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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 5, Part 2: Cast-Iron to Cole

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Circe
Circe, In Greek Legend, A Famous Sorceress, The Daughter Of Helios And The Ocean Nymph Perse. She Was Able By Means Of Drugs And Incantations To Change Human Beings Into The Forms Of Wolves Or Lions, And With These Beings Her Palace Was Surrounded. Odysseus Visited Her Island, Aiaie, With ...

Circeius Mons
Circeius Mons (mod. Monte Circeo), An Isolated Prom Ontory On The South-west Coast Of Italy, About 8om. S.e. Of Rome. It Is A Ridge Of Limestone About 32m. Long By Im. Wide At The Base, Running From East To West And Surrounded By The Sea On All Sides Except The ...

Circle
Circle, A Curve Consisting Of All Those Points Of A Plane Which Lie At A Fixed Distance From A Particular Point In The Plane, Called The Centre. The Circle Is The Simplest And Most Useful Plane Curve And Alone Possesses The Property Of Being Exactly Alike At All Points. If ...

Circleville
Circleville, A City Of Ohio, U.s.a., On The Scioto River, 25m. S. Of Columbus; The County Seat Of Pickaway County. It Is On Federal Highway 23, And Is Served By The Norfolk And Western And The Pennsylvania Railways. The Population In 193o Wa S 7,369. Canned Vegetables, Pork Products, Straw ...

Circuit Rider
Circuit Rider, A Preacher Or Minister Who Supplies Several Localities, Preaching At Each In Succession And Thereby Forming A "circuit." Francis Asbury, A Follower Of John Wesley Inaugurated The Custom In The United States In Nov. 1771, And For 45 Years Travelled On Horseback, At The Rate Of 5,000 M. ...

Circuits
Circuits, In A Legal Sense, Are The Periodical Progresses Of The Judges Of The Superior Courts Of Common Law Through The Sev Eral Counties Of A Given Region For The Purpose Of Administer Ing Civil And Criminal Justice. These Modern Circuits In Progresses Have Taken The Place Of The Eyres ...

Circular Note
Circular Note, A Documentary Request By A Bank To Its Foreign Correspondents To Pay A Specified Sum Of Money To A Named Person. The Person In Whose Favour A Circular Note Is Issued Is Furnished With A Letter (containing The Signature Of An Official Of The Bank And The Person ...

Circulars And Circularizing
Circulars And Circularizing, A Means Of Ad Vertising And Selling Which Has Reached Large Proportions As A Result Of Rapid Printing And Postal Extension In The Past Half Century. This Consists Of Descriptive Circulars And Other Forms Of Advertising Literature Sent Through The Mails To Bring About Sales Direct To ...

Circulating Medium
Circulating Medium, A Term Often Applied To Money In The Broad Sense Of The Word. It Includes Not Only The Minted Coin Of The Realm, And The Bank Of England Notes, Which Are In Effect Gold Certificates, But Currency Notes, Dollar Bills, Cheques And Bills Of Exchange. All These Circulate ...

Circulus In Probando
Circulus In Probando, In Logic, A Phrase Used To Describe A Form Of Argument In Which The Very Fact Which One Seeks To Demonstrate Is Used As A Premise, I.e., As Part Of The Evi Dence On Which The Conclusion Is Based. This Argument Is One Form Of The Fallacy ...

Circumcision
Circumcision. From A Medical As Distinguished From A Ritual Aspect This Simple Operation Consists In Removal Of A Suf Ficient Portion Of The Foreskin To Allow Of Its Free Retraction Beyond The Glans Penis. The Operation Is Performed Chiefly For Purposes Of Cleanliness And To Facilitate Removal Of The Smegma ...

Circumnavigation Of The World
Circumnavigation Of The World. Although The Efforts To Find A Route To The Indies Had Already Led To The Great Voyages Of Columbus, The Cabots, Bartholomew Diaz And Vasco Da Gama, To Ferdinand Magellan Was Due The Honour Of Having First Sailed Round The World (1519-22), Although He Him Self ...

Circumstantial Evidence
Circumstantial Evidence Is A Kind Of Indirect Evidence. Suppose Something Happens In The Presence Of Witnesses Who Observe It, Then Their Evidence Is Direct Evidence Of The Oc Currence. But Now Suppose There Is No Such Direct Evidence Of The Event, Then We Have To Rely On Indirect Evidence, If ...

Circus
Circus, A Space In The Strict Sense Circular, But Sometimes Oval Or Even Oblong, Intended For The Exhibition Of Races And Athletic Contests Generally (lat. Circus, Gr. Kipkos Or Rcpli;os, A Ring Or Circle; Probably "circus" And "ring" Are Of The Same Origin). The Circus Differs From The Theatre Inasmuch ...

Cirencester
Cirencester (sis'es-tur Or Sis'et-ur), Market Town, Gloucestershire, England, On The River Churn, 8o M. West-north West Of London. Pop. Of Urban District (1931) 7, Zoo. It Is Served By The G.w.r. It Is The Site Of The Romano-british Corinium, At First Perhaps A Military Post, But Afterwards, A Civilian City. ...

Cirque
Cirque, A French Word Used To Denote A Semi-circular Amphitheatre, With Precipitous Walls, At The Head Of A Valley In A Glaciated Mountain Region (lat., Circus, Ring), Generally Due To The Basal Sapping And Erosion Beneath The Bergschrund Of A Glacier. The Bergschrund Is A Large Crevasse, In The Form ...

Cirripedia
Cirripedia, A Sub-class Of The Crustacea (q.v.), Compris Ing The Barnacles And Acorn Shells And Certain Parasitic Forms Related To Them. All Cirripedes Are Completely Sedentary In The Adult State And With The Loss Of The Power Of Locomotion They Have Become So Modi Fied As To Show, At First ...

Cirta
Cirta, An Ancient City Of Numidia (mod. Constantine, Q.v.), In Africa, In The Country Of The Massili. The Romans Made It Their Road Focus And Strongest Numidian Fortress. The Early Em Perors Neglected It, But Constantine Restored It (whence Mod. Name) . Though Several Roman Structures Survived Till Recently All ...

Cis Sutlej States
Cis-sutlej States. Southern Part Of The Punjab, India. Sikh Chiefs South Of The Sutlej Passed Under British Protection In 1809 And The Name Was Applied To The Country South Of The Sutlej And North Of The Delhi Territory. Before 1846 The Greater Part Was Independent, The Chiefs Being Subject Merely ...

Cisco
Cisco, A City Of Eastland County, Texas, U.s.a., 12om. W. By S. Of Ft. Worth On Federal Highway 8o, And Served By The Cisco And Northeastern, The Missouri-kansas-texas And The Texas And Pacific Railways. The Population Was 7,422 In 1920 (over 90% Native White), But Fell To 6,027 In 1930 ...

Cist
Cist, In Greek Archaeology, A Wicker-work Receptacle Used In The Eleusinian And Other Mysteries To Carry The Sacred Vessels ; And Also, In Prehistoric Archaeology, A Coffin Formed Of Flat Stones Placed Edgeways With Another Flat Stone For A Cover. Cist-burial Was Probably Introduced Into The British Isles By The ...

Cistercians
Cistercians, Otherwise Grey Or White Monks (from The Colour Of The Habit, Over Which Is Worn A Black Scapular Or Apron) . In 1o98 St. Robert, Born Of A Noble Family In Champagne, At First A Benedictine Monk, And Then Abbot Of Certain Hermits Set Tled At Molesme Near Chatillon, ...

Cistus
Cistus, A Genus Of The Family Cistaceae. The Members Of The Family Live In Dry, Sunny Places, Especially On A Sandy Or Chalky Soil. There Are 20 Species In The Mediterranean Region; Many Are Cultivated Ornamental Shrubs, In English-speaking Coun Tries Commonly Called Rock-rose. C. Villosus And C. Ladani F ...

Citadel
Citadel, A Municipal Fortress. The Beginnings Of The Cita Del Are Remote. At Tanis In Egypt There Is A Very Ancient Example; Roughly Quadrangular, It Was Built To Command A Stream And The Adjacent Ground. During The I2th Dynasty Of The First Theban Empire A Most Formidable Citadel Was Evolved, ...

Citation
Citation, In Law, A Summons To Appear, Answering To A Writ Of Summons At Common Law, And It Is Now In English Probate Practice An Instrument Issuing From The Principal Probate Registry, Chiefly Used When A Person, Having The Superior Right To Take A Grant, Delays Or Declines To Do ...

Citeaux
Citeaux, A Village Of Eastern France, In The Department Of Cote D'or, 16 M. S.s.e. Of Dijon. It Is Celebrated For The Great Abbey Founded By Robert, Abbot Of Molesme, In 1o98, Which Became The Headquarters Of The Cistercian Order. The Buildings Which Remain Date Chiefly From The 18th Century. ...

Cithaeron
Cithaeron, Now Called From Its Pine Forests Elatea, A Mountain Range (4,626 Ft.), Separating Boeotia From Megaris And Attica. Its West End Reaches The Corinthian Gulf ; Eastward It Is Separated From Mount Parnes By The Pass Through Panactum And Phyle. It Was Famous In Greek Mythology. Here Actaeon Was ...

Cithara
Cithara, One Of The Most Ancient Stringed Instruments, May Be Traced Back To 1700 B.c. Among The Semitic Races, In Egypt, Assyria, Asia Minor, Greece And The Roman Empire, Whence The Use Of It Spread Over Europe. Having As Its Leading Feature A Sound-box Or Sound-chest Which Consisted Of Two ...

Cities Service Company
Cities Service Company, Incorporated On Sept. 2, 1910, In Delaware, As A Holding Company, Controls Through Stock Ownership More Than Zoo Corporate Enterprises In The United States, Canada, Mexico And Other Parts Of The World, Principally Engaged In The Production And Sale Of Electricity, Manufactured And Natural Gas, And Petroleum. ...

Citium
Citium (gr. Kition), The Principal Phoenician City In Cy Prus, Situated On The South-east Coast At The North End Of Modern Larnaca (q.v.). Converging Currents From East And West Greatly Facilitated Ancient Trade. To South And West The Site Is Protected By Salt Lagoons. The Earliest Remains Go Back To ...

Citole
Citole, An Obsolete Musical Instrument Of Which The Exact Form Is Uncertain. It Has Been Supposed To Be Another Name For The Psaltery (q.v.). ...

Citrange
Citrange, The Hybrid Tree And Its Fruit Produced By Cross Ing Any Variety Of The Sweet Orange (citrus Sinensis) With The Trifoliate Orange (poncirus Tri F Oliata). At Various Times Since 1892 American Citrologists Have Endeavoured To Produce Some Form Of Citrus Which Would Endure Freezing Temperatures. Several Thousand Seedling ...

Citric Acid
Citric Acid, Acidum Citricum Or Hydroxytricarballylic Acid, First Obtained In The Solid State By Karl Wilhelm Scheele, In 1784, From The Juice Of Lemons. It Is Present Also In Oranges, Citrons, Currants, Gooseberries And Other Fruits, Bulbs And Tubers. Citric Acid, Is Made Com Mercially On A Large Scale From ...

Citron
Citron, A Species Of Citrus (c. Medica), Belonging To The Tribe Aurantieae Of The Rue Family (rutaceae) ; The Same Genus Furnishes Also The Orange, Lemon, Lime And Shaddock Or Grapefruit. The Citron Is A Small, Evergreen Tree Or Shrub Growing To A Height Of About I O Ft.; It ...

Citrus Belt
Citrus Belt, A Term Applied To That Region Of The United States Where Citrus Fruits (oranges, Lemons, Grape-fruit, Limes, Tangerines And Kumquats) Can Be Grown Successfully. The Sub Tropical Nature Of These Fruits Limits Their Culture To The Warmer States Of The Union, Including Southern Georgia, Florida, The South Ern ...

Citta Della Pieve
Citta Della Pieve, A Town And Episcopal See Of Um Bria, Italy, In The Province Of Perugia, Finely Situated 1,666ft. Above The Sea, 3m. N.e. Of Its Station On The Railway Between Chiusi And Orvieto. Pop. (town) ; 9,347 (commune). It Was The Birthplace Of The Painter Pietro Vannucci (perugino), ...

Citta Di Castello
Citta Di Castello, A Town And Episcopal See Of Um Bria, Italy, In The Province Of Perugia, 38m. E. Of Arezzo By Rail (18m. Direct), On The Left Bank Of The Tiber, 945ft. Above Sea Level. Pop. (1931) 8,923 (town) ; (commune) . It Occu Pies The Site Of The ...

Cittadella
Cittadella, A Town Of Venetia, Italy, Province Of Padua, 2om. N.w. By Rail From The Town Of Padua; I6oft. Above Sea Level. Pop. (1921) 8,813 (town) ; (commune). The Padu Ans Founded Cittadella To Counterbalance The Trevisan Castel Franco Veneto (founded In 1199) 8m. E. ; The Walls And Ditch ...

Cittern
Cittern (also Cithern, Cithron, Cythren, Etc.), A Medi Aeval Stringed Instrument Of The Guitar Family (one Of The Many Descendants Of The Ancient Cithara), With A Neck Terminating In A Grotesque . Head Of Some Kind, And Twanged By Fingers Or Plectrum. The Popu Larity Of The Cittern Was At ...

City Clerk
City Clerk, The Chief Clerical Official Of The Cities Of The United States Performing Most Of The Duties Of An English Town Clerk. In Cities Under The Council Form Of Government He Is Usually Elected Either As A Partisan Candidate Or Candidate Without Regard To Party Lines. In Cities Under ...

City Government
City Government. The Authorities Charged With City Government Are Constituted Upon One Or Other Of The Following Principles : Free Local Election Of Indigenous Growth, As In Great Britain And As Transmitted To Her Dominions Overseas; A More Or Less Complex Mixture Of Free Local Election With Central Government Appointment, ...

City
City. In Great Brig In Strictly Speaking "city" Is An Honorary Title Officially Applied To Those Towns Which, In Virtue Of Some Pre Eminence (e.g., As Being Episcopal Sees Or Great Industrial Centres), Have By Traditional Usage Or Royal Charter Acquired The Right To The Designation. The Official Style Of ...

Ciudad Bolivar
Ciudad Bolivar, An Inland City And River Port Of Vene Zuela, Capital Of The State Of Bolivar, On The Right Bank Of The Orinoco River, 24om. Above Its Mouth. Pop. (1926) About 15,000. It Stands Upon A Small Hill Some 12 5 F T. Above Sea-level, And Faces The River ...

Ciudad De Cura
Ciudad De Cura, An Inland Town Of The State Of Aragua, Venezuela, 55m. S.w. Of Caracas, Near The Lago De Valencia. Pop. Estimate 13,000. The Town Stands In A Broad, Fertile Valley, Between The Sources Of Streams Running Southward To The Guarico River And Northward To The Lake, With An ...

Ciudad Juarez
Ciudad Juarez, Formerly El Paso Del Norte, A Northern Frontier Town Of Mexico, In The State Of Chihuahua, 1,223m. By Rail N.n.w. Of Mexico City. Pop. (19io) Io,621; 39,375. Ciudad Juarez Stands 3,800ft. Above Sea-level On The Right Bank Of The Rio Grande Del Norte, Opposite The City Of El ...

Ciudad Real
Ciudad Real, A Province Of Central Spain, Formed In 1833 Of Districts Taken From New Castile, And Bounded On The North By Toledo, North-east By Cuenca, East By Albacete, South By Jaen And Cordova And West By Badajoz. :pop. Area, 7,62osq.m. Ciudad Real Is Occupied In The East And Centre ...

Ciudad Real_2
Ciudad Real, A Town Of Central Spain, Capital Formerly Of La Mancha And Since 1833 Of The Province Described Above. It Lies Io7m. S. Of Madrid, On The Madrid-badajoz-lisbon And Ciu Dad Real-manzanares Railways. Pop. (1930) 23,401. Ciudad Real, Situated On A Wide Plain, Between The River Guadiana In The ...

Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo, A Town Of Western Spain, In The Ince Of Salamanca. It Is Situated On An Eminence On The Right Bank Of The River Agueda, E. Of The Portuguese Frontier, And On The Railway From Salamanca To Coimbra In Portugal. Pop. Ciudad Rodrigo Is An Episcopal See, And Was ...

Ciudad Vieja
Ciudad Vieja, Guatemala, A Village Near Antigua Guate Mala (q.v.) Which Marks The Site Of The First Capital Of The Span Ish Captain Generalcy Of Guatemala. The Population Is About 200, But The Village Still Contains The Ancient Church, Erected In 1s43, And Claimed By The Guatemalans To Be The ...

Civet
Civet, Or, Properly, Civet-cat, The Name Given To The More Typical Members Of The Viverridae (see Carnivora), Which Are Characterized By The Presence Of A Deep Pouch Near The Genital Organs Into Which A Fatty, Yellowish Substance, Known As Civet And Having A Strong Musky Odour, Is Secreted. Several Species ...

Civics
Civics, In Its Broadest Signification, May Be Taken To Include The Activities Of The Citizen In His Relationship To The State And Society In General. Formerly It Meant The Study Of Civil Govern Ment. "civics" Is Defined As Follows : "the Science And Con Sideration Of The Structure And Administration ...

Cividale Del Friuli
Cividale Del Friuli, A Town Of Venetia, Italy, Prov Ince Of Udine, Tom. E. By N. By Rail From The Town Of Udine; 453ft. Above Sea-level; It Was The Ancient Forum Iulii. Pop. (1921) 4,22o (town) ; 11,409 (commune). The River Natisone Forms A Picturesque Ravine Here. The Cathedral Of ...

Civil Engineer
Civil Engineer. When, In The 18th Century, Attention Began To Be Given In England To Such Works Of Public Value As Roads, Canals, Harbours, Docks, And Lighthouses, The Regulation Of Rivers, The Production Of Iron By Improved Methods, And The Construction Of Steam Engines And Of The Machinery Called Forth ...

Civil Law
Civil Law, A Phrase Which, With Its Latin Equivalent, Ins Civile, Has Been Used In A Great Variety Of Meanings. Lus Civile Was Sometimes Used To Distinguish That Portion Of The Roman Law Which Was The Proper Or Ancient Law Of The City Or State Of Rome From The Ins ...

Civil Liberty
Civil Liberty, As Known In Western Europe, Consists Of (1) Freedom Of The Citizen In Regard To Personal Action And Prop Erty—not Merely From State Control But Also From Private Oppres Sion By Individuals Or Corporations From Which The State Should Protect Him, (2) Freedom In Regard To Religious Worship ...

Civil List
Civil List, The English Term For The Account In Which Are Contained All The Expenses Immediately Applicable To The Support Of The British Sovereign's Household And The Honour And Dignity Of The Crown. An Annual Sum Is Settled By The British Parliament At The Beginning Of The Reign On The ...

Civil Service
Civil Service, The Generic Name Given To The Public Servants Of A State Employed In A Civil Capacity. It Is The Machinery By Which The Executive, Through Successive Adminis Trations, Carries On The Government Of The Country. The Term Is Usually Limited To Officials Of The Central Government, But In ...

Civilization
Civilization. This Encyclopćdia Is In Itself A Descrip Tion Of Civilization, For It Contains The Story Of Human Achievement In All Its Bewildering Developments. It Shows What Men During Hundreds Of Thousands Of Years Have Been Learning About Them Selves, Their World And The Creatures Which Share It With Them. ...

Civita Castellana
Civita Castellana (anc. Falerii, Q.v.), A Town And Episcopal See Of The Province Of Viterbo, 45m. By Rail From The City Of Rome (the Station Is 5m. N.e. Of The Town) And 32m. By Electric Tramway, Following The Via Flaminia ; The Tramway Goes On To Viterbo, A Distance Of ...

Civitavecchia
Civitavecchia, A Seaport Town And Episcopal See Of Italy, Province Of Rome, 5om. N.w. By Rail And 35m. Direct From The City Of Rome. Pop. (1921) 19,569 (town), 21,114 (corn Mune) . It Is The Ancient Centum Cellae, Founded By Trajan. In Teresting Descriptions Of It Are Given By Pliny ...

Clackmannan
Clackmannan, County Town And Parish, Clackmannan Shire, Scotland. Pop. (r 931) 2,585. It Lies Near The North Bank Of The Forth, 2 M. East Of Alloa, With Two Stations On The L.n.e.r. Clackmannan Tower Is Now A Picturesque Ruin, But At One Time Was The Seat Of A Lineal Descendant ...

Clackmannanshire
Clackmannanshire, The Smallest County In Scotland, Bounded South-west By The Forth, West By Stirlingshire, North North-east And North-west By Perthshire, And East By Fifeshire. It Has An Area (excluding Water) Of 34,927 Acres. An Elevated Ridge Starting On The West, Runs Through The Middle Of The County, Widen Ing Gradually ...

Clacton On Sea
Clacton-on-sea, A Watering-place In East Essex, Eng Land; 71m. E.n.e. From London By A Branch From Colchester Of The L.n.e.r. Pop. Of Urban District (1931) 15,851. Clay Cliffs Of Slight Altitude Rise From The Sandy Beach And Face South-east Ward. In The Neighbourhood, However, Marshes Fringe The Shore. The Church ...

Clairault
Clairault (or Clairaut), Alexis Claude (1713 1765), French Mathematician, Was Born On May 7 Or 13, 1713, At Paris. Under The Tuition Of His Father, A Teacher Of Mathe Matics, He Made Such Progress That At Twelve Years Of Age He Read Before The French Academy An Account Of The ...

Clairton
Clairton, A City Of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, U.s.a., On The Monongahela River, Tom. S.e. Of Pittsburgh ; Served By The Pennsylvania, The Pittsburgh And West Virginia And The Union Railways. It Was Formed In 1922 By The Consolidation Of The Boroughs Of Clairton, North Clairton And Wilson, Which In 1920 ...

Clairvaux
Clairvaux, A Village Of North-eastern France, In The Department Of Aube, 4o M. E.s.e. Of Troyes. Clairvaux (clara Vallis) Is Situated In The Valley Of The Aube On The Eastern Border Of The Forest Of Clairvaux. Its Abbey Founded In Iii 5 By St. Bernard Became The Centre Of The ...

Clairvoyance
Clairvoyance, A Word Used With Several Different Meanings In Spiritualism And Psychical Research. Sometimes It Is Used To Denote Transcendental Vision Of Beings On Another Plane Of Existence, While F. W. H. Myers, In The Glossary To His Human Personality, Defines It As "the Faculty Or Act Of Perceiving As ...

Clam
Clam, The Name Applied To Many Bivalve Molluscs (see Lamellibranchia) From The Vice-like Firmness With Which The Shell Closes. In Scotland The Name Is Usually Applied To The Scal Lop (q.v.), In England To Species Of Mya And Mactra Especially The Gaper, Mya Truncate. In The United States The Name ...

Clamecy
Clamecy, A Town Of Central France, Capital Of An Arron Dissement In The Department Of Nievre, At The Confluence Of The Yonne And Beuvron And On The Canal Du Nivernais, 36 M. N.n.e. Of Nevers. Pop. 5,434. In The Early Middle Ages Clamecy Belonged To The Abbey Of St. Julian ...

Clan
Clan, A Social Group Of Fundamental Importance In The Social Structure Of Many Primitive Societies. The Most Important Character Of The Clan Is Its Exogamy I.e., Marriage Within The Clan Is Forbidden, And Regarded As Incest (see Exogamy) . This Tabu Applies Even To Persons Between Whom No Genealogical Relationship ...

Claque
Claque, An Organized Body Of Professional Applauders In The French Theatres (fr. Claques, To Clap The Hands). The Hiring Of Persons To Applaud Dramatic Performances Was Common In Classical Times, And The Emperor Nero, When He Acted, Had His Per Formance Greeted By A Chorus Of 5,00o Soldiers. Jean Daurat, ...

Clare
Clare, The Name Of A Famous English Family. The Ancestor Of This Historic House, "which Played," In Freeman's Words, "so Great A Part Alike In England, Wales And Ireland," Was Count Godfrey, Eldest Of The Illegitimate Sons Of Richard The Fearless, Duke Of Normandy. His Son, Count Gilbert Of Brionne, ...

Claremont
Claremont, A Town Of Sullivan County, New Hampshire, U.s.a., In The Western Part Of The State, On The Connecticut River, At The Mouth Of Sugar River; Served By The Boston And Maine Railroad. The Area Is 6 Square Miles. The Population In 1920 Was Of Whom 2,179 Were Foreign-born White ...

Claret
Claret, The Name By Which The Red Wines Of Bordeaux Are Known Among The English-speaking People. In The 12th And 13th Centuries, Claret Meant .a Red Wine Lighter In Colour Than The Dark Red (almost Black) Wines Of Southern Europe, And It Was Even Sometimes Made Up Of A Blend ...

Clare_2
Clare, A County In The Province Of Munster, Ireland, Bounded North By Galway Bay And Co. Galway, East By Lough Derg, The River Shannon, And Counties Tipperary And Limerick, South By The Estuary Of The Shannon, And West By The Atlantic Ocean. The Area Is 852,389 Acres. Pop. (1926) 95,028. ...

Clarina
Clarina, A Modern Instrument Of The Wood-wind Class (although Actually Made Of Metal), A Hybrid Possessing Character Istics Of Both Oboe And Clarinet. The Clarina Was Invented By W. Heckel Of Biebrich-am-rhein, And Has Been Used At Bay Reuth, In Tristan And Isolde, As A Substitute For The Holztrompete Made ...

Clarinda
Clarinda, A City Of South-western Iowa, U.s.a., On The Nodaway River, Federal Highway 71, And The Burlington (railway) Route; The County Seat Of Page County. The Population In 193o (federal Census) Was 4,962. It Has A Variety Of Manufacturing In Dustries And A Large Wholesale Trade In Poultry, Butter And ...

Clarinet
Clarinet, A Wood-wind Instrument Having A Cylindrical Bore And Played By Means Of A Single-reed Mouthpiece. The Name Is Sometimes Used In A Generic Sense To Denote The Whole Family, Which Consists Of The Clarinet Or Discant, Corresponding To The Violin, Oboe, Etc.; The Alto Clarinet In E; The Basset ...

Clarksburg
Clarksburg, A City In The Heart Of The Coal, Oil And Gas Fields Of West Virginia, U.s.a., On The West Fork River At The Mouth Of Elk Creek; The County Seat Of Harrison County. It Is On Federal Highways 19 And 5o, And Is Served By The Baltimore And Ohio ...

Clarksdale
Clarksdale, A City Of North-western Mississippi, U.s.a., On Federal Highway 61, 75m. S. By W. Of Memphis; The County Seat Of Coahoma County. It Is Served By The Illinois Central Rail Way. In 'goo The Population Was 1,773; In 192o, Of Whom Were Negroes; And 10,043 In 1930 By The ...

Clarksville
Clarksville, A City Of Northern Tennessee, On The Cumberland River At The Mouth Of The Red River, 50m. N.w. Of Nashville ; The County Seat Of Montgomery County. It Is On Federal Highway 41, And Is Served By The Louisville And Nashville And The Tennessee Central Railways And By River ...

Class Day
Class Day, In American Colleges And Universities A Day On Which The Members Of The Senior Or Graduating Class Celebrate The Completion Of Their Courses. The Ceremony May Take The Form Of A Literary Programme Involving The Reading Of The Class History Or The Class Poem, The Delivery Of The ...

Class
Class Commonly Denotes Any Group Or Set Of People Or Things. This Is Clear In The Use Of The Term With Reference To School And Examination Groupings. When Applied To Social Groups The Term Is Sometimes Used In The Same Way, And Sometimes In The Sense Of "the Higher Or ...

Classical Education
Classical Education. In The Universities Of Great Britain Archaeology, Anthropology, Numismatics, Epigraphy, Psy Chology, Philology And Geography Are Recognized As Essential To The Classical Scholar Who Would Understand And Describe Clearly Condi Lions Of Life In The Ancient Civilizations. Western Europe Has Learned To Realize The Measure Of Its Debt ...

Classics
Classics. "what Need To Speak Of Democritus? . . . Who Does Not Place This Philosopher Above Cleanthes, Chrysippus, And The Others Of Later Times? These Appear To Me To Be Fifth Class As Compared With Him" (qui Mini Cum Illo Collati Quintae Classis Videntur). Thus Cicero, Academics Ii. 23, ...

Classification
Classification Is The Process Of Recognizing Classes Or Kinds, Each Class Or Kind Consisting Of Members Having Certain Characteristics In Common. The Members May Themselves Be Classes Or They May Be Individuals. In A Complete System Of Classi Fication The Lowest Classes (in Which Only Individual Members Can Be Distinguished) ...

Clastidium
Clastidium (mod. Casteggio), A Village Of The Anamares In Gallia Cispadana, On The Via Postumia, 5 M. E. Of Iria (mod. Voghera) And 31m. W. Of Placentia, Italy. Here In 222 B.c. M. Claudius Marcellus Defeated The Gauls And Won The Spolia Opima; In 218 Hannibal Took Clastidium And Its ...

Claude Lorrain Or Claude
Claude Lorrain Or Claude Gellee (1600 1682), French Landscape-painter, Was Born At Chamagne In Lor Raine. At The Age Of 12 He Went To Live At Freiburg In Baden With An Elder Brother. He Afterwards Went To Rome Where He Lived With The Landscape Painter, Augustin Tassi. In 1625 He ...

Claudio Coello
Coello, Claudio (c. 163o-1693), Spanish Painter Born At Madrid, Son Of A Well-known Worker In Bronze Of Portuguese Origin. He Studied Under Francisco Rizi, And Was Dominated At First By An Overcharged, Exaggerated Style, Which Was Then Begin Ning To Be Admired In Madrid. He Assisted His Master In The ...

Claudius Civilis
Civilis, Claudius, Or More Correctly Iulius, A Bata Vian Leader Of The German Revolt Against Rome (a.d. 6g-7o). He Had Served As A Roman Auxiliary. During The Disturbances That Fol Lowed The Death Of Nero, He Induced The Batavi To Rebel, Under The Pretence Of Assisting Vespasian. The Neighbouring Germans ...

Claudius Claudianus
Claudianus, Claudius (anglicized, Claudian), Latin Epic Poet During The Reign Of Arcadius And Honorius. He Was An Egyptian By Birth, Probably An Alexandrian. In A.d. 395 He Appears To Have Come To Rome, And Made His Debut As A Latin Poet By A Panegyric On The Consulship Of Olybrius And ...

Claudius Tiberius Claudius Drusus
Claudius (tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germani Cvs), Roman Emperor A.d. 41-54, Son Of Drusus And Antonia, Nephew Of The Emperor Tiberius, And Grandson Of Livia, The Wife Of Augustus, Was Born At Lugdunum (lyons) On Aug. I, To B.c. He Was Kept In The Background By (suet. Claud. 4) Augustus ...

Claudius
Claudius, The Name Of A Famous Roman Gens. The By Form Clodius Was Regularly Used For Certain Claudii In Late Repub Lican Times, But Otherwise The Two Forms Were Used Indifferently. The Gens Contained A Patrician And A Plebeian Family; The Chief Representatives Of The Former Were The Pulchri, Of ...

Clavecin
Clavecin, The French For "clavicymbal" Or "harpsichord" (ger. Clavicymbel Or Dockenklavier), An Abbreviation Of The Flemish Clavisinbal And Ital. Clavicimbalo. See Pianoforte; ...

Clavicembalo Or Gravicembalo
Clavicembalo Or Gravicembalo, The Italian Names For The Clavicymbal Or Harpsichord. "cymbal" (gr. Kvµ(3axov, From K5,4371, A Hollow Vessel) Was The Old European Term For The Dulcimer, And Hence Its Place In The Formation Of The Word. See Pianoforte; Harpsichord; Spinet; Virginal. ...

Clavichord Or Clarichord
Clavichord Or Clarichord, A Mediaeval Stringed Keyboard Instrument, A Forerunner Of The Pianoforte (q.v.), Its Strings Being Set In Vibration By A Blow From A Brass Tangent Instead Of A Hammer As In The Modern Instrument. The Clavichord, Derived From The Dulcimer By The Addition Of A Keyboard, Has A ...

Clavicytherium
Clavicytherium, A Name Usually Applied To An Up Right Spinet (q.v.), The Soundboard And Strings Of Which Were Vertical Instead Of Horizontal, Being Thus Perpendicular To The Keyboard; But It Would Seem That The Clavicytherium Proper Is Distinct From The Upright Spinet In That Its Strings Are Placed Horizontally. In ...

Clavilux
Clavilux, A Keyed Projection Instrument Which Makes Possible The Use Of Light As A Medium For Aesthetic Expression. It Was Invented By The American Artist, Thomas Wilfred, Who Gave The New Art Of Light Its First Comprehensible Status With The Theory That Form, Colour And Motion Are Its Three Basic ...

Clay Cross
Clay Cross, An Urban District, North-east Derbyshire, England, Near The River Amber, On The L.m.s.r. And The Ashover Light Railway, I M. S. Of Chesterfield. Pop. (1 8,493. Coal Miners And Foundry Workers Form The Majority Of The Population. ...

Clay
Clay, Commonly Defined As A Fine-grained, Almost Impalpable Substance, Very Soft, More Or Less Coherent When Dry, Retentive Of Water And Often Plastic When Wet ; It Has An "earthy Odour" When Breathed Upon Or Moistened (from 0. Eng. Claeg, A Word Common In Various Forms To Teutonic Languages, C ...