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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 9, Part 1: Extraction to Gambrinus

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Abraham De Fabert
Fabert, Abraham De Marshal Of France, Was The Son Of Abraham Fabert, Seigneur De Moulins (d. 1638), A Famous Printer Who Rendered Great Services, Civil And Military, To Henry Iv. At The Age Of Fourteen He Entered The Gardes F Rancaises, And From 1618 Was Almost Constantly In Service. He ...

Adalbert Falk
Falk, Adalbert (1827-190o), German Politician, Was Born At Matschkau, Silesia, On Aug. 1o, 1827. In 1847 He Entered The Prussian State Service, And In 1853 Became Public Prosecutor At Lyck. From 1872 To 1879 He Was Minister Of Education, And In Connection With Bismarck's Policy Of The Kultur-kampf He Was ...

Adam Ferguson
Ferguson, Adam (1723-1816), Scottish Philosopher And Historian, Was Born At Logierait, Perthshire, And Educated At Perth Grammar School And The University Of St. Andrews. In 1745, He Was Appointed Deputy Chaplain Of The 43rd (afterwards The 42nd) Regiment (the Black Watch), And At The Battle Of Fontenoy (1745) He Fought ...

Afanasi Afanasievich Fet Or
Fet Or Foeth, Afanasi Afanasievich (1820 1892), Who Assumed By Decree In 1876 The Name Of Shenshin, Russian Poet, Was Born At Novoselki, Orel, On Dec. 5, 182o, The Illegitimate Son Of A Landowner Named Shenshin. He Was Still A Student At Moscow University When, In 1842, He Published Some ...

Agathon Jean Fain
Fain, Agathon Jean Francois French Historian, Was Born In Paris. Under The Consulate He En Tered The Office Of The Secretary Of State, In The Department Of The Archives. In 1806 He Was Appointed Secretary And Archivist To The Cabinet Particulier Of The Emperor, Whom He Attended On His Cam ...

Agnolo Firenzuola
Firenzuola, Agnolo , Italian Poet And Litterateur, Was Born At Florence On Sept. 28, 1493. He Studied Law At Siena And Afterwards At Perugia, Where He Became The Associate Of The Notorious Pietro Aretino, And Copied His Licen Tious Way Of Living, Though He Is Stated To Have Worn The ...

Agricultural Articles
Agricultural Articles; And Marketing). Since 1922 Arrangements Have Been Completed By The Ministry Of Agriculture For The Local Study Of Farm Organization And Equip Ment Throughout England And Wales, To Supplement The Work Carried On By The Agricultural Economics Research Institute At Oxford And With This Body As A Co-ordinating ...

Albany William Fonblanque
Fonblanque, Albany William , English Journalist, Was Born Of A French Huguenot Family. His Father Was An Equity Barrister And M.p. For Camelf Ord. Fon Blanque Began Journalistic Work In 1812, And Attracted Attention By The Boldness Of His Opinions And The Superiority Of His Style To The Ordinary Work ...

Alexander Farnese
Farnese, Alexander , Duke Of Parma, General, Statesman And Diplomatist, Governor-general Of The Netherlands Under Philip Ii. Of Spain, Was Born At Rome On Aug. And Died At The Abbey Of St. Waast, Near Arras, On Dec. 3, 1592. He Was The Son Of Ottavio Farnese, Duke Of Parma, And ...

Alexander Penrose Forbes
Forbes, Alexander Penrose Scot Tish Divine, Was Born At Edinburgh On June 6, 1817. In 1836 He Joined The Indian Civil Service, But In Consequence Of Ill-health Was Obliged To Return To England. He Then Entered Brasenose College, Oxford, And Won The Roden Sanskrit Scholarship (1841), Graduating In 1844. At ...

Alexandre Frederic Febvre
Febvre, Alexandre Frederic French Actor, Was Born In Paris, And After The Usual Apprenticeship In The Provinces And In Several Parisian Theatres In Small Parts, Was Called To The Comedie Francaise In 1866, Where He Made His Debut As Philip Ii. In Don Juan D'autriche. In 1894 He Toured The ...

Alexis Pavlovich Fedchenko
Fedchenko, Alexis Pavlovich Russian Naturalist And Traveller, Was Born At Irkutsk, Siberia, On Feb. 7, 1844. In 1868 He Travelled Through Turkestan, The District Of The Lower Syr-darya, And Samarkand ; And Shortly After His Return He Set Out For Khokand, Where He Visited A Large Portion Of Territory Till ...

Alfred Fleckeisen
Fleckeisen, Alfred (182o-1899), German Philologist And Critic, Was Born At Wolfenbiittel On Sept. 23, 182o. He Was Vice-principal Of The Vitzthum'sches Gymnasium At Dresden. From 1861 To 1889. He Died On Aug. 7, 1899. Fleckeisen Is Chiefly Known For His Work On Plautus And Terence ; In The Knowledge Of ...

Alice Cunningham Fletcher
Fletcher, Alice Cunningham American Ethnologist, Was Born In Boston (mass.) In 1845. She Studied The Remains Of Indian Civilization In The Ohio And Missis Sippi Valleys, Became A Member Of The Archaeological Institute Of America In 1879, And Worked And Lived With The Omahas As A Representative Of The Peabody ...

Alvaro Fernandez
Fernandez, Alvaro, One Of The Leading Portuguese Explorers Of The Earlier 15th Century, The Age Of Henry The Navi Gator. He Was Brought Up In The Household Of Prince Henry, And While Still "young And Audacious" Took An Important Part In The Discovery Of "guinea." When The Great Expedition Of ...

American Rugby
American Rugby This, As Its Name Imports, Is A Derivative From The Game Invented And Played At Rugby, In England, But Passing Through The Rules Of The Rugby Football Union. To Understand Properly Its Position Relatively In The Sports Of America One Must Be Slightly Acquainted With The Formative Period ...

Anatomy Of Eye
Eye, Anatomy Of. The Eye Consists Of The Eyeball, Certain Muscles Which Move It, And The Lachrymal Apparatus Which Keeps The Front Of It Moist. The Eyeball Is Contained In The Front Of The Orbit And Is A Sphere Of About An Inch (24 Mm.) In Diameter. From The Front ...

Andre Felibien
Felibien, Andre (1619-1695), Sieur Des Avaux Et De Javercy, French Architect And Historiographer, Was Born At Chartres. He Was One Of The First Members (1663) Of The Acad Emy Of Inscriptions, Historiographer To The King, Was Secretary To The Newly Founded Academy Of Architecture, And Keeper Of The Cabinet Of ...

Andre Hercule De Fleury
Fleury, Andre Hercule De (1653-1743), French Cardinal And Statesman, Was Born At Lodeve (herault) On June 22, 1653, The Son Of A Collector Of Taxes. Educated By The Jesuits In Paris, He Entered The Priesthood, And Became In 1679, Through The Influence Of Cardinal Bonzi, Almoner To Maria Theresa, Queen ...

Andreas Fay
Fay, Andreas (1786-1864), Hungarian Poet And Author, Was Born On May 3o, 1786, At Kohany (zemplin), And Studied Law At The Protestant College Of Sarospatak. His Mesa (fables), First Published At Vienna In 1820, Caused Him To Be Regarded As The Hungarian Aesop. He Wrote Numerous Poems, Plays, Romances And ...

Andrew Fisher
Fisher, Andrew (1862-1928), Australian Statesman, Was Born At Crosshouse, Kilmarnock, Aug. 29, 1862, And Began Life As A Coal Miner. He Emigrated To Queensland At The Age Of 23, And Was Elected To The Queensland Legislature In 1893. In 1901 He Was Elected To The Commonwealth Parliament, Joined Mr. Watson's ...

Andrew Fletcher
Fletcher, Andrew, Of Saltoun (1655-1716), Scottish Politician, Was The Son And Heir Of Sir Robert Fletcher (1625— 1664), And Was Born At Saltoun (salton), East Lothian. He Was A Member Of The Scottish Parliament Which Met In 1681. Fletcher Was A Fearless And Active Opponent Of Lauderdale's Administration. He Left ...

Andrew Forman
Forman, Andrew (c. Scottish Ecclesiastic, Was Educated At The University Of St. Andrews And Entered The Service Of King James Iv., Who Employed Him On Various Foreign Missions. In 1501 He Became Bishop Of Moray, And In July 1513 Louis Xii. Of France Secured His Appointment As Archbishop Of Bourges, ...

Andrew Hull Foote
Foote, Andrew Hull (1806-1863), American Ad Miral, Was Born At New Haven, Conn., Sept. 12, 18o6, His Father, Samuel Augustus Foote (178o-1846), Being A Prominent Lawyer And Whig Politician, Who As U.s. Senator Moved In 1829 "foote's Resolutions" On Public Lands, In The Discussion Of Which Daniel Webster Made His ...

Andrew Martin Fairbairn
Fairbairn, Andrew Martin Brit Ish Nonconformist Divine, Was Born At Inverkeithing, Fife, On Nov. 4, 1838. He Was Educated At Edinburgh And Berlin, And At The Evangelical Union Theological Academy In Glasgow, And, Entering The Congregational Ministry, Held Pastorates At Bathgate, West Lothian And Aberdeen. From 1877 To 1886 He ...

Andrew Russell Forsyth
Forsyth, Andrew Russell (1858— ), Scot Tish Mathematician, Was Born At Glasgow, On June 18, 1858. He Studied At Liverpool And Trinity College, Cambridge, And Has Held The Following Posts : Professor Of Mathematics, University College, Liverpool (1882-83) ; Lecturer In Mathematics, Trinity College, Cambridge ; Sadlerian Professor At Cambridge ...

Angelo Fabbroni
Fabbroni, Angelo (1732-1803), Italian Biographer, Was Born At Marradi In Tuscany On Sept. 25, 1732, And Died At Pisa On Sept. 22, 1803. His Principal Work Is Vitae Italorum Doctrina Excellentium Qui Saeculis Xvii. Et Xviii. Floruerunt (2o Vols., Pisa, 1778-1799, 1804-1805). The Last Two Vols., Pub Lished Posthumously, Contain ...

Aniello Falcone
Falcone, Aniello (1600—i656), Italian Was Born In Naples. He Studied Under Ribera (lo Spagnoletto), Was Influenced By Domenichino And Later By The Dutch School. He Introduced The New Problems Of Lighting And Colour Into Fresco Painting. There Are Three Authentic Works Extant. He Decorated The Cupola Of A Chapel In ...

Annia Galeria Faustina
Faustina, Annia Galeria, The Younger, Daughter Of Antoninus Pius, And Wife Of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. She Is Accused By Dio Cassius And Capitolinus Of Gross Profligacy, And Was Reputed To Have Instigated The Revolt Of Avidius Cassius Against Her Husband, But This May Be Untrue, As He Was Always Devoted ...

Anorthite Andesine
Andesine, Anorthite, Anorthoclase, Aventurine, Bytow Nite, Labradorite, Microcline, Moonstone, Oligoclase, Or Thoclase And Plagioclase (q.v.). (c. E. T.) ...

Anselm Feuerbach
Feuerbach, Anselm (1829-188o), German Painter, Born In Speyer On Sept. 12, 1829, Son Of J. A. Feuerbach, Pro Fessor Of Philology And Archaeology. Equipped With A Superior Education And Good Family Traditions, He Went To Dusseldorf In 1845 To Study Art Under W. Schadow. In Munich, Where He Studied In ...

Anthony Herman Gerard Fokker
Fokker, Anthony Herman Gerard 1939) , Dutch Aeronaut And Aeroplane Constructor, Was Born On April 6, 1890, At Kediri, Java. He Obtained His International Pilot Certificate In 1911 And In The Following Year He Established An Aeroplane Factory At Johannesthal, Near Berlin. In 1913 He Founded Another Factory At Schwerin ...

Anthony Vandyke Copley Fielding
Fielding, Anthony Vandyke Copley (1787 1855), Commonly Called Copley Fielding, English Landscape Painter (son Of A Portrait Painter), Became At An Early Age A Pupil Of John Varley. He Confined Himself Almost Exclusively To Water Colours. In 1810 He Became An Associate Exhibitor In The Water-colour Society, In 1813 A ...

Anton Reinhard Falck
Falck, Anton Reinhard Dutch Statesman, Was Born At Utrecht On March 19, 1777. He Studied At The University Of Leiden, Entered The Diplomatic Service, And Became Ambassador At Madrid. Under King Louis Napoleon He Was Secretary-general For Foreign Affairs, But Resigned Office On The Annexation Of The Batavian Republic To ...

Antonio Ferreira
Ferreira, Antonio (1528-1569), Portuguese Poet, Was A Native Of Lisbon ; His Father Was Employed In The House Of The Duke Of Coimbra At Setubal, And The Poet Was Educated At The University Of Coimbra, Where He Eventually Became A Professor. The Sonnets Forming The First Book In His Collected ...

Antonio Fogazzaro
Fogazzaro, Antonio (1842-1911), Italian Novelist And Poet, Was Born At Vicenza On March 25, 1842. He Was A Pupil Of The Abate Zanella, One Of The Best Of The Modern Italian Poets, Whose Tender, Thoughtful And Deeply Religious Spirit Continued To Animate His Literary Productions. He Began His Literary Career ...

Antonius Felix
Felix, Antonius, Procurator Of Judaea A.d. 51 Or 52 To 6o, Was A Greek Freedman. On Entering His Province He Married Drusilla, Sister Of Agrippa Ii. (acts. Xxiv. 24), Having Induced Her To Leave Her Husband Azizus, King Of Emesa. Tacitus' Descrip Tion Of Felix Is Not Unjust: "he Revelled ...

Archibald Forbes
Forbes, Archibald (1838-1900), British War-corre Spondent, Was Born In Morayshire And Educated At Aberdeen Uni Versity. He Served For A Short Time As A Private In The Royal Dragoons Before Entering Journalism. Forbes Was One Of The Greatest War-correspondents Of His Day, And His Exploits In Secur Ing And Despatching ...

Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau
Fizeau, Armand Hippolyte Louis (1819 1896), French Physicist, Was Born At Paris On Sept. 23, 1819. As He Was Wealthy He Was Able To Follow His Inclinations And Devote Himself To Experimental Work In Physics. Between 1845 And He Worked In Conjunction With Foucault (q.v.). They Investigated The Infra-red Portion ...

Arnold Fitz Thedmar
Fitz Thedmar, Arnold London Chron Icler And Merchant, Was Born In London, Aug. 9, 1201, Of Parents Whose Families Had Come To London From Germany. He Became, As He Tells Us, Alderman Of A London Ward And An Active Partisan In Municipal Politics. In The Barons' War He Took The ...

Articles On Finance
Finance, Articles On. The Subject Of Finance Is Treated Here In Many Different Articles, To Which The Following Notes, Together With The References In The General Index, Will Be A Guide. As To Banking, Reference Should Be Made To The Articles Bank Ing And Credit; Central Banks; Bank; Banks, History ...

Artificial Flowers
Flowers, Artificial. Imitations Of Natural Flowers Are Sometimes Made For Scientific Purposes (as The Collection Of Glass Flowers At Harvard University, Which Illustrates The Flora Of The United States), But More Often As Articles Of Decoration. A Large Variety Of Materials Have Been Used In Their Manufacture By Different Peoples ...

Ascendency Of The De
Ascendency Of The De' Medici Giovanni De' Medici.--in 1421 Giovanni De' Medici Was Elected Gonfaloniere Of Justice, An Event Which Marks The Begin Ning Of That Family's Power. The Same Year The Republic Pur Chased Leghorn From The Genoese For 100,00o Florins, And Estab Lished A Body Of "consuls Of ...

Association Football
Football, Association. Out Of The Chaos Existing During The '4os And '5os Emerged Certain Clubs Which Considered That Football Was A Game To Be Played With The Feet And Not With The Hands, And Certain Other Clubs Which Regarded Carrying The Ball As The Salt Of The Game. The Advocates ...

August Follen
Follen, August (or, As He Afterwards Called Himself, Adolf) Ludwig German Poet, Was Born At Giessen On Jan. 21, 1794, The Son Of A District Judge. He Studied At Giessen And Heidelberg, And After Leaving The University Edited The Elberfeld Allgemeine Zeitung. Suspected Of Being Connected With Radical Plots, He ...

Augustin Filon
Filon, Augustin (1841-1916), French Man Of Letters, Son Of The Historian C. A. D. Filon (1800-75), Was Born In Paris In 1841. His Father Became Professor Of History At Douai, And Eventually Inspecteur D'academie In Paris ; His Principal Works Were Histoire Comparee De France Et De L'angleterre (1832), La ...

Barthelemy Faujas De Saint Fond
Faujas De Saint-fond, Barthelemy (1741 1819), French Geologist And Traveller, Was Born At Montelimart On May 17, 1741. He Studied Law At Grenoble, And Was Admitted Advocate To The Parliament. He Rose To Be President Of The Sen Eschal's Court (1765). There He Began To Study The Forms, Struc Ture, ...

Battle Of Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands, Battle Of. One Of The Principal Actions Of The World War, Known As The Battle Of The Falklands, Was F Ought On Dec. 8, 1914, To The South-eastward Of The Falkland Islands, Between A British Squadron Under Vice Admiral Sir Doveton Sturdee And A German Squadron Under Vice ...

Battle Of Formigny
Formigny, Battle Of (1450). The Battle Of For Migny, Fought On April 15, 1450, Was The Last But One Waged By The English During The Hundred Years' War. Its Special Interest Lies In The Use Of Field Artillery, And Its Influence On Bow And Lance Tactics. The Duke Of Somerset ...

Bay Or Gulf Of
Fonseca, Bay Or Gulf Of, An Arm Of The Pacific Ocean Extending Into Central America And Bounded On The South By Nicaragua, On The East And North-east By Honduras And On The North And North-west By Salvador. It Is About 5om. Long And 3om. Wide, And Forms One Of The ...

Benedict Fogelberg
Fogelberg, Benedict (or Bengt) Erland (1786-1854), Swedish Sculptor, Was Born At Gothenburg On Aug. 8, 1786. His Father Sent Him In 1801 To Stockholm, Where He Studied At The School Of Art. He Then Studied In Paris, First Under Pierre Guerin, And Afterwards Under The Sculptor Bosio, For The Technical ...

Benito Jeronimo Feijoo Y
Feijoo Y Montenegro, Benito Jeronimo (1676-1764), Spanish Monk And Scholar, Whose Teatro Critico (1726-39) And Cartas Eruditas (1742-60) Uprooted Many Popular Errors, Awakened An Interest In Scientific Methods, And Caused Feijoo To Be Justly Regarded As The Initiator Of Educational Reform In Spain. ...

Bernard Le Bovier De
Fontenelle, Bernard Le Bovier De (1657 17 5 7) , French Author, Was Born At Rouen, On Feb. I 1, 1657. He Died In Paris, On Jan. 9, 1757, Having Thus Very Nearly Attained The Age Of Zoo Years. His Father Was An Advocate Settled In Rouen, His Mother A ...

Bertholet Flemal Or Flemael
Flemal Or Flemael, Bertholet A Flemish Painter, Born At Liege On May 23, 1614. He Studied Under Henri Trippez And Gerard Douffet. He Went To Italy In 1638, Returning Via Paris, Where He Decorated The Churches Of The Grands Augustines And The Carmes Dechausses. He Returned To Liege In 1663. ...

Bibliocraphy F
Bibliocraphy.-f. Marshall, Football: The Rugby Union Game (1892 ; Re-edited By L. R. Tosswill, 1925) ; J. E. Raphael, Modern Rugby Football (1918) ; D. R. Gent, Rugby Football (1922) ; C. J. B. Marriott, Modern Rugby Football (1924) ; W. J. A. Davies, Rugby Football (1924) ; W. W. ...

Bibliography
Bibliography Stanihurst, Chronicles Of Ireland (vol. Ii. Of Holinshed's Chronicles) ; The Earls Of Kildare, By C. W. Fitzgerald, Duke Of Leinster (1858) ; Richard Bagwell, Ireland Under The Tudors (1885) ; Calendar State Papers, Hen. Viii., Irish. ...

Blondus Flavius
Flavius, Blondus (c. 1388-1463), Italian Historian, Was Born At Forl1. After Acting As Ambassador To Milan, He Was Exiled To Venice From 1423-32, When He Became Secretary To Pope Eugene Iv. He Died In Rome In 1463. ...

Books Of Ezra And
Ezra And Nehemiah, Books Of, In The Old Testa Ment. A Hebrew Apologist Of The 3rd Century B.c. (known As "the Chronicler") Wrote With Much Skill A History Of Israel Beginning With Adam And Ending In The 4th Century. Jewish Scholars Of A Later Day Set Apart The Latter Portion ...

British Fisheries
British Fisheries It Is Worth While In A Study Of Fisheries To Consider The British Fisheries In Some Detail Because They Are, So Far As Sea-fishing Is Concerned, The Most Highly Organised In The World, With The Possible Exception Of Those Of Japan. The Inland Fisheries Of Great Britain Are ...

Campaign
Campaign. The Second Battle (for Its Strategic Prologue See Grand Alli Ance, War Of The) Was Fought On July I, 169o, Between 45,000 French Under Duke Of Luxemburg, And 37,000 Allied Dutch, Spaniards And Imperialists Under George Frederick, Prince Of Waldeck. The Latter Had Formed Up His Army Between Heppignies ...

Carel Fabritius
Fabritius, Carel (1624?-16s4), Dutch Painter. The Date And Place Of His Birth Is Unknown. From A Description Of Delft Dated 1667, Wherein It Is Said That The Master Was Killed In An Explosion At Delft On Oct. 12, 1654, And That He Was Then About 3o Years Of Age We ...

Carlo Filangieri
Filangieri, Carlo (1784-1867), Prince Of Satriano, Neapolitan Soldier And Statesman, Was The Son Of Gaetano Filangieri (1752-1788), A Celebrated Philosopher And Jurist. At The Age Of Fifteen He Was Admitted To The Military Academy At Paris. After Serving In The French Campaign Of 1803-05 He Re Turned To Naples As ...

Charles Albert Fechter
Fechter, Charles Albert Anglo French Actor, Was Born, Probably In London, On Oct. 23, 1824, Of French Parents. He Started As A Sculptor, And Though He Made His Debut At The Comedic Francaise In 1844, He Returned To His Studio ; But In 1846 He Made A Decisive Success With ...

Charles Annibal Fabrot
Fabrot, Charles Annibal French Jurisconsult, Was Born At Aix In Provence On Sept. 15, 1580. He Translated The Basilica (1647, 7 Vols.) And Edited The Works Of Cujas. He Died At Paris On Jan. 16, ...

Charles Fleetwood
Fleetwood, Charles (d. 1692), English Soldier And Politician, Third Son Of Sir Miles Fleetwood Of Aldwinkle, North Amptonshire, And Of Anne, Daughter Of Nicholas Luke Of Wood End, Bedfordshire, Was Admitted Into Gray's Inn On Nov. 3o, 1638. At The Beginning Of The Great Rebellion, He Joined Essex's Life-guard, Was ...

Charles Simon Favart
Favart, Charles Simon (1710-1792), French Dram Atist, Was Born In Paris, The Son Of A Pastry-cook. He Was Edu Cated At The College Of Louis-le-grand, And After His Father's Death Carried On The Business For A Time. After The Production Of His First Vaudeville, Les Deux Jumelles (1734), He Devoted ...

Charles Theophile Ferre
Ferre, Charles Theophile Chief Of Police Of The Paris Commune, Was Until March 1871 One Of The Lesser Known Followers Of L. A. Blanqui (q.v.). He Was Elected To The Commune For The 18th Arrondissement, Polling The Very High Figure Of 13,784 Votes. Together With Raoul Rigault, A Man As ...

Charles Thomas Floquet
Floquet, Charles Thomas French Statesman, Was Born At St. Jean-pied-de-port (basses-pyrenees) On Oct. 2, 1828. He Was Called To The Bar In 1851, And Made His Name By His Fearless Attacks On The Government In A Series Of Political Trials. When The Tsar Alexander Ii. Visited The Palais De Justice ...

Charles Warren Fairbanks
Fairbanks, Charles Warren Vice President Of The United States, 1905-09, Was Born In Union Ville Center, Ohio, On May 11, 1852. He Was Graduated At Ohio Wesleyan In 1872, Studied Law In Cleveland, And Began Practice In Indianapolis, Ind. He Was The Chief Power In The Republican Party In His ...

Christovam Falcao
Falcao, Christovam (? I 512—? I 553), Portuguese Poet, Born At Portalegre In The R'llemte J O, Is Said To Have Fallen In Love With An 11-year-old Heiress, Maria Brandao, To Have Married Her, And To Have Been Separated From Her By Hostile Parents. He Then Entered The Diplomatic Service, ...

Ciro Ferri
Ferri, Ciro (1634-1689), Roman Painter, The Chief Disciple And Successor Of Pietro Da Cortona. He Was Born In The Roman Territory. At An Age A Little Past 3o, He Completed The Painting Of The Ceilings And Other Internal Decorations Begun By His In Structor In The Pitti Palace, Florence. He ...

Claude Charles Faukiel
Faukiel, Claude Charles French Historian, Philologist And Critic, Was Born At St. Etienne. Though The Son Of A Poor Joiner, He Received A Good Education In The Oratorian Colleges Of Tournon And Lyons. He Was Twice In The Army And From 1799 To 18o 1 He Was Private Secretary To ...

Claude De Forbin
Forbin, Claude De (1656-1733), French Naval Com Mander, Was Born At Gardanne, Provence, On Aug. 6, 1656. He Went To Siam In 1685 With The Chevalier De Chaumont, Sent By Louis Xiv. At The Invitation Of The King Of Siam To Introduce European Civilization In That Country. He Remained As ...

Claude Farrere
Farrere, Claude, Pen-name Of Charles Bargone (1876- ) , French Novelist. He Was A Naval Officer; He Made His Reputation With A Series Of Novels. The Scenes Of Which Were Laid In The Far East Or In Eastern Europe. He Drew Vivid Pictures Of Men And Women Of Alien Civilizations, ...

Claude Fauchet
Fauchet, Claude , French Revolutionary Bishop, Was Born At Dornes (nievre) On The 22nd Of September 1744. He Was A Curate Of The Church Of St. Roch, Paris, When He Was Engaged As Tutor To The Children Of The Marquis Of Choiseul. He Was Successively Grand Vicar To The Archbishop ...

Claude Fleury
Fleury, Claude (164o-1723), French Ecclesiastical Historian, Was Born At Paris On Dec. 6, 164o. Educated At The Aristocratic College Of Clermont (now That Of Louis-le-grand), He Was Nominated An Advocate To The Parlement Of Paris In 1658, But Nine Years Later, He Turned To Theology And By 1672 Was In ...

Clement Armand Fallieres
Fallieres, Clement Armand Pres Ident Of The French Republic, Was Born On Nov. 6, 1841, At Mezin (lot-et-garonne), Where His Father Was Clerk Of The Peace. He Studied Law And Became An Advocate At Nerac, Beginning His Public Career There As Municipal Councillor (1868), Afterwards Mayor (1871), And As Councillor-general ...

Club Of The Feuillants
Feuillants, Club Of The, A Political Association Which Played A Prominent Part During The French Revolution. It Was Founded On July 16, 1791, By Several Members Of The Jacobin Club, Who Refused To Sign A Petition Presented By This Body, De Manding The Deposition Of Louis Xvi. Among Them Were ...

Club Root Or Anbury
Finger-and-toe, Club Root Or Anbury, A Destructive Plant-disease Due To An Organism Known Botanically As Plasmodio Phora Brassicae, Which Attacks Cabbages, Turnips, Radishes And Other Cultivated And Wild Members Of The Family Cruciferae. It Is One Of The So-called Slime-fungi (myxomycetes Or Mycetozoa). The Presence Of The Disease Is Indicated ...

Colours Of Animals Bibliography J
Colours Of Animals.) Bibliography.-j. Reighard, "an Experimental Field Study Of Bibliography.-j. Reighard, "an Experimental Field Study Of Warning Coloration," Papers From The Tortugas Laboratory Of The Carnegie Institution Of Washington (1908) ; W. H. Longley, Amer. Nat. (1917) ; G. H. Thayer, Concealing Coloration In The Animal Kingdom (1918) ; ...

Comite Des Forges
Forges, Comite Des. The Comite Des Forges, A French Body, Under State Control, Founded In 1864 To Centralize And Divide Up The Supplies Of Rough Casting, And To Deal In British Steels, Was Instituted As A "professional Syndicate" In Accordance With The Law Of 1884. The Comite Des Forges Deals ...

Comte De Charles Joseph
Charles Joseph, Comte De (1785-187o), French General And Statesman, Son Of Alexandre Scbastien De Flahaut De La Bil Larderie, Comte De Flahaut, Beheaded At Arras In February And His Wife Adelaide Filleul, Afterwards Mme. De Souza (q.v.), Was Born In Paris On April 21, 1785. Charles De Flahaut Was Generally ...

Constanzo Festa
Festa, Constanzo (c. , Italian Singer And Musical Composer, Became A Member Of The Pontifical Choir In Rome In 1517, And Soon Afterwards Maestro At The Vatican. His Motets And Madrigals (the First Book Of Which Appeared In 1537) Excited Dr. Burney's Warm Praise In His History Of Music; And, ...

Cornelius Conway Felton
Felton, Cornelius Conway Ameri Can Classical Scholar, Was Born On Nov. 6, 1807, In West Newbury (mass.). He Graduated At Harvard College In 1827, And After Teaching In The High School At Geneseo (n.y.), He Became Tutor At Harvard In 1829, University Professor Of Greek In 1832 And Eliot Professor ...

Council Of Ferrara Florence
Ferrara-florence, Council Of. The Council Of Ferrara And Florence Was The Culmination Of A Series Of Futile Mediaeval Attempts To Reunite The Greek And Roman Churches. The Emperor, John Vi. Palaeologus, Had Been Advised By His Experienced Father To Avoid All Serious Negotiations, As They Had Invariably Resulted In Increased ...

Counts Of Foix
Foix, Counts Of. The Counts Of Foix Were A Distin Guished French Family Which Flourished From The Iith To The 15th Century, And During The 13th And 14th Centuries Were Among The Most Powerful Of The French Feudal Nobles. Living On The Borders Of France, Having Constant Intercourse With Navarre, ...

Crop Enterprises
Crop Enterprises Economic Economic Factors That Determine The Selection Of Crop Enterprises Are Numerous, The Most Important Being The Value Of The Product Per Unit Of Weight Taken Together With The Cost Of Transportation To Market. A Product Worth Less Than About 1.5 Cents A Pound Cannot Be Shipped To ...

Cyrus West Field
Field, Cyrus West (1819-1892), American Capitalist, Projector Of The First Atlantic Cable, Was Born At Stockbridge, Mass., On Nov. 3o, 181g. He Was A Brother Of David Dudley Field. In 184o He Went Into The Paper Business For Himself At Westfield, Mass., But Almost Immediately Became A Partner In E. ...

Dame Millicent Garrett Fawcett
Fawcett, Dame Millicent Garrett, G.b.e. (1847-1929) The Eighth Child Of Newson Garrett, Merchant Ship Owner Of Aldeburgh, Suffolk. Educated At A Private School, She Married At 20 Professor Henry Fawcett M.p., Afterwards Post Master-general. Her Husband's Blindness And The Perfect Sym• Pathy Between Them Led To The Closest Interdependence Of ...

Daniel Featley Or Fairclough
Featley Or Fairclough, Daniel (1582-1645), English Divine, Was Born At Charlton, Oxfordshire, On March 15, 1582. His Varied Activities Included A "scholastick Duel" With James I. In 1625, And The Publication Of (i) The Report Of A Conference With Some Jesuits In 1624, (2) A Devotional Manual En Titled Ancilla ...

David Dudley Field
Field, David Dudley (1805-1894), American Lawyer And Law Reformer, Was Born In Haddam, Conn., On Feb. 13, 1805. He Graduated At Williams College In 1825, And Settled In New York City, Where He Was Admitted To The Bar In 1828. Interested In The Reformation Of The Common Law, He Visited ...

David Forbes
Forbes, David , British Mineralogist, Metal Lurgist And Chemist, Brother Of Edward Forbes (q.v.), Was Born On Sept. 6, 1828, At Douglas, Isle Of Man, And Studied Chemistry At The University Of Edinburgh. He Was Superintendent Of The Min Ing And Metallurgical Works At Espedal In Norway, Then A Partner ...

David Glasgow Farragut
Farragut, David Glasgow (1801-1870), Ameri Can Admiral, Was Born On July 5, 18o1, Near Knoxville, Tenn. At New Orleans He Formed A Close Friendship With Capt. David Porter Of The Navy, The Result Of Which Was That Porter Adopted His Young Namesake, And Put Him In The Navy In 181o. ...

Decline Of The Fatimites
Decline Of The Fatimites On May 18, 945, While Abu Yazid Was Besieging Susa, The Caliph Al-qa'im Died At Mandia, And Was Succeeded By His Son Ismail, Who Took The Title Mansur. He Almost Immediately Re Lieved Susa By Sending A Fleet, Which Joining With The Garrison Inflicted A Severe ...

Diego Fernandez
Fernandez, Diego, A Spanish Adventurer And Historian Of The 16th Century. Born At Palencia, He Was Educated For The Church, But About 1545 He Embarked For Peru, Where He Served In The Royal Army Under Alonzo De Alvarado, And Became Chron Icler Of Peru. He Wrote A Narrative Of The ...

Diseases Of Eye
Eye, Diseases Of. The Specially Important Diseases Of The Eye Are Those Which Temporarily Or Permanently Interfere With Sight. (see Blindness, Causes Of.) In Considering The Subject It Must Be Remembered That (i) The Eye Is A Double Organ, While (2) Either Eye May Have Its Own Trouble. I. Normally, ...

Domenico Fontana
Fontana, Domenico (1543-1607), Italian Architect And Mechanician, Was Born At Mili On The Lake Of Como In And Died At Naples In 1607. After Training In Mathematics He Went To Rome To Study Architecture, And Entered The Service Of Cardinal Montalto (afterwards Sixtus V.), For Whom He Erected A Chapel ...

Don Jose Monino V
Florida Blanca, Don Jose Monino V Re Dondo, Count Of (1728-1808), Spanish Statesman, Was Born At Hellin, Murcia, On Oct. 21, 1728. He Was The Son Of A Retired Army Officer. He Studied At Salamanca And Practised As An Ad Vocate. After A Successful Embassy To Rome, Florida Blanca Suc ...

Dore
Dore (1836-1904), French Artist, Was Born At Grenoble On Jan. 14, 1836. He Studied First With His Father, A Pastel Painter, And Then At The Drawing School Of Lecoq De Boisbaudran. He Was The Friend Of Ingres, Delacroix, Corot, Courbet And Others. He Exhibited In The Salon Of 1861 And ...

Douglas Fairbanks
Fairbanks, Douglas Motion Picture Actor And Producer, Was Born At Denver (colo.), On May 23, 1883. He Studied At The Colorado School Of Mines, Attended Harvard University, And Entered A Brokerage Firm In Wall Street. In 1901 He Took Up The Stage As A Career, Eventually Starring In Several Plays, ...