Cornwall, And Growing In Rocky Pastures Throughout Tem Perate And Northern And In The Mountain Districts Of Southern Europe And ...

Chloral Or Trichloroacetaldehyde
Chloral Or Trichloroacetaldehyde, First Prepared By J. Von Liebig In 1832, Is A Heavy, Oily And Colourless Liquid, Of Specific Gravity 1.541 At 0°c, Boiling Point 97.7°c And The Formula It Has A Greasy, Somewhat Bitter Taste, And Gives Off A Vapour At Ordinary Temperature Which Has A Pungent Odour ...

Chlorates
Chlorates, The Metallic Salts Of Chloric Acid ; They Are All Solids, Soluble In Water, The Least Soluble Being The Potassium Salt. They May Be Prepared By Dissolving Or Suspending A Metallic Oxide Or Hydroxide In Water, Saturating The Hot Solution With Chlorine; By Double Decomposition; Or By Neutralizing A ...

Chlorine
Chlorine, A Gaseous Chemical Element Of The Halogen Group, Taking Its Name From The Colour, Greenish-yellow (gr. Xxwpos) ; Symbol Cl, Atomic Number 17, Atomic Weight 35.457, Isotopes 35, 37. It Was Discovered In 1774 By Scheele, Who Called It Dephlogisticated Muriatic Acid; About 1785, C. L. Berthollet, Regarding It ...

Chlorite
Chlorite, A Group Of Green Micaceous Minerals Which Are Hydrous Silicates Of Aluminium, Magnesium And Ferrous Iron. The Name Was Given By A. G. Werner In 1q98, From Xx Wpltcs, "a Green Stone." Several Species And Many Rather Ill-defined Va Rieties Have Been Described, But They Are Difficult To Recognize. ...

Chloroform
Chloroform, A Valuable Anaesthetic First Prepared By J. V. Liebig And E. Soubeiran (1831). It Is A Colourless Liquid (trichloromethane, Possessing An Agreeable Smell And A Pleasant Taste. It May Be Prepared By The Action Of Bleaching Powder On Many Carbon Compounds, But Preferably Ethyl Alcohol And Acetone, By Heating ...

Chloropicrin
Chloropicrin, Product Of The Distillation Of Bleaching Powder With Many Nitro-compounds (e.g., Picric Acid, Nitrometh Ane) Also Prepared By The Action Of Concentrated Nitric Acid On Chloral Or Chloroform. A. W. Von Hofmann (1866) Mixed Ten Parts Of Bleaching Powder Into A Paste With Cold Water Adding A Solution (saturated ...

Chloroplast
Chloroplast, The Botanical Name For That Structure In The Plant Cell Which Carries The Green Pigment, Chlorophyll (q.v.). (see Botany ; Photosynthesis ; Plants.) ...

Chlorosis
Chlorosis, The Botanical Term For Loss Of Colour In A Plant-organ, A Sign Of Disease; Also In Medicine, A Form Of Anaemia (see Blood: Pathology). ...

Chobe
Chobe, A Large Western Affluent Of The Middle Zambezi (q.v.). The River Was Discovered By David Livingstone In 185r, And To Him Was Known As The Chobe. It Is Also Called The Linyante And The Kwando, The Last Name Being That Commonly Used. ...

Chocoan
Chocoan, An Independent Linguistic Stock Of South Ameri Can Indians, So Called From The Chocos, Who Are The Best Known Of Its Tribes. At The Time Of The First Appearance Of Europeans The Chocoan Tribes Seem To Have Held The Region In North-western Co Lombia Along The Middle And Upper ...

Chocolate
Chocolate, A Preparation Of The Cacao Bean And Sugar, Usually Flavoured, It Is Used Either As A Food Or Mixed With Hot Water And Milk As A Drink. Cocoa, And Chocolate For Eating, Are Comparatively Modern Preparations, Whereas Drinking Chocolate, Of A Sort, Has Been Known To Europeans Since The ...

Choctaw
Choctaw, A Prominent Tribe In Southern Mississippi, Of Muskogi Stock (q.v.). They Farmed Intensively And Flattened Their Heads. They Were Allies Of The French, Enemies Of The British And Of Most Of Their Muskogian Kinsmen. In The Later 18th Century They Began Drifting West Of The Mississippi River, And About ...

Choerilus I
Choerilus. (i) An Athenian Tragic Poet, Who Exhibited Plays As Early As 524 B.c. He Was Said To Have Competed With Aeschylus, Pratinas, And Even Sophocles. According To F. G. Welcker, However, The Rival Of Sophocles Was A Son Of Choerilus, Who Bore The Same Name. Suidas States That Choerilus ...

Choir
Choir, The Body Of Singers Who Perform The Musical Portion Of The Service In A Church, Or The Place Set Apart For Them (o.f. Suer From Lat. Chorus, Fr. Choeur). Any Organized Body Of Singers Performing Full Part Choral Works Or Oratorios Is Also Called A Choir. The Word Was ...

Choke Damp
Choke-damp, Also Known As "black-damp" And "stythe," Is A Mixture Of Carbon Dioxide And Nitrogen, Pure Choke-damp According To Dr. J. Haldane, Containing About 13% Of The Former And 87% Of The Latter; But Probably The Relative Proportions Are Variable. Choke-damp, Which In This Connection Is More Frequently Known As ...

Choking
Choking, The Obstruction Of A Passage. In Animals Chok Ing Is An Obstruction Of The Windpipe (q.v.) And May Lead To Suffocation (q.v.; See Also Laryngotomy; And Tracheotomy). In Electricity, A Choking Coil Is Designed So That It Will Pass Alter Nating Currents Of Low But Not Of High Frequencies ...

Cholet
Cholet, A Town Of Western France, Capital Of An Arron Dissement In The Department Of Maine-et-loire, 33 M. E.s.e. Of Nantes. Pop. (1931) 19,541. Cholet Stands On High Ground On The Right Bank Of The Maine, Which Is Crossed By A 15th Cen Tury Bridge. Megalithic Monuments Are Numerous In ...

Cholon
Cholon ("great Market"), A Town Of French Indo-china, The Largest Commercial Centre Of Cochin China, 34m. S.w. Of Saigon, With Which It Is United By Railway, Tramways, Roads And Canal. Cholon Was Founded By Chinese Immigrants About 178o, And Is Situated On The Chinese Arroyo At The Junction Of The ...

Cholonan
Cholonan, A Linguistic Stock Of South American Indians, So Called From The Cholones, Its Most Important Tribe. The Cho Lonan Indians Live In Eastern Peru, Between The Eastern Crest Of The Andes And The Upper Huallaga River, From The Monzon In The South To The Mayo In The North. Missions ...

Cholula
Cholula, An Ancient Town Of Mexico, In The State And On The Plateau Of Puebla, Eight Miles By Rail W. By N. Of The City Of That Name, And Situated About 6,912 Ft. Higher Than Sea-level. Pop. (193o) 7,197. The Interoceanic Railway Passes Through Cholula, But The City's Commercial And ...

Chopsticks
Chopsticks, The "pidgin-english" Name For The Pair Of Small Tapering Sticks Used By The Chinese In Eating. (chinese Kwai-tse "the Quick Ones," "chop"-quick.) They Are Made Of Wood, Bone, Or Ivory, Somewhat Longer And Thinner Than A Lead Pencil. Held Between The Thumb And Fingers, They Are Used To Take ...

Choral Singing
Choral Singing. In Great Britain Choral Singing, From 1913 To 1928, Falls Into Three Periods—the Splendid Activity Which Was Checked By The World War, The Struggles During That Dark Period, And The Efforts. Since 1919 To Find Means Of Meeting The New Situation. In The First Period There Was Extraordinary ...

Choral Symphony
Choral Symphony, A Symphony Including Choral Movements Or Numbers. Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, With Vocal Finale For Four Solo Singers And Chorus, Is The Most Famous Of All Such Works. Another Is Mendelssohn's Hymn Of Praise. Among More Recent Composers Mahler Wrote Several Choral Symphonies. ...

Chorale
Chorale, A Term In Music Used By English Writers To Indi Cate The Hymn-tunes Composed Or Adopted For Use In Church By The German Reformers (lat. Choralis). German Writers, How Ever, Apply The Terms "choral" And "chorale-geesang," As Luther Himself Would Have Applied Them, To Any Solemn Melody Used In ...

Chorazin
Chorazin And Bethsaida. Towns In The Neighbour Hood Of Capernaum (mth. Xi., 21; Lk. X., 13). Since The I8th Century The Former Has Been Identified With A Ruined Site Khirbet Kerazeh About 2 M. N. Of Tell Hum (capernaum). Amongst The Ruins Are The Remains Of A Synagogue Built Of ...

Choriambic Verse Or Choriambics
Choriambic Verse Or Choriambics, Lyric Verse Based On The Choriambus, A Group Of Four Syllables, – V – (i.e., Choree Or Trochee+iamb) . It Is Especially Characteristic Of Aeolic Verse, As That Of Alcaeus, Sappho, And Their Latin Imitator Horace, But Is Not Confined To It. Regularly, One Or More ...

Choricius
Choricius, Of Gaza, Greek Sophist And Rhetorician, Flour Ished In The Time Of Anastasius I. (a.d. 491-518). He Was The Pupil Of Procopius Of Gaza, Who Must Be Distinguished From Pro Copius Of Caesarea, The Historian. His Declamations, Often Accom Panied By Commentaries, Include, Besides Panegyrics, Funeral Ora Tions, And ...

Chorizontes
Chorizontes ("separators"), The Name Given To The Alexandrian Critics Who Denied The Single Authorship Of The Iliad And Odyssey, And Held That The Latter Poem Was The Work Of A Later Poet. The Most Important Of Them Were The Grammarians Xeno And Hellanicus; Aristarchus Was Their Chief Opponent (see Homer). ...

Chorley
Chorley, A Municipal Borough In North Lancashire, Eng Land, 22 M. N.w. From Manchester, On The L.m.s.r. And The Leeds And Liverpool Canal. Pop. Area, 3,614 Acres. The Town Is Situated On The "fall-line" Between A Westward Projection Of The Pennines And The North Lancashire Plain. The Church Of St. ...

Chorlu
Chorlu, A Town Of European Turkey, In The Vilayet Of Adrianople ; On The Left Bank Of The Chorlu, A Small Left-hand Tributary Of The Ergene, 20m. N.e. Of Rodosto. Pop. (1905 ) Was About 12,000, Of Whom One-half Were Greeks, One-third Turks, And The Remainder Armenians And Jews. The ...

Chorography
Chorography. (1) A Description Or Delineation On A Map Of A District Or Tract Of Country (from The Gr. Xwpa, A Tract Of Country, And -yp6.43ecv, To Write). The Word Is Common In Old Geographical Treatises, But Is Now Superseded By The Wider Use Of "topography" (q.v.) . (2) A ...

Chorotega
Chorotega, A Group Of Linguistically Related Indian Tribes Located On The West Coasts Of Honduras (choluteca), Nicaragua (mangue) , And Costa Rica (orotina) . Other Groups Are Found In Southern Mexico. All Have Lost Their Tribal Identity, Although The Mangue Dialect Is Still In Existence. Archaeological Evidence Assigns To The ...

Chorotes
Chorotes, A Tribe Of South American Indians Belonging To The Matacan (q.v.) Linguistic Stock. The Chorotes Live In Southern Bolivia On The Eastern Side Of The Upper Pilcomayo River. They Are A Tall, Long-headed Folk, With A Simple Semi-nomadic Type Of Cul Ture. The Dress Of Both Sexes Is A ...

Chorum
Chorum, The Chief Town Of The Vilayet Of The Same Name In Asia Minor, Altitude 2,300 Ft., On The Edge Of A Plain, Almost Equidistant From Amasia And Yozgat. Pop. (1927) 60,752. The Ancient Euchaita, 15 M. E., Was Attacked By The Huns A.d. 508, And Became A Bishopric At ...

Chorus
Chorus (gr. Xop6s), Properly A Dance, And Especially The Sacred Dance, Accompanied By Song, Of Ancient Greece At The F Es Tivals Of The Gods. The Word Xopos Seems Originally To Have Referred To A Dance In An Enclosure, And Is Therefore Usually Con Nected With The Root Appearing In ...

Chose
Chose, A Term Used In Law In Different Senses. Chose Local Is A Thing Annexed To A Place, As A Mill. A Chose Transitory Is That Which Is Movable, And Can Be Carried From Place To Place. But The Use Of The Word "chose" In These Senses Is Practically Obsolete, ...

Chosroes
Chosroes (koz'ro-ez), In Middle And Modern Persian Khosrau ("with A Good Name"), A Common Name, Borne By A King Of The Iranian Legend (kai Khosrau) ; By A Parthian King, Com Monly Called By The Greeks Osroes (q.v.) ; And By The Following Two Sassanid Kings. ...

Chota Nagpur
Chota Nagpur, A Division Of British India In Bihar And Orissa, Consisting Of Five British Districts, Viz., Hazaribagh, Ranchi, Palamau, Manbhum And Singhbhum. Chota Nagpur Consists Of A Hilly, Forest-clad Plateau, Inhabited Mostly By Aboriginal Races, Between The Basins Of The Son, The Ganges And The Mahanadi. The Total Area ...

Chouans
Chouans, The Name Given To The Bands Of Peasants, Mainly Smugglers And Dealers In Contraband Salt, Who Rose In Revolt In The West Of France, In 1793, And Joined The Royalists Of La Vendee (see France: History) . The Breton Word Cliouan Means "screech-owl," And Is Supposed To Have Been ...

Chough
Chough (pyrrliocorax Graculus), A Bird Of The Crow Family. It Inhabits Mountains And Rocky Coasts In Europe And North Africa. The Combined Effects Of Persecution By Man And Compe Tition With The Jackdaw (q.v.) Have Reduced Its Numbers Greatly And It Is Now Rare. Recognized By Its Black Plumage And ...

Chretien De Troyes
Chretien De Troyes, A Native Of Champagne, And One Of The Famous French Mediaeval Poets. We Possess Very Few Details As To His Life, And Opinion Differs As To The Exact Date To Be Assigned To His Poems. We Know That He Wrote Le Chevalier De La Charrette At The ...

Chrism
Chrism, A Mixture Of Olive Oil And Balm, Used For Anointing In The Roman Catholic Church In Baptism, Confirmation And Ordi Nation, And In The Consecrating And Blessing Of Churches, Altars, Chalices, Baptismal Water, Etc. (through Med. Lat. Chrisma, From Gr. Xpioi.a, An Unguent). The Consecration Of The Chrism Is ...

Christ
Christ, The Anointed One (gr. X Purrhc ), Equivalent To The Hebrew Messiah : The Title Given In The New Testament To Jesus Of Nazareth. (see Jesus Christ, Messiah, Christianity.) ...

Christadelphians
Christadelphians, Sometimes Also Called Thomasites, A Community Founded In 1 848 By John Thomas (1805-1871), Who, After Studying Medicine In London, Migrated To Brooklyn, N.y., U.s.a. (x Picrrov Ahex4oi, "brothers Of Christ") . There He At First Joined The "campbellites," But Afterwards Struck Out Independently, Preaching Largely Upon The Application ...

Christchurch
Christchurch, Municipal Borough, Hampshire, Eng Iand, At The Confluence Of The Rivers Avon And Stour, Ii M. From The Sea, And 251 M. S.w. Of Southampton On The S.r. Pop. (1931) 9,183. The Neighbourhood Was Of Great Importance In Late Pre-historic Times. Much Of The Late Bronze And Early Iron ...

Christchurch_2
Christchurch, A City Near The East Coast Of South Island, New Zealand, To The North Of Banks Peninsula, In Selwyn County, The Capital Of The Provincial District Of Canterbury And The Seat Of A Bishop. Pop. (1930) 127,30o, Including Suburbs. It Stands On The Great Canterbury Plain; A Background Is ...

Christian Catholic Church
Christian Catholic Church, The Name Assumed By A Religious Organization Founded At Zion City (q.v.) Near Chicago, In 1896, By John Alexander Dowie (q.v.). Its Members Added To The Usual Tenets Of Christianity A Special Belief In Faith-healing, And Laid Much Stress On United Consecra Tion Services And The Threefold ...

Christian Connection
Christian Connection, A Denomination Of Chris Tians In North America Formed By Secession, Under James O'kelly Of Members Of The Methodist Episcopal Church In North Carolina In 1793. The Predisposing Cause Was The Desire To Be Free From The "bondage Of Creed." Some Of O'kelly's Followers Joined The Disciples Of ...

Christian Endeavour Societies
Christian Endeavour Societies, Organizations Formed For The Purpose Of Promoting Spiritual Life Among Young People. They Date From 1881, In Which Year Dr. Francis E. Clark (q.v.) Formed A Young People's Society Of Christian Endeavour In His (congregational) Church At Portland, Maine, U.s.a. The Idea Was Taken Up Elsewhere In ...

Christian Iii
Christian Iii. King Of Denmark And Nor Way, Was The Eldest Son Of Frederick I. Of Denmark And His First Consort, Anne Of Brandenburg. Educated By German Lutheran Teachers, Christian Travelled In Germany In 1521 And Was Present At The Diet Of Worms. On His Return He Found That His ...

Christian Il
Christian Il King Of Denmark, Norway And Sweden, Son Of John (hans) And Christina Of Saxony, Was Born At Nyborg Castle On July 1, 1481, And Succeeded His Father As King Of Denmark And Norway In 1513. As Viceroy Of Norway (1502-12) He Had Already Displayed Singular Capacity. Patriotism, Courage, ...

Christian Iv
Christian Iv. (1577-1648), King Of Denmark And Nor Way, The Son Of Frederick Ii., King Of Denmark, And Sophia Of Mecklenburg, Was Born At Fredriksborg Castle On April 12, 1577, And Succeeded To The Throne On The Death Of His Father (april 4, 1588) ; During His Minority Which Lasted ...

Christian Ix
Christian Ix. (1818-1906), King Of Denmark, Was A Younger Son Of William, Duke Of Schleswig-holstein-sonderburg Gliicksburg (d. 1831), A Direct Descendant Of The Danish King Christian Iii. By His Wife Louise, A Daughter Of Charles, Prince Of Hesse-cassel (d. 1836), And Grand-daughter Of King Frederick V. Born At Gottorp On ...

Christian Of Brunswick
Christian Of Brunswick Bishop Of Halberstadt, A Younger Son Of Henry Julius, Duke Of Brunswick Wolfenbiittel, Was Born In Groningen On Sept. 20, Having Succeeded His Father As "bishop" Of Halberstadt In 1616, He Ob Tained Some Experience Of Warfare Under Maurice, Prince Of Orange, In The Netherlands. Raising An ...

Christian Science
Christian Science, The Religion Founded By Mary Baker Eddy; The Religion Represented By The Church Of Christ, Scientist. Applicable To Health, As The Christian Religion Orig Inally Was, Christian Science Is A Religious Teaching And Practice Based On The Words And Works Of Christ Jesus. As Defined By Mrs. Eddy, ...

Christian Socialism
Christian Socialism. In English History, The Name Given To The Doctrines Of F. Denison Maurice, J. R. Ludlow, E. Vansittart Neale, Charles Kingsley, Thomas Hughes (qq.v.) And Several Others Who Entered On Public Propaganda Immediately After The Failure Of The Great Chartist Demonstration Of April 1 O, 1848 (see Chartism). ...

Christian Unity
Christian Unity, A Term Used In America For The Re Union Of Churches Of Different Denominations. In Other Countries The Movement Is Known As Church Reunion. (see Reunion, Church.) The First Pronounced Appeal For Christian Unity In The United States Came From Barton W. Stone, A Presbyterian Minister Of Kentucky, ...

Christian V
Christian V. King Of Denmark And Nor Way, The Son Of Frederick Iii. Of Denmark And Sophia Amelia Of Brunswick-luneburg, Was L_ Orn On April 15, 1646, At Flensburg, And Succeeded To The Throne On Feb. 9, 1670. Christian Was Very Popular Among The Lower Orders, But Hated The Old ...

Christian Vii
Christian Vii. (1i49-1808), King Of Denmark And Nor Way, Was The Son Of Frederick V., King Of Denmark, And His First Consort Louise, Daughter Of George Ii. Of Great Britain. He Became King On His Father's Death On Jan. 14, 1766. Badly Edu Cated, Systematically Terrorized By A Brutal Governor ...

Christian Viii
Christian Viii. King Of Denmark And Norway, The Eldest Son Of The Crown Prince Frederick And Sophia Frederica Of Mecklenburg-schwerin, Was Born On Sept. 18, 1786 At Christiansborg Castle. His First Marriage With His Cousin Char Lotte Frederica Of Mecklenburg-schwerin Was Dissolved In 1810. In May 1813 He Was Sent ...

Christian X
Christian X., King Of Denmark And Iceland (187o ), Was Born On Sept. 26, 1870, At Charlottenlund Castle, Near Copenhagen, The Eldest Son Of Crown Prince Frederik, Later King Frederik Viii. (1906-12), And Louise, Princess Of Sweden And Norway. After Matriculating In 1889, The Prince Embarked Upon A Military Career, ...

Christianity
Christianity, Regarded Historically As One Of The Great Religions Of The World, Owes Its Rise To Jesus Of Nazareth, In An Cient Galilee (see Jesus Christ). By Reverent Disciples His Ancestry Was Traced To The Royal Family Of David And His Birth Is Ascribed By The Church To The Miraculous ...

Christiansand
Christiansand, A Fortified Seaport Of Norway, The Chief Town Of The Diocese (stilt) Of Agder On A Fjord Of The Skager Rack, 175 M. S.w. Of Oslo (christiania). Pop. (1930) 18,700. It Stands On A Square Peninsula Flanked By The Western And Eastern Harbours And By The Otter River, Among ...

Christiansund
Christiansund, A Seaport On The West Coast Of Norway, In Romsdal Amt (county), 259 M. N.e. By N. Of Bergen, In The Latitude Of The Faeroe Islands. Pop. (193o) 14,628. It Is Built On Four Small Islands, By Which Its Harbour Is Enclosed. The Chief Ex Ports Are Wood, Cod, ...

Christina Maria Christina
Christina (maria Christina) (1858-1929), Queen-re Gent Of Spain (1885-1902), Widow Of Alphonso Xii. And Mother Of Alphonso Xiii., Was Born At Gross Seelowitz, In Austria, On July 2i, 1858, Being The Daughter Of The Archduke Charles Ferdi Nand And The Archduchess Elizabeth Of Austria. In 1879 She Married Alphonso Xii. ...

Christina
Christina (1626-1689), Queen Of Sweden, Daughter Of Gustavus Adolphus And Marie-eleonore Of Brandenburg, Was Born At Stockholm On Dec. 8, 1626. Her Father Was Killed At Lutzen (163 2) When She Was Only Six Years Old. She Was Educated Princi Pally By The Learned Johannes Matthiae, In As Masculine A ...

Christmas Island
Christmas Island, A British Possession Annexed Ire Jan. 1889, And Made Part Of The Straits Settlements In May 1900, Situated In The Eastern Part Of The Indian Ocean (in Io° 25' S., 42' E.), About 19om. S. Of Java. It Is Quadrilateral; Its Greatest Length Is Its Extreme Breadth 9 ...

Christmas
Christmas (i.e., The Mass Of Christ), In The Christian Church, The Festival Of The Nativity Of Jesus Christ. The History Of This Feast Coheres So Closely With That Of Epiphany (q.v.), That What Follows Must Be Read In Connection With The Article Under That Heading. Christmas Was Not Among The ...

Christodorus
Christodorus, Of Coptos In Egypt, Epic Poet, Flourished During The Reign Of Anastasius I. (a.d. 491-518) . According To Suidas, He Was The Author Of Ilarpea, Accounts Of The Foundation Of Various Cities; Av&aka, The Mythical History Of Lydia; 'iaravpcka, The Conquest Of Isauria By Anastasius; Three Books Of Epigrams ...

Christopher Codrington
Codrington, Christopher British Soldier And Colonial Governor, Whose Father Was Captain-general Of The Leeward Isles, Was Born In The Island Of Barbados, West Indies, In 1668. Educated At Christ Church, Oxford, He Was Elected A Fellow Of All Souls, And Served Later On With The British Forces In Flanders, Being ...

Christophorus
Christophorus, Pope Or Anti-pope, Elected In 903 Against Leo V., Whom He Imprisoned. In January 904 He Was Treated In The Same Fashion By His Competitor, Sergius Iii., Who Had Him Strangled. ...

Christs Hospital
Christ's Hospital (the Blue Coat School) Was Origi Nally One Of Three Royal Hospitals In The City Of London, Founded By Edward Vi. Christ's Hospital Was Specially Devoted To Father Less And Motherless Children. The Buildings Of The Monastery Of Grey Friars, Newgate Street, Were Appropriated To It ; Liberal ...

Chromates And Dichromates
Chromates And Dichromates, Inorganic Chem Ical Compounds, Or Salts, In Which The Element Chromium Appears As Part Of The Acid Or "negative" Component Of The Salt. Chromium Trioxide, Commonly But Incorrectly Termed Chromic Acid, Forms No Crystalline Hydrates With Water, Though Its Strongly Acid Aqueous Solution Is Supposed To Contain ...