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New International Encyclopedia, Volume 1

Arachnida
Arach'nida ( Gk. Dpdxf,n, Araehne, A Spicier). A Class Of Air-breathing Arthropods Including The Mites, Scorpions, Spiders, And A Few Other Less Well-known Groups. The Typical Araehuida Have The Head And The Thorax More Or Less Fused Into A "cephalothorax,” Four Pairs Of Legs, And No Antennte, The Maxillary Palps ...

Arafat
Arafat, 110un•, Or Jebel Al (11011111 Of „mercy). A Granite Hill Some Twelve Miles East Of Mecca. According To The Mohammedans, When Adam And Eve Were Cast Forth From Paradise For Eating The Wheat, Which Deprived Them Of Their Pristine Purity, Adam Fell At Ceylon, And Eve On Mount Arafat ...

Aragon
Aragon, Fu'id-gon. A Captaincy-general Of Spain And Former Kingdom, Situated In The North Eastern Part Of The Country, And Bounded On The North By The Pyrenees, Which Separate It From France, On The East By Catalonia And Va Lencia, On The South By Valentin And New Castile, And On The ...

Arakan
Arakan, Will-kiln', Or Aracan. The North Ern Division Of Lower Burma, British India, Ex Tending Along The Bay Of Bengal From About 18° To 21° 33' Northern Latitude, And Covering, With The Adjacent Islands, An Area Of 18,540 Square Miles. The Surface Is Very Mountainous In The Interior, Which Is ...

Aralia
Ara'lia (derivation Uncertain). A Genus Of Plants, The Type Of The Natural Order Aralia Eau. This Order Is Dicotyledonous, And Consists Of Trees. Shrubs, And Herbaceous Plants, Resem Tiling The Umbe!mem Both In Their General Habit And In Their Botanical Characters, But Dif Fering Essentially In The Fruit, Which Is ...

Arany
Arany, O'rii-ny', Janos ( 1817-82 ) . Next To Pettifi The Greatest Of Modern Hungarian Poets. He Was Born At Nagy-szalonta, March 1, 1817. His Parents Were Simple Peasants And Very Poor, Hut He Was Their Only Son And The Child Of Their Old Age. And They Spared No Effort ...

Ararat
Ar'arat (.ararat, In The Old Armenian Dialect A Iarat, I.e. The Plains Of The Aryans). The Ancient Name Of The Fertile Plateau Through Which Flows The River Aras, Or Araxes. Ararat Appears In The Old Testament (11. Kings Xix. 37) As The Place To Which The Sons Of Sennacherib Fled ...

Aratus
Ara'tus O;k. _1 Rates) 271 213). A Distinguished Statesman And General Of Sicyon. At The Time Of Aratus's Youth, Sieyon Was In The Hands Of Tyrants, Who Were Chiefly Partisans Of The Macedonian Kings. Clinias. The Father Of Aratus. Was An Active Supporter Of The Opposite Side, And, In The ...

Araucaria
Ar'auca'ria (from Araucania, A Territory In The South Of Chile). A Genus Of Plants Of The Natural Order Coniferfe Or Pines, Consisting Of Lofty Trees, Natives Of South America And Aus Tralasia. The Species, Of Which There Are Fifteen, Are All Evergreen. The Leaves Are Broader Than Those Of Pines ...

Arbalest
Ar'balest (lat. Areas, Bow Ballista, A Military Engine, From 17k, Pici.xxetv, Ballein, To Throw ) , .arbali St, Arcubalist, Arblast. A Weapon Of Indefinite Antiquity, Known Also As Cross-bow Or Bow-gun. Sonic Roman Forms Are Depicted On Extant Monuments, And It Was From The Romans, Possibly Indirectly, That The Arba ...

Arbitration
Ar'bitra'tion (las. Arbitratio, Judg Ment, From Arbiter, Umpire, Judge). The Submis Sion Of A Dispute, Which Might Otherwise Be The Subject-matter Of A Civil Litigation, To The De Cision Of A Private Person Instead Of A Court Of Justice. This Is Not Permitted In Criminal Cases; Nor Are The Parties ...

Arbor
Ar'bor Vi/tie (let., Tree Of Life), Thuja. A Genus Of Plants Of The Order Coni Fers, Allied To The Cypress, And Consisting Of Evergreen Trees And Shrubs With Compressed Or Flattened Bra Nchlets—small, Scale-like, Imbricated Leaves. Species Of Arbor Vita Are Found In The North Temperate Zones Of Both Hemispheres. ...

Arbuthnot
Ar'buthnot, Joux (1667-1735). A Scotch Author And Physician. The Contemporary And Friend Of Pope And Swift. He Was The Son Of An Episcopal Clergyman, And Was Born At Arbuthnot, Kincardineshire. He Studied Medi Eine At Aberdeen. But Took His Degree At Saint Andrews. Arbuthnot's Father Lost His Pre Ferment At ...

Arbuthnot_2
Arbuthnot, Mmuttur (1711-94). A Brit Ish Admiral, He Became A Commander In 1746 And A Captain In 1747; Was Commissioner Of The Navy At Halifax. N. S.. From 1775 To 1778; Became A Rear-admiral In 177g, And In 1779 Was Appointed Vice-admiral And Placed In Command Of The North American ...

Arcadia
Arca'dia (gk. 'apkacila, Arkadia). The Middle And Highest Part Of The Peloponnesus, Bounded On The North By Achaia, On The East By Argolis, On The South By Messenia And La Conia, And On The West By Elis. According To Pausanias, It Derived Its Name From Areas, The Son Of Callisto. ...

Arcesilaus
Ar'cesila'us (gk. 'apkecrixaos, Arkesilaos) (n.c. 316-241 ). A Greek Philosopher, Founder Of The Middle Academy. Be Was Born At Pitane, In ..eolis; Studied Philosophy At Athens, First. Under Theophrastus. The Peripatetic, And After Wards Under Crantor, The Academician, And Through The Latter Became Acquainted With Pole Mon And Crates, By ...

Arch Of Trajan
Arch Of Tra'jan. See Trajan, Arch Of. Archon, (11k. Ttpxwv, Arehit, Liter Ally Leader, (•hiel, From Dpxew, Archcin, To Begin. Lead, Rule). The Highest Magistrate In Athens And Other Greek Cities. As The Name Shows. It Denotes The One In Power As Opposed To 'king' (gacr/xe6s). The Athenian Archon Is ...

Archangel
Archangel. The Capital City Of The Rus Sian Government Of Archangel, Situated In Lat. 64° 33' N., And Long. 40' 33' E., On The Right Bank Of The Drina_ River, 26 Miles Above Its En Trance Into The Hite Sea, And 740 Miles North East Of Saint Petersburg (slap: Russia, ...

Archbishop
Archbishop, Iirch'bish'ilp (gk. Cipxc-, Arehi-, Chief + Erto-koros, Caiskopos, Overseer). The Title Given To A Metropolitan Bishop Who Superintends The Conduct Of The Suffragan Bishops In His Province, And Also Exercises Episcopal Authority In His Own Diocese. The Archbishop Was Profitably Originally The Bishop Of The Chief Town. The Office ...

Archdeacon
Archdeacon, Iirell'(wkcin (gk.(ipx(-,archi-, Chief Saikovos, Dialconos, Servant, Minister Of The Church). An Ecclesiastical (14,mitary Whose Jurisdiction Is Immediately Subordinate To That Of The Bishop. The Archdeacon Originally Was Simply The Chief Of The Deacons, Who Were The Attendants And Assistants Of The Bishop In Church Affairs. His Duties Consisted In ...

Archean
Archean (iir-ke'an ) System ( From Apxolbs, Arehaios, Ancient). A Name Proposed By J. D. Dana, In 1872, For The Entire Series Of Crystalline Rocks That Forms The Oldest Under Lying Fundamental Complex Of The Earth's Crust. Earlier Names Applied To This Series Were Azoie, Primitive, Huronian. And Laurentian. Of ...

Archegonium
Archegonium, Fir'1:6-g5'ni-fint (gk. Dp Arehegonos, First Of A Race, Primal). 'rice Peculiar Female Organ Of Mosses, Ferns, Coni Fers, Etc.. Which Together Are Often Spoken Of As Archegoniates. It Is A Flask-shaped Organ, Consisting Of A Neck More Or Less Elongated And A Renter More Or Less Bulbous. A Single ...

Archelaus
Archelaus, (gk. 'apxanos, Archelaos).--( ) One Of The Heraclithe Who, When Driven By His Brothers From His Native Land, Fled To Alacedonia And Founded The Town Of „ewe. He Was The Mythical Founder Of The Royal House Of A Greek Philoso Pher And Pupil Of Anaxagoras. He Was Born At. ...

Archeology
Archeology. Iir'ke-ol'i\-j1 (gk. Cipxato /vita, Arehaiologia, Antiquarian Lore, From Dpxa Os, Urchaios, Ancient + Absor, /opus, Science). The Science Of Antiquities—that Is, Of The Material Remains Of Ancient Peoples. But From The Fact That In Its Origin And Development It Has Been Primarily And Chiefly Concerned With The Ar Tistic ...

Archibald Campbell Argyll
Argyll, Archibald Campbell, Mar Quis Of (1598-1661). A Scotch Political Char Acter Of The Seventeenth Century. In His Six Teenth Year He Saw Service Under His Father, Whom He Succeeded, As Eighth Earl, In 1633. Al Ready He Had Given Proofs Of That Strength Of Re Ligious Principle Which Marked ...

Archibald Campbell Argyll_2
Argyll, Archibald Campbell, Ninth Earl Of ( ?-16s5). Eldest Son Of The Preceding. He Was Early Distinguished By Personal Accomplish Ments, And Exhibited Great Bravery On The Dis Astrous Day Of Dunbar, Where He Commanded A Regiment On The Royalist Side. After Worcester, He Continued, Like His Father, In Arms, ...

Archil
Archil, Iirtkil (of Uncertain Origin), Or Orchil, Or'kil (orseille). A Coloring Sub Stance Obtained From Various Species Of Lichens. The Archil Is Not Originally Present In The Lichens, But Is Developed By The Following Treatment : The Lichens, Collected From Rocks Near The Sea, Are Ground Into A Pulp With ...

Archilochus
Archilochus, Tir-kilttekfis (gk. 'apxaoxoe, Arehilochos). A Native Of The Island Of Paros, Who Flourished In The Seventh Century Rt.c., And Is Regarded As The First Of The Greek Lyric Poets, Although The Origin Of The Elegy Is Clainied By Camims, A Writer Whose Age Seems To Have Slightly Preceded That ...

Archimedes
Archimedes (gk. 'apvi.vjans. Archimedes) ( B.c. 287-212). A Greek Geometrician And Mechanician, The Greatest Mathematician Of An Tiquity. He Was Born In The State Of Syracuse, In The Island Of Sicily. He Studied Probably Under Conon At The University Of Alexandria, Spending The Major Part Of His Life In Sicily. ...

Archimedes Screw
Archimedes' Screw (called Also Spiral Fume). A Machine For Raising Water, Said To Have Been Invented By Archimedes, During His Stay In Egypt, For Draining And Irrigating The Land. Its Simplest Form Consists Of A Flexible Tube Bent Spirally Round A Solid Cylinder, The Ends Of Which Are Furnished With ...

Architecture
Architecture, Iiekt-16kltir (lat. Arc)ri Tect (ira, Gk. 6n Arch I T Ek T On Ia, From 6pxt-, Orchi-, Chief + Ritcrw, Tckt6sr, Worker In Wood; Carpenter. Craftsman). In Its Widest Sense This Term Includes Any Kind Of Construction, Such As Work; Of Military And Naval Architec Ture And Civil Engineering; ...

Archytas
Archytas, Iir-ki'tas (gk. The Son Of Alnesagoras, Or Ilestixus, Of Tarentum, Distinguished Philosopher, Mathematician, Gem Eral, And Statesman. He Lived In The First Half Of The Fourth Century B.c.. And Was Thus A Con Temporary Of Plato, Whose Life He Is Said To Have Saved By His Influence With The ...

Archzeopteryx
Archzeopteryx, Liekt1.-op'te-riks (gk. Cip Xaios, Arehoios, Ancient, Primitive Ptcryx, Wing, Bird). The Oldest Known Bird, Found The Jurassic Lithographic Stone Of Solenhofen, Bavaria. Where It Was Discovered In Mt. Tt Was A Creature About The Size Of A Crow, Bird-like In Form, Having A Rather Short, Blunt Beak, The Upper ...

Arctic Mammals
Arctic Mammals. The Similarity Of Species Of Arctic Mammals Throughout The Circle Of The Globe Is Even Closer Than That Of Plants. Of Land Mammals There Are But Few, And Many Of These Are Of The Same Species Wherever Found. The Polar Bear (ltrsus Maritimus) Has The Highest Range. Specimens ...

Arctic Plants
Arctic Plants. In Many Respects These Plants, Whose Natural Habitats Are In High Lati Tudes, Resemble Alpine Plants (q.v.), And, Like Them, Form One Of The Three Climatic Groups Of Xerophytes (q.v.). Dwarf Growth Is One Of The Chief Characteristics Of Arctic Vegetation, And Is Remarkably Well Illustrated In A ...

Ardrossan
Ardros'san (gael. Ard, High + Rossan, Point). A Small Seaport Town And Summer Re Sort In Ayrshire, Scotland, On The Firth Of Clyde, About 30 Miles Southwest Of Glasgow (map: Scotland, D 4). Lts Harbor, Sheltered By An Island Off The Coast, Is One Of The Safest And Most Accessible ...

Areopagus
Ar'eop'agus (gk. Apetoc Irayoc, Areios Pagos. The Hill Of Ares). A Bare, Rocky Hill At The West Of The Acropolis Of Athens, About 350 Feet High. The Ancients Explained The Name By Saying That Here Ares Had Been Tried For The Murder Of Halirrhothius, Or That The Amazons, The Worshipers ...

Arezzo
Arezzo, Ei-ret'sts (ancient Lat. At-re/turn). An Episcopal City Of Italy, The Capital Of The Pro Vince Of Arezzo, Tuscany (map: Italy. F 4). It Is Beautifully Situated On The Slope Of A Hill, 54 Miles Southeast Of Florence And 6 Miles From The Confluence Of The Chiana And The Arno. ...

Argall
Ar'gall, Sir &mum (c.1580-1626). An English Navigator, And Deputy Governor Of The Virginia Colony, Born About 1580 Or 1585. In 1609 He Was Sent To Virginia In Charge Of A Vessel, With Orders To Find A More Direct Route Than That Previously Followed, And He Succeeded In Considerably Shortening The ...

Argolis
Ar'golis (gk. 'apyoxic). A Division Of Ancient Greece. In Its Wider Sense It Is The Northeast Portion Of The Peloponnesus, Bounded On The West By Acluea, Arcadia, And Laconia ; On The North Bordering On The Corinthian And Saronic Gulfs: And Penetrated On The South By The Argotic Gulf, Which ...

Argon
Ar'gon (gk. 6pp5r, Neut. Of Apy6f Arpos, Inactive, Inert, Alluding To Its Incapacity For Entering Into Chemical Combination). A Gase Ous Element Discovered In 1895 By Lord Ray Leigh And William Ramsay, Although Cavendith Had Already Mentioned It As A Constituent Of At Mospheric Air A Century Ago. Argon Is ...

Argonauts
Ar'gonauts Ok.'apyovaitat, Argo»a Uhl I I.e. "the Sailors On The Ship Argo"). A Name Given To Those Who, Under Command Of Jason, Undertook A Voyage Famous In Greek Legend. The A Rgo Is Mentioned In The Odyssey, And Incidents Of The Story Appear In The Hesi Odic Poems. Allusions, Often ...

Arguelles
Arguelles. Hegfil•tts:, A Vg U Stine ( 1770 1844). A Spanish Politician Of The Liberal School. Lie Was Born At Rivadisella, In Asturias. On The Breaking Out Of The War Of Independence In 1808, He Went To Cadiz, Where He Agitated For The Organization Of A Regency With A Free ...

Argyll
Argyll, Iir-gil', George Joifx Douglas Campbell, Eighth Duke Of (1523-11;00). Lie Suc Ceeded His Father In 1847. At The Age Of Nineteen, While Marquis Of Lorne, He Wrote A Pamphlet Entitled .1 Letter To The Peers From A Peer's Son, On The Struggle Which Ended In The Disruption Of The ...

Arias
Arias, N'rf-es, Benedi•tus, Surnamed Mon Tanus (1527-98). A Roman Catholic Divine Noted For His Great Linguistic Attainments. He Was Born At Fregenal De La Sierra. He Studied First At Seville, And Afterwards At Alcaid De Henares, Where He Distinguished Himself By The Ardor He Manifested In The Acquisition Of The ...

Associa Tions For The
Advancement Of Science, Associa Tions For The. Important Bodies Of Scientific Men In America, Great Britain, France, And Other Countries. The Purpose Of These Associa Tions Is To Emphasize The Solidarity And Unity Of Interests Among Workers In All Branches Of Science, To Give A Stronger Impulse To Scientific Research, ...

Babylonia And Assyria
Babylonia And Assyria. Babylonian Archi Tecture Is Less Known, But There Is Enough Infor Mation About It To Show That It Reached Its Full Development As An Art Long Before The Egyptian, And That While The Latter Remained Isolated, Babylonia Stood At The Head Of A Long Architec Tural Genealogy: ...

Banking
Banking. The First Hank Established In Argen Tina Was The Ilaneo De La Provineia Buenos Ayres, Opened In 1822. It Was Followed A Number Of Other Banks, But None Of Them Managed To Exist Long, As The Insignificant Commerce Of The Country Was Not Sufficient To Maintain Such In Stitutions. ...

Bence 1836 1
Bence ( 1836-1. A Well-known Painter, Of Dutch Origin And Belgian Training, But English Resi Dence For More Than Half His Life. Lle Was Born In West Friesland January 8. 1836, And While Still A Boy Showed So Decided A Vocation For Art That He Was Sent To Antwerp To ...

Bibliography A Vp
Bibliography. A Vp Ry Good Bibliography Of The Arctic Region Is Chavanne, Aided By Karpf And Die Litteratnr Iiber Die Polar Regionen Der El-de (vienna, 1878). In This Work May Be Found The Titles. Classified, Of Most Of The Important Books That Had Been Written Up To The Time Of ...

Birliograpiiy
Birliograpiiy. Orton. The Andes And The Amazon (new York, 1870) ; Crawford, Across The Pampas And Andes (london, 1334) ; Cussfeblt, Heise In Den Asides (berlin, 1838) ; Whym Per, Travels Among The Grrat Andes Of The Equa Tor (london, 1892) ; Fitzgerald, The Highest Andes (new York, 1899) ; ...

Breeding Habits
Breeding Habits. The Eggs May Be Fertilized Internally Or Externally, Just As They Are Being Deposited In The Water. In Most Eases They Are Left To Chance, But In Some Species Are Carried In Strands, Or Otherwise Eared For By The Male Or Female. A Few Have Brood-pouches, And One ...

British Empire
British Empire, In England. The Most Im Po•tant Station Is That Established In 1843 By Sir John Ii, Lawes, At Rothamsted. With His Own Funds, And Confirmed With A Trust Fund Of £100, (100. This Station Has Done Very Valuable Work On Fertilizers And The Nutrition Of Plants And Ani ...

Bryophytes
Bryophytes. Among The Liverworts The Body Is Either A Flat Ribbon, More Or Less Branched, Or More Extended In One Direction, Producing A Band-like Form. If Branching Occurs, It Is Likely To Take Place In The Plane Of The Flattening. The Branch May Be Essentially Like The Main Axis, Or ...

Byzantine And Basilical Styles
Byzantine And Basilical Styles. But As Early As The Sixth Century The Oriental Con Structive Spirit Asserted Itself Once More In The Hellenic Provinces. And Two Sharply Contrasted Styles Henceforth Flourished Side By Side: The Byzantine Domicil Architecture In The Empire Of The East, And The Wooden-roofed Latin Basilica] Architecture ...

Causes
Causes Or Allowilon. May Be Due To Disease Of The Father, To Morbid Changes In The Ovum, To Morbid Changes In The Placenta, Or To Maternal Causes. (1) Of The Diseases Of The Father That Nay Cause Abortion, Syphilis Is The Most Important. Ilabitual Abortion Leads To The Suspicion Of ...

Charles Francis 1807 86adams
Adams, Charles Francis ( 1807-86 ) . An American Diplomat And Statesman, The Son Of President .1. Q. Adams. Ile Was Born In Boston; Spent The Years 1809 To 1817 With His Father In Europe, Chiefly In Russia And England; Prepared For College At The Boston Latin School, And Grad ...

Charles Francis Adams
Adams, Charles Francis, Jr. ( 1835—). An American Soldier, Financier, And Writer. He Is A Son Of Charles Francis Adams, And Was Born In Boston, Mass., May 27, 1835. He Grad Uated At Harvard In 1s56, Studied Law In The Office Of Richard Henry Dana, Jr., And Was Admitted To ...

Chen Ical Affinity
Affinity, Chen' Ical. The Force That Bolds In Combination The Constituent Elements Of Chemical Compounds And Eaus•s The Reactions Taking Place Between Material Substances. The Nature Of Chemical Affinity Is As Little Understood As The Nature Of Gravitation, And The Hypotheses On The Subject, Which Have Been Advanced Since The ...

Chile And Argentina
Chile And Argentina. The Broad, High Pla Teau. With Its Bordering Ranges And Subsidiary Eastern Ranges Of Bolivia, Extends Southward Into These Countries, Gradually Narrowing And Decreasing In Altitude, Until In Latitude 32° The Andes Become Reduced To A Single Range, Except For Spurs And Outliers, Most Of Which Are ...

Chromatic Aberration
Ab'erra'tion, Chromatic ( From Lat. Ah, Away + Crave, To Wander, And Gk. Xpenia, Chroma, Color, Literally Colored Deviation). A Phenomenon Observed When Images Of An Emitting White Light Are Formed By A Lens Or A Prism, It Being Observed That There Is Then Not One White Image, But Many ...

Cil Ch
Cil Ch Isopropyl Acetone Alcohol It Is Seen That The Molecule Of Acetone Contains The Same Number Of Carbon Atoms As The Molecule Of Iso-propyl Alcohol. 3. Tertiary Alcohols Cannot Be Transformed By Simple Oxidation Into A Compound Whose Mole Cule Contains The Same Number Of Carbon Atoms. In The ...

Cleveland Abbe
Ab'be, Cleveland, Ll.d. (1838-1. An American Astronomer And Meteorologist, Born In New York City. He Graduated In 1857 At The Free Academy (now The College Of The City Of New York) , And Studied Astronomy With F. Briin Now At Ann Arbor (1858-00) And With B. A. Gould At Cambridge ...

Climate
Climate. The Alpine Region Is At The Meeting Place Of The High Marine Climate Of Western Europe. The Continental Climate Of Central Europe, And The Low-latitude Marine Climate Of The Mediterranean Regions. While It Does Not Lie Directly In The Main Path Of The Cyclonic Disturbances Which Sweep Across North ...

Climate
Climate. Of All The Great Land Divisions Of The Globe, Africa Is Characterized By The Greatest Uniformity Of Climate. It Stretches Into Both The North Temperate And South Temperate Zones, But The Greater Part Of Its Area Is Included Within The Tropics; There Is Consequently A Suc Cessive Decrease Of ...

Climate And Soil
Climate And Soil. Alaska Varies In Climate And Soil According To The Divisions Above Noted, And According To Altitude And Nearness To Or Remoteness From The Sea. The Climate Of The South Coast Region. However, Is So Modified By The Shielding Mountains And The Presence Of The Ocean (where The ...

Climate_2
Climate. The Climate Of The Andes Differs Widely In Different Parts, With Latitude, Altitude, And Exposure. The Eastern Slope Of The System From The Northern End Southward To Latitude 25°, Comprising The Portions Drained By The Ori Noco And Amazon, And Lying Almost Entirely Within The Tropics, Has A Heavy, ...

Climate_3
Climate. The Annual Average Temperatures Of The Arctic Region Are Below 32° F. On The Island Of Jan Mayen, 29° F.; In Spitzbergen, 22° F. Sea Of Kara, 13° F.; Point Barrow, 8° F.; Lady Franklin Bay, 2" F. In Spitz Bergen The Average Temperatures Are In Jul,y 40' F. ...

Climate_4
Climate. The Northern Part Of Argentina Projects Well Within The Equatorial Hot Belt, While The Central And Southern Parts Extend Through The South Temperate Zone. The Peculiar Location Of Argentina, With Oceanic Conditions On The East And High Mountains On The West, Make Its Climatic Details Very Dependent On The ...

Coasts
Coasts. With Regard To The Nature Of Their Coast-lines, North And South America Present An Extraordinary Contrast. North America, In Its Extreme Irregular Coast-line And Its Great Penin Sulas, Is The Counterpart Of The Eurasiatic Con Tinent In The Old World, While South America, With Its Almost Unbroken Coast, Is ...

Colombia And Venezuela
Colombia And Venezuela. Tile Andes ,, Inate On The North In Colombia And Venezuela In Several Distinct Ranges, Which, Trending South To Southwest, Meet And Coalesce In The Pasto Knot In Southwest Colombia. The Westernmost Range Of Magnitude Is The Cordillera Occidental, Which Rises Just East Of The Mouth Of ...

Commerce
Commerce. Being An Agricultural Country, The Growth Of The Trade With The United States During The Last Half Century Is Shown By The Following Figures: Imports Into Exports From Argentina Argentina From The Into The United States. United States. 1850_ . 8800.000 $2.700.000 1860... .. 900,000 4,000,000 1870 `...500,000 6,100,000 ...

Comparative Anatomy
Anatomy, Comparative. The Science That Treats Of • The Structure Of Organisms With The Aim Of Discovering Their Evolutionary History And Of Determining What Parts Are Fundamental And Primary And What Have Undergone Modifications Due To Functional Changes. This, At Least. Has Been The Aim Of Comparative Anatomy Since The ...

Cooh Acetic Acid Ch
Acetic Acid. Ch,cooh. The Sour Prin Ciple Of Vinegar, An Acid Composed Chemically Of Carbon, Hydrogen, And Oxygen. The Commer Cial Acid Is Largely Used In The Manufacture Of Acetates, Dye-stuffs, Etc. Concentrated Acetic Acid Burns The Skin, And Is Therefore Applied As A Caustic To Remove Small Warts And ...

Count Of Pollstxdt Albert
Albert, Count Of P.ollstxdt ( E. 1193 12s0). A German Philosopher, Usually Called Al Berths :magnus, And Styled Doctor Unirersalis, Who Was Distinguished For The Extent Of Hit Ac Quirements And For His Efforts To Spread Knowl Edge, Especially Of The Works And Doctrines Of Aristotle. He Was Born At ...

Definitions
Definitions. The Word "anarchy," First Used In Its French Form By Proudhon In An Essay En Titled What 'is Property? (1840), Has Served To Designate A Group Of Theories, Some Of Them Very Old, And The Best Of Them Formulated In Definite Language By Proudhon And His Personal Followers. There ...

Didliography J
Didliography. J. Withersr D.d., Essay In The Druid, Volume Iv. ( Ph Ila Delph , 1801 ) ; J. Pickering, Vocabulary Of Words And Phrases Snpposcd To Be Peculiar To America (boston, 1816) ; J. Ii, Lowell, Introduction To The Biglow Papers (cambridge, 1s45); A. L. Elwyn, Glos Sary Of ...

Divisions
Divisions. The Appalachian Region Has Not A Uniform Conformation Throughout Its Extent, But Is Divided Into Two Sections, The Northern And The Southern Appalachians, With The Line Of Separation In Western Virginia. This Division Is Not Merely Of An Arbitrary Nature, But Is Founded On Well-marked Differences In The Structural ...

Drainage Development
Drainage Development. The Region Now Oc Cupied By The Appalachian \lountains Has Been The Scene Of Many Physiographical Changes Too Complex To Explain Here. At A Comparatively Re Cent Time, However, The Whole Of The Appalachian System Consisted Of A Great Rounded Plateau With An Elevation Of Perhaps 4000 Feet, ...

Dune Or 1508 82
De Toledo, Dune Or ( 1 508-82 Or -83). A Span Ish Genera] And Statesman. His Family Was One Of The Most Distinguished In Spain. He Was Trained By His Grandfather For War And Politics, Entered Upon A Life Of Brilliant And Intense Ac Tivity, And Became Prime Minister, And ...

Early History And Exploration
Early History And Exploration. In The Earliest Historic Times, When Civilization Centred Around The Mediterranean, Libya, As Africa Was Known To The Ancients. Was One Of The Three Great Divisions Of The Earth, Of Which Europe And Asia Were The Other Two. The Details Of Its History Are To Be ...

Earthworks
Earthworks. The Most Conspicuous Toric Works Of America Are Mounds And Other Elevations Of Earth. Such As Occur Abundantly In The Mississippi Valley; Perhaps The Best-known Examples Being Calmkia Mound. Near East Saint Louis, And The Etowah Mound In Northeastern The Mounds Range From Barely Ceptible Elevations To Two Hundred ...

Edmondo De Amicls
Amicls, Edmondo De (1846—) . One Of The Most Popular Of Living Italian Authors. He Was Born At Oneglia, In Liguria, October 21, 1846. In 1861 He Graduated From The Military Academy At Modena, With The Rank Of Sub-lieu Tenant. And Five Years Afterward Participated In The Battle Of Custozza. ...

Education
Education. Education In Alabama Is In A Very Unsatisfactory But Hopeful Condition. The Percentage Of Her Illiteracy Is Exceeded In But Three Other States. There Are Great Difficulties In The Way Of Maintaining Satisfactory Educa Tional Standards, Such Difficulties As Are Incident To The Breakdown Of An Industrial System And ...

Egypt
Egypt. In Respect To Historic Development, Egypt And Babylonia—the Valleys Of The Nile, And Of The Tigris And Euphrates—are Rivals For Seniority In The Field. Which They Seem To Have Held Alone For One Or More Thousand Years, While The Rest Of The World Went Without Architecture. It Is True ...

Emilio Aguinaldo
Aguinaldo, Emilio (1870—). The Leader Of Filipino Insurrections Against Spain And The United States. Ile Was The Young Est Of Three Children, And Was Educated, First, In His Native Town, And Afterward At The College Of San ,tuan De Letrin In Manila. At This Institu Tion, Which Is Conducted By ...

England 111
England. 111 The Sixteenth Century Agricul Ture In England Became More Profitable, Inelos Ures Were Made, And The Rights Of Common Were Greatly Restricted. Hops Were Introduced From Holland. Turned From The Former Wool Expor Tation, The Farmers Began To Raise Wheat In Large Quantities To He Sent Out Of ...

Eryptian
Eryptian Acrici`ltt'ile. I 11 The De Velopment Of Agriculture In Historical Times We Oat Orally Torn First To Egypt, The Motherland Of Our Civilization. The Records Preserved On Ancient Monuments Allow Is To Trace The His Tory Of Agriculture In Egypt Back To At Least 3000 Ft.c. At That Early ...

Ethnography
Ethnography. The Afghans, Or Pathans, Speaking A Language Called Bakhtu, Or Pushtu, Form Three-fifths Of The Population Of Afghanis Tan. They Are Of Mixed Ancestry, Although The Indic Affinities Of Their Language Indicate A Preponderance Of Aryan Blood Of The Mediter Ranean Stock. They Are Not Semites, As Some Authorities ...