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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 9, Part 1: Extraction to Gambrinus

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Duction Bibliography O
Duction.) Bibliography.-o. Lloyd-jones And F. Hays, "the Influence Of Bibliography.-o. Lloyd-jones And F. Hays, "the Influence Of Excessive Sexual Activity Of Male Rabbits," Jour. Exp. Zool., V. 25, Pp. 571-613 (1918) ; F. H. A. Marshall, The Physiology Of Reproduc Tion (bibl., 1922) ; J. Hammond And F. H. A. ...

Dudley Fenner
Fenner, Dudley (c. 1558-1587), English' Puritan Di Vine, Was Born In Kent And Educated At Cambridge University But Becoming An Adherent Of The Presbyterian Thomas Cartwright Had To Leave Without Taking His Degree. He Followed Cartwright To Antwerp, And Preached To The English Congregation There. The Leniency Shown By Archbishop ...

Duncan Forbes
Forbes, Duncan, Of Culloden (1685-1747), Scottish Statesman, Son Of Duncan Forbes (1644?-1704), Genealogist And M.p. For Nairn, Was Born At Bunchrew Or At Culloden Near Inver Ness On Nov. Io, 1685. He Studied At Edinburgh And Leiden, And Was Advocate And Sheriff Of Midlothian In 1709. The Influence Of The ...

Economics Of Fascism
Fascism, Economics Of. A Series Of Laws, Decrees, And Ministerial Regulations, Enacted Since The Fascist Govern Ment Came Into Power In Italy In Oct. 1922, Has Radically Trans Formed The Legislation Regulating Occupational And Trade Unions (or "syndical Associations" As They Are Termed In Italian Law), The Relations Between Employer ...

Edmond George Baronfitzmaurice
Fitzmaurice, Edmond George Baron Fitzmaurice, Son Of The 4th Marquess Of Lansdowne, Was A Liberal In Politics, And Followed Mr. Gladstone In His Home Rule Policy. As Lord Edmond Fitzmaurice He Entered The House Of Commons In 1868, And Was Under-secretary For Foreign Affairs From 1882 To 1885. He Was ...

Edouard Foa
Foa, Edouar.d (1862-1901), French Explorer, Was Born At Marseilles On Dec. 17, 1862. He Visited The French Colony Of Dahomey In 1885, And Between 1891 And 1897 Made Two Ex Tended Trips Into Central Africa. On The Latter He Traversed The Continent From The Mouth Of The Zambesi River On ...

Edward Fairfax
Fairfax, Edward (c. English Poet, Trans Lator Of Tasso, Was Born At Leeds. The Second Son Of Sir Thomas Fairfax Of Denton. He Is Said To Have Been Only About 20 Years Of Age When He Published His Translation Of The Gerusalemme Liberata, Which Appeared In 1600,—god F Rey Of ...

Edward Fenton
Fenton, Edward (d. 1603), English Navigator, Son Of Henry Fenton And Brother Of Sir Geoffrey Fenton (q.v.), Was Born In Nottinghamshire. In 1577 He Sailed, In Command Of The "gabriel," With Frobisher's Second Expedition For The Discovery Of The North-west Passage, And In 1578 He Was Second In Command In ...

Edward Fitzball
Fitzball, Edward English Dramatist, Was Born At Burwell, Cambridgeshire, The Son Of A Farmer. He Produced Some Dramatic Pieces At Norwich Theatre, And The Marked Success Of His Innkeeper Of Abbeville (182o), Together With The Acceptance Of One Of His Pieces At The Surrey Theatre By Thomas Dibdin, Induced Him ...

Edward Fitzgerald
Fitzgerald, Edward (1809-1883), English Writer, Translator Of Omar Khayyam, Was Born As Edward Purcell, At Bredfield, Suffolk, On March 31, 1809. His Father, John Purcell, Who Had Married A Miss Fitzgerald, Assumed In 1818 The Name And Arms Of His Wife's Family. From 1816 To 1821 The Fitzgeralds Lived At ...

Edward Forbes
Forbes, Edward (1815-1854), British Naturalist, Was Born At Douglas, Isle Of Man, On Feb. 12, 1815. He Studied Medi Cine At Edinburgh, And In 1833 Made A Tour In Norway, The Botanical Results Of Which Were Published In Loudon's Magazine Of Natural History For 1835-36. In 1836 He Forsook Medicine ...

Edward John Eyre
Eyre, Edward John (1815-1901), British Colonial Governor, The Son Of A Yorkshire Clergyman, Was Born At Hornsea On Aug. 5, 1815. He Emigrated To New South Wales, Where He Transported Stock Westward To The New Colony Of South Aus Tralia, Then In Great Distress. He Became Magistrate And Protector Of ...

Edward Morgan Forster
Forster, Edward Morgan ), British Novelist, Was Educated At Tonbridge School And King's College, Cambridge. His First Novel, Where Angels Fear To Tread (1905) Was Followed By The Longest Journey (1907) And A Room With A View (1908). Wider Attention Was Won By Howards End (i 910), But Thereafter, Except ...

Edward Onslow Ford
Ford, Edward Onslow (1852-1901), British Sculp Tor, Was Born At Islington On July 27, 1852. He Was Educated At Blackheath, And Studied Art At Antwerp, And At Munich, Where He Married In 1873, Anne Gwendolen, Daughter Of Baron Frans Von Kreuzer. About 1874 Ford Returned To Blackheath, And Attracted Attention ...

Edward Robert Flegel
Flegel, Edward Robert German Traveller In West Africa, Was Born On Oct. I, 1855, At Vilna. He Obtained In 1875 A Position In Lagos, West Africa. In 1879 He Ascended The Benue River Some 125m. Above The Farthest Point Hitherto Reached ; He Then Received A Commission From The German ...

Edwin Forrest
Forrest, Edwin (1806-1872), American Actor, Was Born At Philadelphia (pa.), On March 9, 1806. He Made His First Stage Appearance On Nov. 27, 1820, At The Walnut Street Theatre, In Home's Douglas. In 1826 He Had Played A Great Success In New York As Othello. He Played At Drury Lane ...

Egidio Forcellini
Forcellini, Egidio (1688-1768), Italian Philologist, Was Born On Aug. 26, 1688, At Fener, Treviso, And Studied At Padua Under Facciolati (q.v.) . From 1724 To 1731 He Held The Office Of Rector Of The Seminary At Ceneda, And From 1731 To 1765 That Of Father Confessor In The Seminary Of ...

Electric Wave Filter
Filter, Electric Wave, A Device Used In Radio Sets, Usually A Selective Circuit Network, Designed To Transmit A Direct Current Or Alternating Current Within A Continuous Band Or Bands Of Frequencies. It Also Attenuates Currents Of Other Frequencies. (see Electricity And Broadcasting.) ...

Elie Frederic Forey
Forey, Elie Frederic (1804-1872), Marshal Of France, Was Born At Paris On Jan. 5, 1804, And Entered The Army From St. Cyr In 1824. He Took Part In The Earlier Algerian Cam Paigns, And Became Captain In 1835. At The Revolution Of 1848 Cavaignac Made Him A General Of Brigade. ...

Elijah Fenton
Fenton, Elijah (1683-173o), English Poet, Was Born At Shelton, Near Newcastle-under-lyme. He Graduated From Jesus College, Cambridge, In 1704, And Became A Schoolmaster. Fenton Is Remembered As The Coadjutor Of Alexander Pope In His Translation Of The Odyssey. He Was Responsible For The First, Fourth, 19th And Loth Books, For ...

Elizabeth Farnese
Farnese, Elizabeth (1692-1766), Queen Of Spain, Born On Oct. 25, 1692, Was The Only Daughter Of Odoardo Ii., Prince Of Parma. At The Age Of 21 (1714) She Was Married By Proxy At Parma To Philip V. Of Spain. The Marriage Was Arranged By Cardinal Alberoni (q.v.), With The Concurrence ...

Elizabeth Farren
Farren, Elizabeth (c. 1759-1829), English Actress, Was The Daughter Of George Farren, An Actor. Her Early Years Were Spent Among The Touring Company To Which Her Parents Be Longed, And Her First Regular Engagement Was At A Liverpool Theatre In 1773. She Came To London In 1777, Where She First ...

Ellen Nellie Farren
Farren, Ellen (nellie) English Actress, Was Born On April 16, 1848, Of A Family Of Actors. Her First London Appearance Was At The Sadler's Wells Theatre In 1862. From 1864 To 1868 She Was At The Olympic In Burlesque And Light Comedy Parts, Including Nerissa In The Merchant Of Venice. ...

Emil Fischer
Fischer, Emil (1852-1919), German Chemist, Was Born At Euskirchen, Rhenish Prussia, On Oct. 9, 1852. He Studied At Bonn And At Strasbourg, Where He Graduated Ph.d. In 1874. He Then Acted As Assistant To Adolf Von Baeyer At Munich For Eight Years, After Which He Was Appointed To The Chair ...

Emile Faguet
Faguet, Emile (1847-1916), French Critic And Man Of Letters, Was Born At La Roche Sur Yon. He Was Educated At The Normal School In Paris, And After Teaching For Some Time In La Rochelle And Bordeaux He Came To Paris. After Acting As Assistant Professor Of Poetry In The University ...

Emilie Flygare Carlen
Flygare-carlen, Emilie Swedish Novelist, Was Born In Stromstad On Aug. 8, 1807. Her Father, Rutger Smith, Was A Retired Sea-captain, And She Often Accompa Nied Him On The Voyages He Made Along The Coast. She Married In 1827 A Doctor Named Axel Flygare, And Went With Him To Live In ...

Emily Faithfull
Faithfull, Emily (1835-1895), English Philanthro Pist, Daughter Of The Rev. Ferdinand Faithfull, Was Born At Head Ley Rectory, Surrey, In 1835. She Took A Great Interest In The Conditions Of Working-women, And In 186o She Set Up In London A Printing Establishment For Women. She Was Shortly Afterwards Appointed Printer ...

Engineering Dredgers And Dredging
Engineering; Dredgers And Dredging; Buoy.) By Derivation, The Term Is Also Used Of The Open Passage On A Golf Course Between The Hazards, Such As Furze, Water, Bunkers. (see Golf.) ...

Enrique Florez
Florez, Enrique (1702-1773), Spanish Historian, Was Born At Valladolid. He Was Responsible For Collecting Most Of The Material That Appeared In The First 26 Volumes Of Espana Sagrada, Teatro Geografico-liistorico De La Iglesia De Espana 1886), A Vast Compilation Of Spanish Ecclesiastical History Which Obtained A European Reputation. ...

Erastus Fairbanks
Fairbanks, Erastus (1792-1864), American Manu Facturer, Was Born In Brimfield (mass.) On Oct. 28, 1792. In 1824 He Formed A Partnership With His Brother Thaddeus For The Manufacture Of Stoves And Ploughs. Erastus Was A Member Of The State Legislature In 1836-38, And Governor Of Vermont In And 186o-61. His ...

Erich Von Falkenhayn
Falkenhayn, Erich Von Prussian General, Was Born On Nov. 11, 1861 At Burg Belchau (thorn). He Took Part In The China Expedition Of 190o And Remained In China With A Brigade Of Occupation Until 1903. In 1907 He Was Appointed Chief Of Staff Of The Xvi., And In 1912 Of ...

Ernest Aime Feydeau
Feydeau, Ernest-aime French Au Thor, Was Born In Paris. He Gained A Great Success With His Novel Fanny (1858), Followed In Rapid Succession By A Series Of Similar Stories. Besides His Novels Feydeau Wrote Several Plays. He Died In Paris On Oct. 27, 1873, His Son Georges (1862-1921) Was A ...

Ernest Flagg
Flagg, Ernest (1857– ), American Architect, Was Born At Brooklyn (n.y.), On Feb. 6, 18s7. He Studied At The Ecole Des Beaux-arts, Paris, And In 1891 Began To Practise As An Architect In New York City. He Designed St. Luke's Hospital And The Singer Building, New York City, The Corcoran ...

Ernst Feuchtersleben
Feuchtersleben, Ernst, Freiherr Von (r806 1849), Austrian Physician, Poet And Philosopher, Was Born In Vienna On April 29, 1806, Of An Old Saxon Noble Family. He Was Educated At The University Of Vienna, And In 1844 Was Appointed Dean Of The Faculty Of Medicine. In 1848, While Refusing The Presidency ...

Ernst Kuno Berthold Fischer
Fischer, Ernst Kuno Berthold German Philosopher, Was Born At Sandewalde, Silesia, On July 23, 1824. Educated At Leipzig And Halle, He Became A Privat Docent At Heidelberg In 1850, And In 1856 A Professor At Jena. In 1872 He Succeeded Zeller At Heidelberg As Professor Of Phi Losophy And Of ...

Esprit Flechier
Flechier, Esprit (1632-171o), Bishop Of Nimes, Was Born At Pernes On June 1 O, 163 2. He Entered The Congregation Des Doctrinaires, And Afterwards Left It, Owing To The Strictness Of Its Rules, And Went To Paris. His French Poems Met With Little Success, But A Description In Latin Verse ...

Ethel Gordon Fenwick
Fenwick, Ethel Gordon (mrs. Bedford Fenwick) (1857— ), English Nurse And Journalist, Was Born At Spynie House, Morayshire, On Jan. 26, 1857. In 1881 She Was Appointed Matron Of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London. She Married A Gynaecologist, Dr. Bedford Fenwick, And Devoted Herself To The Work Of Organizing And Raising ...

Etienne Maurice I Falconet
Falconet, Etienne Maurice (i 716—i 791), French Sculptor, Was Born At Vevey, And Died In Paris On Jan. 4, 1791. He Was At First Apprenticed To A Carpenter, But Some Of His Clay Figures Attracted The Notice Of The Sculptor Lemoine, Who Made Him His Pupil. His Statue Of Milo ...

Etruria
Etruria). See E. A. Freeman, Hist. Of Federal Government In Greece And Rome (end Ed., 1893, J. B. Bury), And Works Quoted In The Special Articles. ...

Eugene Field
Field, Eugene (1850-1895), American Poet, Was Born In St. Louis (mo.), Sept. 3, 1850. Because Of An Error, Field Thought., Until The Last Years Of His Life, As Is Shown By His Autobiographical Notes And By The Date Appended To His Birthday Poem "thirty-nine," That The Day Of His Birth ...

Eugenie Rodrigues Gradis Foa
Foa, Eugenie Rodrigues-gradis 0798-1853), French Author, Was Born At Bordeaux In 1798. Separated From Her Husband While Still Very Young, She Earned Her Living By Writing, And Became Especially Noted For Her Graceful Stories For Children Published Largely In The Journal Des Enfants And The Journal Des Demoiselles. Toward The ...

Extraction
Extraction, In A Broad Sense, Is Any Process For Separating A Desired Constit Uent From A Mass, Whether Of Solids Or Liquids. Mechanical Expression, Shaking Or "percolating" With A Cold Solvent, Treating With A Hot Solvent Condensed From Its Vapour, Are Amongst The Methods Used. Examples Of Extractions Are The ...

Extradition
Extradition Is The Handing Over Of A Fugitive From Justice By The Country In Which He Is Found To The Country Demand Ing Him. (the Meaning Of The Word "fugitive Criminal," Used In The Extradition Act 1870, Was Considered In R. V. Godfrey [1923] I K.b. 24, Where It Was ...

Extrados
Extrados, In Architecture, The Top Or Upper Surface Of The Series Of Wedge-shaped Stones (voussoirs) Of Which An Arch Is Composed. (see Illustration Under Arch.) The Term Is Usually Confined To Those Cases In Which The Upper Sides Of The Voussoirs Form A Continuous Curve. ...

Extravaganza
Extravaganza, A Work For The Stage Of A Go-as-you Please Type, Which Is Generally Distinguished Further By The Lavish Ness And Extravagance Of Its Scenery And Dresses. The Term Is Also Applied Sometimes To Musical And Literary Compositions Of A Humorous And Burlesque Order. ...

Extreme Unction
Extreme Unction, A Sacrament Of The Catholic Church. It Has Been General Since The 9th Century. The Council Of Florence A.d. Thus Defined It : "the Fifth Sacrament Is Extreme Unction. Its Matter Is Olive Oil, Blessed By A Bishop. It Shall Not Be Given Except To A Sick Person ...

Eye
Eye, A Market-town And Municipal Borough In The Eye Parliamentary Division Of East Suffolk, England, 941 M. N.e. From London On A Branch From Mellis Of The L.n.e.r. (ipswich Norwich Section). Pop. (1931) 1,733. The Church Of St. Peter And St. Paul Of Perpendicular Flint Work, With Early English Portions ...

Eyemouth
Eyemouth, A Burgh Of Barony And Parish Of Berwickshire, Scotland. Pop. (1931) 2,231. It Is Situated At The Mouth Of The Eye, 7 2 M. N.n.w. Of Berwick-on-tweed By The L.n.e.r. Via Burnmouth. The Main Industry Is Herring Fishing And Allied Trades, And Eyemouth Was Known As A Port In ...

Eylau
Eylau, A Town Of Germany, In East Prussia, On The Pasmar, 23 M. S. By E. Of Konigsberg By Rail On The Line Pillau-prostken. It Has An Evangelical Church, A Teachers' Seminary, A Hospital, Foundries And Saw Mills. Pop. 4,123. Eylau Was Founded In 1336 By Arnolf Von Eilenstein, A ...

Eyra
Eyra, Felis Eyra, A South American Wild Cat, Of Weasel-like Build, And Uniform Colouration, Varying From Reddish-yellow To Chestnut. It Is Found In Brazil, Guiana And Paraguay, And Up To The Rio Del Norte, But Is Rare North Of Panama. It Is A F Orest Dweller, Active And Fierce. The ...

Eyrie
Eyrie, The Alternative English Form Of The Words Aerie Or Aery, The Lofty Nest Of A Bird Of Prey, Especially Of An Eagle ; Hence Any Lofty Place Of Abode. The Term Is Also Used Of The Brood Of The Bird. ...

Ezekiel
Ezekiel The Prophet Has Recorded, Or Left Us To Infer, A Few Facts About Himself. He Had Been A Priest In Jerusalem, Most Likely A Member Of The Clan Of Zadok; While Still Young He Was Carried Away To Babylonia In The First Captivity, 597 B.c.; His Call To Prophesy ...

Ezra
Ezra, The Priest And Scribe, One Of The Principal Characters In The Chronicler's History Of Israel (chronicles-ezra-nehemiah). He Is Here Said To Have Been Sent From Babylon To Jerusalem By The Persian King Artaxerxes (i.e., A. Ii. 398 B.c.) To Restore The Neglected Law (the Pentateuch). On His Arrival, He ...

Ezzo Or Ehrenfried
Ezzo Or Ehrenfried (c. Count Palatine In Lorraine, Was The Son Of A Certain Hermann (d. C. I000), Also A Count Palatine In Lorraine Who Had Possessions In The Neighbour Hood Of Bonn. Having Married Matilda (d. Io25), A Daughter Of The Emperor Otto Ii., Ezzo Came To The Front ...

Ezzolied Or Anegenge
Ezzolied Or Anegenge, A Popular Old German Poem On The Life Of Christ, Written About Io6o, By Ezzo Of Bamberg. It Had A Great Influence On South. German Poetry, Of Which It Is An Important Monument. Text In Miillenhoff And Scherer, Denkmdler Der D. Poesie And Prosa Aus Dem 8-12 ...

Faber
Faber, The Name Of A Family Of German Lead-pencil Manu Facturers. Their Business Was Founded In 1760 At Stein, Near Nuremberg, By Kaspar Faber (d. 1784) . It Was Then Inherited By His Son Anton Wilhelm (d. 1819) . Georg Leonhard Faber Suc Ceeded In 1810 (d. 1839), And The ...

Faber_2
Faber (or Vre), Johann (1478-1541), German Theologian, Styled From The Title Of One Of His Works "malleus Haereticorum," Son Of One Heigerlin, A Smith (faber), Was Barn At Leutkirch, Suabia, In 1478. He Studied Theology And Canon Law At Tubingen And At Freiburg Im Breisgau, And Became Vicar Of Lindau ...

Fabian Society
Fabian Society, A Socialist Society Founded In The Winter Of 1883-4 By A Few Obscure Young People In London With The Ambitious Object Of "reconstructing Society In Accordance With The Highest Moral Possibilities." They Named Themselves After Fabius Cunctator Because They Realized That "long Taking Of Counsel" Was Necessary Before ...

Fabius
Fabius, The Name Of A Number Of Roman Soldiers And States Men. The Fabian Gens Was One Of The Oldest And Most Distin Guished Patrician Families Of Rome. Its Members Claimed Descent From Hercules And A Daughter Of The Arcadian Evander. From The Earliest Times It Played A Prominent Part ...

Fable
Fable. With Certain Restrictions, The Necessity Of Which Will Be Shown In The Course Of The Article, We May Accept The Definition Of "fable" Which Dr. Johnson Proposes In His Life Of Gay: "a Fable Or Apologue Seems To Be, In Its Genuine State, A Narrative In Which Beings Irrational, ...

Fabliau
Fabliau. The Entertaining Tales In Eight-syllable Rhymed Verse Which Form A Marked Section Of French Mediaeval Literature Are Called Fabliaux, The Word Being Derived By Lithe From Fablel, A Diminutive Of Fable. It Is A Mistake To Suppose, As Is Frequently Done, That Every Legend Of The Middle Ages Is ...

Fabri Or Fabry Faber
Faber, Fabri Or Fabry (surnamed Stapulensis), Jacobus [jacques Lefevre D'etaples] (c. 1455-1536), A Pioneer Of The Protestant Movement In France, Was Born Of Humble Parents At Staples, Pas De Calais. He Had Already Been Or Dained Priest When He Entered The University Of Paris, Where Her Monymus Of Sparta Was ...

Fabriano
Fabriano, A Town And Episcopal See Of The Marches, Italy, Province Of Ancona, From Which It Is 44 M. S.w. By Rail, 1,066 Ft. Above Sea-level. Pop. (1931) Town 10,968, Commune 26,611. It Has Been Noted Since 1276 For Its Paper Mills. A Number Of The Churches, Several Of Which ...

Facade
Facade, An Architectural Term Signifying The External Face Of A Building, Especially Applied To The Principal Front. ...

Face Creams
Face Creams Are The Basis Of Most Modern Systems Of Caring For The Skin. Normally, The Oil Glands Which Lie In The Lower Layers Of The Skin Secrete A Natural Lubricant Which Escapes From The Thousands Of Pores And Spreads Out Over The Surface. Its Purpose Is To Keep The ...

Face Value
Face Value. Term Describing The Nominal Value Borne Upon The Face Of Stock Or Share Certificates, Loans, Debentures, Bank-notes, Etc., Indicating The Value At Which They Are Issued, Or Par Value. The Real Or Market Value May Be Very Different From The Face Value; If Higher, A Premium Is Said ...

Face
Face, A Word Used As Noun Or Verb Whose Various Meanings Of Surface, Front, Expression Of Countenance, Look Or Appearance, Are Derived From Its Application To The Exterior Of The Front Of The Head, From The Top Of The Forehead To The Point Of The Chin, And From Ear To ...

Facilitation
Facilitation, A Term Used In Neurology To Designate The Favourable Influence Exerted Over A Conduction Path By The Passage Of An Impulse Having An Identical End-effect With The Impulse Favoured. This Facilitation Of One Nerve Impulse By Another May Be Successive Or Simultaneous. Activation Of Any Reflex Path Leaves That ...

Faction
Faction, A Term Commonly Employed, Especially In The 18th Century, To Denote A Group Of Partisans Who Set The Aims Of Themselves And Their Party Before The Public Welfare. It Bears A More Technical Sense In Roman And Byzantine History, There Denoting The Factions Of The Circus And Hippodrome Which ...

Factor
Factor, Strictly "one Who Makes;" Thus In Ordinary Par Lance, Anything Which Goes To The Composition Of Anything Else Is Termed One Of Its "factors," And In Mathematics The Term Is Used Of Those Quantities Which, When Multiplied Together, Produce A Given Product. In A Special Sense, However—and That To ...

Factors In Family Life
Factors In Family Life Considering First The Forces Which Favour Monogamous Mating And The Familial Organization Resulting Therefrom, We Note That The Sexes Are Numerically Equal. It Is True That More Boys Than Girls Are Born, In A Ratio Of About Ioo Girls To Io6 Boys. However, Mortality Is Slightly ...

Factors Of Production
Factors Of Production. In Economics, The Four Factors Which Together Are Necessary To The Production Of Wealth. These Are Land, Capital, Labour And Organisation (see Agents Of Production) . ...

Factory Construction And Planning
Factory Construction And Planning. The Selection Of The Site And The Design Of Factory Buildings Are Vital Economic Factors In Manufacture, As They Contribute Seriously To The Cost Of Production, Not Only On Account Of The Initial Outlay Of Capital Required, But Because Of Their Influence On Efficient Pro Duction. ...

Factory Inspection
Factory Inspection. In Great Britain, The Duties Of The Factory Inspectors Consist Broadly In The Enforcement Of The Factory And Workshop Acts, Truck Acts (in Factories And Work Shops), And The Lead Paint (protection Against Poisoning) Act, 5926, And May Be Grouped Under The Following Main Heads: Sanitation.—the Inspectors See ...

Factory System
Factory System. The System Under Which Modern Industry Is Carried On Is Often Spoken Of As The "factory System," And Contrasted With A Preceding "domestic System," Or System Of Household Industry. This Contrast Is In Fact True Only In A Very Broad Sense ; For The Name "domestic System" Is ...

Facula
Facula (diminutive Of Fax, Lat. For "torch"), In Astrono My, A Minute Shining Spot On The Sun's Disk, Markedly Brighter Than The Photosphere In General, Usually Appearing In Groups. Faculae Are Most Frequent In The Neighbourhood Of Spots. (see ...

Faculty Psychology
Faculty Psychology Is The Name Given To The Older Psychology Which "explained" The Various Mental Processes By Reference To Corresponding "faculties" (latin Facultas, A Capacity) Which Exercised Them. Thus The Process Of Thinking Was Explained By Reference To The Faculty Of "understanding" Or Of "reason," The Process Of Volition Was ...

Faculty
Faculty, Power Or Capacity Of Mind Or Body, For Particular Kinds Of Activity, Feeling, Etc. In The Early History Of Psychology The Term Was Applied To Various Mental Processes Considered As Causes Or Conditions Of The Mind—a Treatment Of Class Concepts Of Mental Phenomena As If They Were Real Forces ...

Fading
Fading Is The Variation Of The Signal Intensity Received At A Given Location From A Radio Transmitting Station As A Result Of Changes In The Transmission Path. ...

Faenza
Faenza, A City And Episcopal See Of Emilia, Italy (anc. Faventia), Province Of Ravenna, 31 M. S.w. From The Town Of Ravenna By Rail, 110 Ft. Above Sea-level. It Is 31 M. S.e. Of Bologna By Rail, On The Line From Bologna To Rimini, And It Is The Junction Of ...

Faeroe Islands
Faeroe Islands (also Written Faroe Or The Faeroes, Danish Fuel-dente Or Faroerne, "the Sheep Islands"), A Group Of Islands In The North Atlantic Ocean Belonging To Denmark. They Are Situated Between Iceland And The Shetland Islands, About 200 M. N.w. Of The Latter, About 7° W. And 62° N. The ...

Faesulae
Faesulae, An Ancient City Of Etruria, On The Height 3 M. To The N.e. Of Florentia, 97o Ft. Above Sea-level (mod. Fiesole, Q.v.) . Remains Of Its Walls Of Large Blocks Of Stone Are Preserved On All Sides, Especially On The North-east. The Whole Circuit Extended For About 1 M. ...

Fafnir
Fafnir, In Scandinavian Mythology, The Son Of The Giant Hreidmar. He Was The Guardian Of The Hoard Of The Nibelungs. ...

Fagaceae
Fagaceae, In Botany, The Beech Family; Dicotyledonous Plants, Most Of The 35o Species Being Trees. The Family Includes Five Genera, The Most Important Being Fagus (beech, Q.v.), Quercus (oak, Q.v.) And Castanea (chestnut, Q.v.). The Flowers Are Borne In Catkins In The Axils Of The Leaves, And Are Unisexual. The ...

Fagging
Fagging, In English Public Schools, A System Under Which, Generally With The Full Approval Of The Authorities, A Junior Boy Performs Certain Duties For A Senior (from "fag" Meaning "weary"; Of Uncertain Etymology). Dr. Arnold Of Rugby Defined Fagging As "the Power Given By The Supreme Authorities Of The School ...

Faggot
Faggot, A Bundle Of Sticks Used For Firewood. Recanted Heretics Wore An Embroidered Faggot On The Arm As A Symbol Of The Punishment They Had Escaped. In The 18th Century The Word Is Used Of A "dummy" Soldier Appearing On The Rolls Of A Regiment. ...

Faience
Faience, A Term Applied Generally To All Kinds Of Glazed Pottery, But Properly The French Word For The Porzellana Di Faenza, A Fine Kind Of Glazed And Painted Earthenware Made In Faenza, Italy (see Pottery And Porcelain). ...

Fair Island
Fair Island. An Isolated Island Situated Between The Orkney And Shetland Islands North-east Of Scotland. It Has An Area Of Six Sq.m. And Is Of Rocky Formation. The Principal In Dustries Are Fishing, Sheep Farming And The Knitting Of Multi Coloured Garments For Which The Island Is Famous. It Is ...

Fair Oaks
Fair Oaks, A Station On A Branch (formerly Famous As The York River Railway) Of The Southern Railway, 6m. East Of Rich Mond, Virginia, U.s.a. It Is Noted As The Site Of One Of The Bat Tles Of The Civil War, Fought On May 31 And June 1, 1862, Be ...

Fair Trade
Fair Trade, The Name Given In 1881 In Great Britain To A Movement To Protect Industry From Foreign Competition By Means Of Import Duties. The Term "fair Trade" Was Coined To Express The Conception That Free Trade Was Unfair Unless Reciprocal, And That Great Britain Should Not Admit Duty Free ...

Fair
Fair. In Popular Speech Markets And Fairs Are Associated. Coke Says That Every Fair Is A Market, But Not Every Market Is A Fair, And In Terms That A Fair Is But A Great Sort Of Market. Al Though This Is Not Admitted By All As Historically True, It Has ...

Fairbanks
Fairbanks, A Town Of Alaska, Situated In 64° 50' N. And 147° W., About 25o M. Up The Tanana River (by The Windings Of The Stream) From Its Confluence With The Yukon. The Popu Lation Diminished From Three Or Four Thousand During High Gold Production To 1,155 In 1920; 193o ...

Fairbury
Fairbury, A City Of South-eastern Nebraska, U.s.a., On The Little Blue River, Tom. From The Kansas State Line; The County Seat Of Jefferson County. It Is Served By The Burlington, The Rock Island, And The St. Joseph And Grand Island Railways. The Popu Lation Was 5,454 In 1920 (94% Native ...

Fairfield
Fairfield, A City Of Jefferson County, Alabama, U.s.a., 5m. W. Of Birmingham; Served By The Birmingham Southern And The Southern Railways. The Population Was 5,003 In 1920 (46% Negroes) And Was 11,059 In 1930 By The Federal Census. It Is An Industrial Suburb, With Large Steel Plants, Coke, Freight-car, Wire, ...

Fairfield_2
Fairfield, A Town Of Fairfield County, Connecticut, U.s.a., On Long Island Sound, Adjoining Bridgeport On The West. It Is Served By The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railroad. The Population In 1920 Was 11,475, And Was 17,218 In 1930 By The Federal Census. The Town Is A Summer Resort. ...

Fairfield_3
Fairfield, A City Of South-eastern Iowa, U.s.a., On Fed Eral Highway 34 And Served By The Burlington And The Rock Island Railways; The County Seat Of Jefferson County. The Popu Latior, (95% Native White) Was 6,619 In 1930 Federal Census. It Is In A Blue-grass Country, Where Much Live Stock ...

Fairhaven
Fairhaven, A Town Of Bristol County, Massachusetts, U.s.a., On Buzzard's Bay, Opposite New Bedford; Served By The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railway. The Population In 1930 Was 10,951. It Is A Summer Resort, And Has A Number Of Fac Tories, Making Tacks, Laundry Machines, Small Yachts And Boats ...

Fairmont
Fairmont, A City Of Southern Minnesota, U.s.a., 120m. S.w. Of Minneapolis ; The County Seat Of Martin County. It Is On Federal Highway 16, And Is Served By The Chicago And North Western And The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul And Pacific Rail Ways. The Population Was 4,63o In 1920 (88% ...

Fairmont_2
Fairmont, A City Of Northern West Virginia, U.s.a., 75m. S. By W. Of Pittsburgh, At The Head Of Navigation On The Monon Gahela River; The County Seat Of Marion County. It Is On Federal Highway 19, And Is Served By The Baltimore And Ohio And The Monongahela Railways. The Population ...

Fairport Harbor
Fairport Harbor, Village, Lake County, Ohio, U.s.a., On Lake Erie, 28m. N.n.e. Of Cleveland. It Is A Port Of Entry, And Is Served By The Baltimore And Ohio Railroad And Lake Steam Ers. The Population Was 4,211 In 192o; And Was 4,972 In 193o. It Has One Of The Finest ...