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New International Encyclopedia, Volume 16

Puppet Of
Puppet (of. Poupette, Doll. From Lat. Pupa, Doll, Puppet ). A Small Jointed Figure, Com Monly Of Wood Or Cardboard, Representing A Char Acter On The Stage Of A Puppet Theatre. And Moved With Strings, Or Iron Rods, O• Otherwise By A Con Cealed Agent. Fo• The Dialogue In This ...

Purana
Purana, Puoernna. (skt., Ancient Lore). The Name Of A Class Of Late Poetic Hindu Works Of Mixed Cosmogonics Epic. And Didactic Character. The Word Pu-nnnn Occurs Frequently In The Prose Texts Of The Veda As A Designation Of The Veda's Own Eosmogonic And Legendary Lore; The Name Is Also Given ...

Purgatives
Purgatives (lat, Porgatiros, Cathartic, From Porgare, To Cleanse, From Pains, Pure Agere, To Drive, To Do). Medicines Which. Within A Comparatively Short Time After Administration, Produce A More Or Less Fluid Evacuation Of The Bowels. These Drugs Act Partly By Stimulating The Peristaltic Motion (q.v.) Of The Intestine, Whereby The ...

Purim
Purim. One Of The Later Jewish Festivals, For Which The Jewish Church Accepts The Book Of Esther As The Historical Basis. According To This Book, The Festival Was Instituted To Com Memorate The Deliverance Of The Jews Of Persia From A Massacre With Which They Were Threatened In The Days ...

Puritans
Puritans (from Lat. Puritas, Purity, From Gurus, Pure). A Party Title, Originally A Nick Name Which Came Into Use About 1564, To Desig Nate That Section Of The Church Of England Which Desired A More Thorough Reformation Of The Church Than Was Effected Under Elizabeth, As Such Reformation Was Understood ...

Purple Colors
Purple Colors. Painters In Oil And Water Colors Produce The Different Shades Of Purple By The Admixture Of Red And Blue. Dyers Obtain This Color From Various Sources, All Of Which Are Curious And Interesting. From A Very Early Period, Purple Has Been One Of The Most Highly Prized Of ...

Purple Shell
Purple-shell. A Gastropod Mollusk Of The Genera Murex And Purpura, Whose Secretions Give A Purple Stain. Certain Other Mollusks, As ,lanthina And Aplysia, Yield A Violet-hued Liquor, While Others, As Area, Pour Forth Red Blood. The Discovery And Use Of This Color Are Prehistoric And Myths Have Arisen To Explain ...

Purpura
Pur'pura ( Lat., From Gk. 7rop4tipa, Porphyra, Purple-tish . Purple Dye). The Term Applied To A Diseased Condition In Which A Number Of Hemor Rhages Occur Under The Skin, So As To Produce Blotches Of A More Or Less Purple Color. These Spots Vary From One To Four Millimeters In ...

Pururavas
Pururavas. Pbterivra-vas. A Legendary King Of Ancient India, Renowned For His Kingly Virtue, And Personal Beauty, And Still More Fa Mous On Account Of His Love For The Apsaras, Or Celestial Betzera Urvagi. Seeing Pururavas, And Seen By Him, Their Mutual Love Was Sealed On Condition That He Would Never ...

Pushkin
Pushkin. Ptish'kt-n. Alexander Sergeye Vitch (1709-1837). The Greatest Poet Of Russia. He Was Born At Moscow Of A Noble Family, In Heriting African Blood From A Maternal Ancestor. According To The Fashion Of The Time. His Educa Tion At Home Was Purely French, And His Knowl Edge Of Russia Was ...

Pussy
Pussy, Pb'zi, Edward Bouverie (1800-82). A Distinguished English Divine And Leader Of The Oxford Movement. He Was Born At Pusey House, In Berkshire, August 22, 1800. He Was The Sec Ond Son Of The Hon. Philip Bouverie, Who Changed His Name To Pusey As A Condition Of His Succes Sion ...

Putnam
Putnam, Geonoe Palmer (1814-72). A Grandnephew Of Israel Putnam, And A New York Publisher. Lie Was Born In Brunswick, Sic., Feb Ruary 7, 1814. At Fourteen He Entered The Bookstore Of 1). And Leavitt, New York. In 1840 He Became Partner In The House Of Wiley & Putnam, Of Which ...

Putnam_2
Putnam, Ilrfus (1738-1824). An American Soldier. He Was Born In Sutton, Mass.; Was A Millwright's Apprentice There From 1754 To 1757; Enlisted As A Private Soldier For Service In The French And Indian War In 1757; And Became An Orderly Sergeant In 1759 And An Ensign In 1760. While An ...

Puvis De Chavannes
Puvis De Chavannes, Pn'ves' De Sha& Van', Pierre ( 1824-98 ) . The Leading Mural Paint Er Of France In The Nineteenth Century. He Was The Creator Of Modern Mural Painting, Which He Restored To Its Real Function, That Of Decoration. Born At Lyons, December 14, 1824, The Son Of ...

Py1emia
Py1emia (neo-lat., From Gk. Rtiov, Pyon, Pus + At,ua, Hainm, Blood). This Term And That Used To Designate The Closely Allied Condition, Septica-inia, Originated Before The Idea Of Bac Teria As The Etiological Factor In The Diseases, Was Developed. They Have Become So Fixed In Medic-al Nomenclature, However, That They ...

Pygmies
Pygmies (lat. Pyymwas. From Gk. Tle-,12a7os, Pilgmaios, Pygmy, Dwarf, Of The Length From The Elbow To The Knuckles, From 7ru-/a7), Pyyno'. Meas Ure From The Elbow To The Knuckle,. List; Connect Ed With Lat. Pit Yn Us, Ti,t ) . A Dwarf Negroid Population Of Equatorial Africa Acro,s The Eon ...

Pyramid
Pyramid. A Solid Structure, Usually Of Stone, Having A Square Base And Triangular Sides Meeting In An Apex. True Pyramids Are Found Only In Middle Egypt, And Date From The Period Between The Fourth And Twelfth Dynasties, Though A Few May Be Somewhat Older. Pyramidal Occur Elsewhere. But They Differ ...

Pyrenees
Pyrenees, Piee-nez. A High Mountain Chain Of Europe Extending From The Southeast Corner Of The Bay Of Biscay To The Mediterranean. The Cantabrian Mountains Of The North Coast Of Spain Are A Continuation Of The Pyrenees, So That The Entire Mountain System Extends From Cape Creus In The Mediterranean To ...

Pyrheliometer
Pyrhe'liom'eter (from Gk. Rip, Pyr, Fire + Inlios, Sun Par Pow, Met Run, Ure). The Name Given By Pouillet To An Instru Ment Devised By Him Fur The Purpose Of Measur Ing The Amount Of Heat Received From The Sun In A Unit Of Time By A Unit Surface. This ...

Pyrite
Pyrite (lat. Pyrites, From Gk. Repirr, Flint. Millstone, Relating To Fire, From Rilp, Pyr, Fire). An Iron Disulphide That Crystallizes In The Isometric System, Has A Metallic Lustre, And Is Of A Brass-yellow Color. It Is Widely Dissemi Nated, Occurring In Rocks Of All Kinds And Of All Ages, Sometimes ...

Pyrometer
Pyrometer (from Gk.7riip, Pyr, Fire + Airpov, Metron, Measure). An Instrument Used For Measuring High Temperatures Where The Or Dinary Mercurial Thermometer Is Not Available, As Mercury Boils At 358° Centigrade. The First Pyrometer Was That Invented By The Dutch Physi Cist Mussehenbroek, About 1725, And Consisted Of A Metallic ...

Pyrotechny
Pyrotechny, Piefl-telleni (from Gk. Viip, Pyr, Fire 1-1xpn, Techne. Art). The Art Of Ing Fireworks. The Origin Of Pyrotechny Is Un Known, But The Art Was Early Practiced In The East And Has Attained To The Highest Degree Of Perfection Among The Chinese And Japanese. Al Though Inflamma-ble Compositions, Known ...

Pyrrhus
Pyrrhus, Pir'rs (lat., From Gk. Hepp6s) (0.318-272 N.c•). A King Of Epirus, Son Of ..eaci Dcp, And Plahia, And A Distant Kinsman Of Alex Ander The Great. According To One Account He Was A Descendant Of Neoptolonms (otherwise Called Pyrrhus), Son Of Achilles. When _eaeides Was Deposed By A Faction ...

Pythagoreanism
Pyth'ago'reanism. The Philosophical System Advocated By The Followers Of Pythagoras. No Point In Greek Philosophy Is More Disputed Than The Proper Interpretation Of Pythagorean Ism. According To Zeller's Exposition "the Pytha Gorean System Started From The Proposition That All Is, In Its Essence. Number. From This Results The Doctrine Of ...

Pythaworas
Pythaworas (lat.. From Gk. Ltu0a76par). A Traditionally Famous Greek Philosopher And Geometer, Born At Samos, Probably In The 49th Olympiad (n.c. 584-5l). He Was The Son Of Mnosarplins, And Is Said To Have Been The Pupil Of Pherecydes. Ile Had Become Knotut Ill Ionia As A Man Of Great Learning ...

Pythian Games
Pythian Games (lat. Pythia, From Gk. Llu$la). The Second Of The Four Great National Festivals Of The Greeks, Held In The Crissamn Plain, Near Delphi. Their Origin Was Attributed To Apollo, In Celebration Of His Destruction Of The Dragon Python. At First They Were Celebrated Under The Superintendence Of The ...

Quadrature
Quadrature (lat. Quadrat Ura, From Quadrare, To Square, From Quadra. Quadrus. Square, From Quatt Nor, Four). In Mathematics, The Process Of Determining The Area Of A Surface. The Term Comes From The Conception That We Find A Square Whose Area Is Equal To That Of A Given Surface. The Quadrature ...

Quaglio
Quaglio, Kwitlyti. An Italian-german Fam Ily Of Artists, Originally From Labia, Near Lake Como, And Afterwards Residents Of Austria And Bavaria. The Family Produced Several Genera Tions Of Painters, Etchers, Lithographers, And Architects, All Eminent In Their Respective Branches. The Earliest On Record Is Glum°, Born At Como, 1601, Who ...

Quail Of
Quail (of. Quaine, Fr. Coillc, From Ml. Quaquila, From Mdutch Quakcle, (packet, Quail, From Quicken, Dutch &waken, To Quack; Onoma Topoetic In Origin). Originally And Strictly, A Small Game Bird Of The Old World Of The Genus Coturnix, Nearly Allied To Partridges. But Having A More Slender Bill, A Shorter ...

Quarantine
Quarantine Tit. Quarantina, From .11l. Quarantrna, Period Of Forty Days Quarantine. Ber Forty. Lent, From Lat. Quadrayinta, For Ty). Originally, The Period Of Forty Days Dur Ing Which A Ship Arriving In Port And Sus Pected Of Being Infected With A Contagions Or Malignant Disease Was Forbidden To Land Freight ...

Quarrying Of Quarry
Quarry, Quarrying (of. Quarriere, Pr. Carriere, From Ml. Quadraria, Quarry, Place Where Stones Are Squared, From Lat. Quadratus, P.p. Of Quadrare, To Square). The Open Excava Tion From Which Any Useful Stone Is Taken For Building And Engineering Purposes Is Called A Quarry; The Operations Required To Obtain Rock In ...

Quarter Crack
Quarter-crack. A Form Of Sandcrack, A Disease Of The Horse; Specifically A Vertical Crack On The Lateral Part Of The Wall Of The Foot. When The Crack Is Directly In Front It Is Called A Toe Crack. Toe Cracks Are Most Common In The Hind Feet, While Quarter-cracks Nearly Always ...

Quartermaster
Quartermaster. In The United States Army, A Commissioned Officer Serving In The Quar Termaster's Department At An Army Post Or In A Regiment : In Which Latter Instance He Is A Regimental Officer, Usually Of Lieutenant's Rank, Detailed By The Commanding Officer To Perform The Duties Of Regimental Quartermaster. He ...

Quartet
Quartet (it. Guartetto, From Marto, Lat. Quartos, Fourth, From Quattuor, Four). A Con Certed Composition For Four Voices Or Instruments, In Which All The Parts Are Real, I.e. No One Can Be Omitted Without Injuring The Proper Effect Of The Whole. As Early As The Fifteenth Century Four Part Writing ...

Quartz Aihg
Quartz (aihg. Quart, Ger. Quar:, Rock Crystal, Quartz). A Mineral Composed Of Silica Or Silicon Dioxide, Crystallizing In The Hexagonal System. It Is Very Hard, Scratching Glass Readily, And Has A Specific Gravity Of From 2.5 To 2.8. De Pending Upon The Amount Of Impurity Present. When Pure It Is ...

Quasi
Quasi (lat., As If, As It Were) Contract. This Is A Generic Term In Law, Of Modern Origin, Invented To Denote All Those Obligations To Pay Money Which Do Not Ari*e From Either True Con Tract Or Tort. (see Contract.) The Distinction Between True Contracts And Quasi Contracts Lies In ...

Quaternions
Quaternions (lat. Quaternio, Group Of Four, From Quaterni, Four Each). A Branch Of Mathematics Invented By Sir William Rowan Hamilton (q.v.) In The First Half Of The Nine Teenth Century. It Extehds The Idea Of Complex Numbers (see Complex Numnr.k) To Three-dimen Sional Space, And Besides Being Interesting As A ...

Quatrefages De Breau
Quatrefages De Breau, Dr Brti'4',. Jean Louts Anmaxii Tic (1810-92). A French Naturalist, Born At Berthezene (gard). He Was Educated At Strassburg Where He Ob Tained A Doctorate In Medicine In 1832, Began Practice At Toulouse. And Established There The Journal De Ci De Chirnrgie De Toulouse. From 1838 To ...

Quatremere
Quatremere, Kfil'temar', Etienne Marc (1782-1857). A Learned French Orientalist. Born In Paris. He Studied At The College De France Under The Celebrated Araldst Silvestro De Saey, And In 1807 Was Employed In The Manuscript Department Of The L'ibliotbeque Implsriale. In 1809 He Became Professor Of Greek In The College Of ...

Quay
Quay, Kwei. Matthew Stanley ( 1833-1904) . An American Politician. Horn In Dillsburg, York County, Pa. He Graduated At Jefferson College In 1850, Studied Law, And Was Admitted To The Bar In 1854. During The Civil War He Was Suc Cessively Assistant Commissary-general Of The State, Colonel Of The 134th ...

Quebec
Quebec. The Capital Of The Province Of Quebec, And The Oldest City In Canada, In Latitude 46° 48' N.. Longitude 71° 12' \v., Iso Miles North Eastof Montrea1,430 Miles North-northeast Of New York (nap: Quebec, E 4). Quebec Is Situated On A Promontory Called Cape Diamond. Named From The Prevalence ...

Quebec Act
Quebec Act. An Act Of The English Parlia Ment Passed In 1774 Providing A Government For The Province Of Canada, Which Had Been Acquired By The Treaty Of Paris Of 1763. The Three Fea Tures Of The Act Which Have Called Forth The Most Extended Discussion Were: (1) The Extension ...

Queen Annes War
Queen Anne's War. 'fite Name Com Monly Given To That Part Of The Struggle Known As The War Of The Spanish Succession Which Was Fought In America. In America The War Began In The Fall Of 1702 By An Unsuccessful Expedition From South Carolina Against The Spaniards In Saint Augustine. ...

Queensland
Queens'land. A State Of Australia, Oc Cupying The Northeastern Part Of The Continent. It Is Bounded On The North By The Gulf Of Car Pentaria And Torres Strait, On The East By The Pacific Ocean, On The South By New South Wales, And On The West By South Australia (map: ...

Quesnay
Quesnay, Fraxgots (1694-1774). A French Economist, Born At Mere. He First Distinguished Himself As A Surgeon And Physician. His Observations Sur Les Cffcts De La Saignee (1730). In Which He Success Fully Opposed The Theories Of Bleeding Of The Leading Contemporary Authority, Led To His Selection As Secretary Of The ...

Quesnel
Quesnel, Kivd61', Pasquier (1634-1719). A French Jansenist Theologian. He Was Horn In Paris, July 14. 1634. And Having Been Educated In The Sorbonne. Entered The Congregation Of The Oratory (q.v.) In 1657. At The Age Of Twenty Eight He Was Appointed Director Of The Paris House Of His Congregation. It ...

Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl. The Tra Dition:11 Beneficent Hero King Of The Aztecs (q.v.) And The Originator Of Their Earliest Culture. The Meaning Of The Name Is Disputed. But The Most Probable Interpretation Seems To Be 'the Admir Able Twin.' Although It May Have Reference To One Adorned With The Green Plumes Of ...

Quevedo Y Villegas
Quevedo Y Villegas, Ka-vaqh1 Vt?-lyil' Gfis, Francisco De (15s0-1645). A Spanish An Thor. He Was Born In Madrid. Studied At Alcala De Henares. And Became Versed In Theology, Law. Hebrew. Greek. Arabic, And Latin. As Well As In Modern Languages. Although A Cripple And De Fective In Eyesight, He Figured ...

Quichuan Stock
Quichuan Stock. A Linguistic Group Of Which The Quichua (q.v.) Are The Most Noted Representatives, And Including Most Of The Ancient Or Existing Tribes Along The Pacific Coast And In The Andes Region Of South America From About 2° N.. On The Southern Border Of Colombia. To About 32° S. ...

Quietism
Quietism (neo-lat. Quietists, From Lat. Quies, Quiet, Rest). A Name Applied To The Tenets Of A Somewhat Numerous Class Of Mystical Sects, Who, In Different Ages And From The Earliest Christian Times, Have Held That The Most Perfect State Of The Soul Is One Of Quiet Iu Which It Ceases ...

Quincy
Quin'cy. A City And The Eounty-seat Of Adams County, Ill., 265 Miles Southwest Of Chi Cago; On The Mississippi River, Here Spanned By A Splendid Railway Bridge, And On The Wabash, The Chicago, Burlington And Quincy, And The Quincy, Omaha And Kansas City Railroads (map: Illinois, A 4). It Is ...

Quincy_2
Quincy. A City, Including Within The Mu Nicipal Limits Several Villages, In Norfolk County, Mass., Adjoining Boston On The South; On Quincy Bay, Between The Neponset River On The North And Fore River On The South; And On The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railroad (map: Massachusetts, E 3). ...

Quinet
Quinet, Ka'nfi.', Edgar (1s03-75). A French Poet, Publicist, And Historian Of Literature. Born At Bourg, February 17. 1803. He Was Educated For The Army. Hut Refusing A Soldier's Life, He Published At Twenty His Justification In Les Tab Lettes Du Juif Errant (1823). His Next Work Was A Translation Of ...

Quinsy
Quinsy ( Formerly Also (piney, Squinty, From Of. Squinaneie, Esquinance. Fr. Esqn Inancle, From Lat. Eynanche, From Gk. Kynanche, Sort Of Sore Throat, From K6cop, Kyon, Dog + 67xecp, Anchein, To Choke). An Acute Inflammation Of The Loose Tissue Surrounding The Tonsil. Termi Nating Usually In Suppuration. Quinsy Is Most ...

Quintana
Quintana, Kn-tii!na, Manuel Jost (1772 1857). A Spanish Author And Statesman, Born At Madrid. He Studied At Salamanca, And Became A Lawyer In Madrid, Where His House Was A Resort Of The Advanced Liberals Of The Time. Among His Earliest Productions Were His Patriotic "odes." Which Gave Him A Place ...

Quintilian Marcus Fabius Quintil
Quintil'ian (marcus Fabius Quintil Ianus) (c.35-c.97 A.d.). A Roman Rhetorician, Born At Calagurris (the Modern Calahorra), In Spain. He Attended In Rome The Lectures Of Domitius Alm Who Died In 59. After This Date, However, He Revisited Spain, Whence He Returned In Gs To Rome, In The Train Of Galba, ...

Quito
Quito, Ke't6. The Capital Of Ecuador. It Is Situated 0° 14' South Of The Equator On A Lofty Plateau 9300 Feet Above The Sea (map: Ecuador, B 4). The Location Is Of Almost Unrivaled Grand Eur. The Plateau Is Bounded On All Sides By Lofty Mountains, From Which Rise In ...

Quo Warranto
Quo Warranto (lat., By What Warrant). A Legal Action Or Proceeding Brought To Deter Mine The Right Of An Individual Or Corporation To A Public Office, Franchise, Or Privilege, And To Have A Usurper Removed By Order Of A Court Of Com Petent Jurisdiction. This Remedy Is Said To Have ...

Quorum
Quorum (lat., Of Whom, Abbreviation Of The :mr. Phrase Quorum J. B. ?intim Cssc Rolumus, Of Whom We Wish A. B. To Be Nit.). .1 Legal And Parliamentary Term Denoting The Number Of Members Of A Public Or Private Assembly Whose Presence Is Necessary For The Transaction Of Business. In ...

Rabbit
Rabbit (connected With Dialectic Pr. Ra Both., Oduteh Robbe, Dutch Rob, Rabbit, Ger. Itobbe, Seal). A European Animal (lepus Cuni Eulus) Of The Same Genus As The Hare, But Smaller, And With Shorter And More Equal Limbs, Which Differs Essentially From All Hares In The Fact That The Young Are ...

Rabelais
Rabelais, Ta'b'-11)!, Francois ( C.1490 C.1553). A Great French Satirist And Humorist, Born At Chinon, In Touraine. Rabelais's Life Is Surrounded By Legend. Even The Year Of His Birth And The Occupation Of His Father Are Matters Of Doubt, Like The Year Of His Death And His Burial. Place. The ...

Raccoon
Raccoon (from American Indian Aratheone, Arrathkune, Raccoon). A Small American Carni Yore (procyon Lotor). Closely Related To The Hears. The Family (proeyonidte) Is American, With The Single Exception Of The Himalayan Genus .elurus. (see Panda.) The Raccoon Is To Be Found All Over The Wooded Parts Of Temperate North Amer ...

Rachel
Rachel (heb. Roo, Ewe). A Daughter Of Laban, The Favorite Wife Of Jacob (gen. Xxxix. 6 Sqq., 30), Mother Of Joseph Xxx. 22 Sqq.) And Benjamin (ib. Xxxv. 16 Sqq.). Jacob Served Laban Seven Years For Her, And Then, Receiving Leah In Her Stead, Was Obliged To Serve Seven Years ...

Rachel_2
Rachel, Ra'sheli, Mlle. (1821-58). A Cele Brated French Tragic Actress, Whose Real Name Was Elisabeth Rachel-felix. She Was Born Of Jewish Parents At An Inn In The Swiss Village Of 3iumpf. Her Father Was A Peddler. The Family Settled For A Time At Lyons. Where She And Her Elder Sister ...

Racine
Racine, R5-sen'. A City And The County-seat Of Racine County, Wis., 23 Miles Of Milwaukee And 62 Miles North Of Chicago, On Lake _michigan, At The Month Of The Root River, And On The Chicago And Northwestern, And The Chicago. Milwaukee And Saint Paul Railroads (slap: Wisconsin, F 6). It ...

Racine
Racine, Rn'sonf, Jean ( 1639-99). The Great Est Of French Tragic Poets, Born December 21, 1639, At La Perte-milon. He Received His Pri Mary Education In Beauvais, At A School Affiliated With The Jansenists, Of Port-royal Then He Passed At Fifteen To The More Immediate Direction Of The Port-royalist Teachers ...

Radcliffe
Radcliffe, Jonx (16501714). A Cele Brated English Physician, And The Founder Of The Radcliffe Library At Oxford. Born At Wakefiell, In Yorkshire, And Instructed In Greek And Latin At The Grammar School Of His Native Town, At The Age Of Fifteen He Was Sent To University College, Oxford. In 1672 ...

Radetzky
Radetzky, Ra-dets'ke, Joseph Wenzel, Count (1766:1858). An Austrian Field-marshal, Horn In Trzebnitz, Bohemia. In 1784 He Became A Cadet In An Hungarian Cavalry Regiment. His First Campaign Was Against The Turks In 1788-89. He Fought In The Wars Of The French Revolution And The Napoleonic Wars, Attaining The Rank Of ...

Radiation
Radiation (lat. Radiatio, A Shining, From Radiare. To Shine, From Radius, Ray). The Name To The Quantity Of Energy Carried By Ether Waves Or Sometimes Simply The Waves Themselves, Since Wave-motion Involves Both The Vibration And The Displacement Of The Medium Carrying The Waves, There Is Always Both Kinetic And ...

Radicalism
Radicalism (from Radical, From Lat. Radi Ealis, Relating To A Root, Radical, From Radix, Root ; Connected With Gk. Isciat, Rhad-ix, Root, I3d.5akcvor, Rhadainnos, Branch, Goth. Wafirts, Root, Ohg. Mn; Ger. Wurz, As. U-yrt, Eng. Wort, Weed). In Modern History Generally, The Temper Of Mind Which Is Most Opposed To ...

Radioactivity
Radioactivity. The Name Given To The Property Which Uranium, Thorium, And Other Bodies To Be Described Presently Have Of Sending Out Certain Radiations Spontaneously. Imme Diately After The Discovery Of X-rays By Profes Sor R6ntgen In 1895 Many Physicists Began Investigations In Order To See Whether Phosphores Cent Bodies In ...

Radiolairia
Ra'diolairia (neo-lat. Nom. P1., From Lat. Radiolus, Diminutive Of Radius, Ray). A Group Of Minute Marine Animals Forming An Order Of Rhizopodous Protozoa (q.v.). About 85 Families, Including Many Thousand Species, Are Known, Most Of Them Microscopic. They Live In The Surface Water Of The Ocean And Their Shells, After ...

Radiometer
Radiometer (from Lat. Radius, Ray + Gk. La(rpov, Metron, Measure). An Instrument Invented By Crookes And Improved By Pringsheim And E. F. Nichols. It Consists Essentially Of A Framework Carrying One Or More Mica Vanes Supported And Free To Turn Around An Axis In An Inclosed Space From Which Prac ...

Raeburn
Raeburn, Ra'burn, Sir (1756-1823). A Scottish Portrait Painter. Ile Was Born At Stockbridge, Near Edinburgh, 141arch 4, 1756, And At The Age Of Fifteen Was Apprenticed To A Gold Smith At Edinburgh, Painting Wafer-color Minia Tures During His Leisure Hours. From David Martin, A Local Portrait Painter, Lie Received Sonic ...

Raffaelli
Raffaelli, Rfi'fa'1v, Jean Francois ( 1850— ). A French Painter, Sculptor, And Etcher, Born In Paris. He Began His Career As A Singer, Then Studied Art Under Gorome, And First Exhibited In 1870. But Be Did Not Fully Reveal Himself Until An Exhibition Of His Works Held In 1884, For ...

Raffles
Raffles, Sir Thomas Stamford (1781 A British Colonial Administrator, Born At Sea Off The Island Of Jamaica, On Board The Ship Commanded By His Father. At The Age Of Fourteen Lie Got Employment In The East India House As An Extra Clerk. He Soon Attracted Attention, And In 1805 Received ...

Ragnarok
Ragnarok, In Scandinavian Mythology, The End Of The World, And The Fall Of The Gods Before The Combined Demon Hosts Of The World. The Word Ragnarok Really Means 'judgment Of The Gods.' Hut It Has Been Conceived Sophistically To Mean 'twilight Of The Gods.' And As The (totter Diimmerung Has ...

Ragusa
Ragusa, Rii-grcilzit (slay. Dubrovnik). A Historic Town And Fortified Seaport In The Crown Mild Of Dalmatia. Austria, Situated At The Foot Of San Sergio, 50 Miles South-southeast Of Nos Tar (map: Austria, F 5). It Is A Walled City V. Ith Many Towers And Intersected By The Corso, Once An ...

Rahn
Rahn, Ran, Johann Rudolf (1841—). A Swiss Art-historian, Born At Zurich. After Study Ing At The Universities Of Zurich, Bonn. And Ber Lin And Investigating In Italy The Art-monuments Of The Early Christian Era, He Established Himself As Privat-docent In His Native City, Where He Was Appointed Professor At The ...

Rail Of
Rail (of. Male, Rasle, Fr. Rd/c, Rail, Rattling In The Throat, From Of. Roller, Fr. Ruler, To Rattle Iu The Throat, From Sldutch Ratelcn, Ger. Rasseln, To Rattle: Connected With Gk. Xpalialvetv, Kra Dainein, To Swing: So Called From Its Cry). A Bird Of The Subfamily Rallimp, Especially Of The ...

Railway Brotherhoods
Railway Brotherhoods. Organiza Tions Of Railway Employees For The Protection Of Their Interests And The Advancement Of Their Condition In So Far As Dependent On Them Selves. The First Five Organizations Described Below Are Commonly Referred To In The Trade Union World As 'the Great Railroad Brother Hoods;' And They ...

Railway Capitalization
Railway Capitalization. Much Of The Finan Cial Difficulty Under Which A Good Many Ameri Can Railways Have Labored Has Been The Direct Outgrowth Of Speculation, In Which The Proper Ties Have Frequently Been Practically Wrecked. Merely To Effect Deals In The Stock Market, And Roads Which Have Been The Subject ...

Railway Management
Railway Management. Railway Manage Ment In The United States Is Primarily Under The Control Of The Directors Of The Railway Companies, Who Are Elected By The Stockholders. A Presi Dent Is The Chief Executive Officer Of A Railway, And The Other Officers Are Generally One Or More Vice-presidents, A Treasurer ...