Home >> Encyclopedia-britannica-volume-01-a-anno >> Adiaphorists to Aelian Aelianus

Encyclopedia Britannica

Loading


Adiaphorists
Adiaphorists, The Name Of A Party In The Religious Con Troversies Of The 16th Century In Germany. The Adiaphorist Controversy Among Lutherans Was An Issue Of The Provisional Scheme Of Compromise Between Religious Parties, Drawn Up By Charles V., Sanctioned At The Diet Of Augsburg, May 1548, And Known As ...

Adige
Adige, River, North Italy. The Adige Rises In Small Lakes On The Resia (reschen Scheideck) Pass (4,9o2ft.), And Near Glorenza Is Joined By Tributaries Where Roads Over The Ofen And Stelvio Passes Fall In. It Flows E. To Merano, And S.e. To Bolzano, Where It Receives The Isarco (6ft.), And ...

Adipocere
Adipocere, A Substance Into Which Animal Matter Is Some Times Converted (from The Lat. Adeps, Fat, And Cera, Wax), And So Named By A. F. Fourcroy, From Its Resemblance To Both Fat And Wax. When The Cimetiere Des Innocens At Paris Was Removed In 1786-87, Great Masses Of This Substance ...

Adipose Tissue
Adipose Tissue Is Composed Of Specialized Connective Tissue Cells Which Contain Large Globules Of Fat. The Chief Chemical Constituents Of This Fat Are The Neutral Glycerol Esters Of Stearic, Oleic And Palmitic Acids. The Fat Stored In These Cells Comes In Part Directly From The Fats Eaten, And In Part ...

Adirondacks
Adirondacks, A Group Of Mountains In North-eastern New York, U.s.a., In Clinton, Esser, Franklin And Hamilton Counties, Often Included By Geographers In The Appalachian System, But Pertaining Geologically To The Laurentian Highlands Of Canada. Unlike The Appalachians, The Adirondacks Do Not Form A Connected Range, But Consist Of Many Summits, ...

Adit
Adit. An Adit Is The Name Given To A Horizontal Working Made From The Surface To Strike A Seam Of Coal Or A Mineral Vein. Other Names For An Adit Are "day Drift," "day Hole" Surf (forest Of Dean), "sough" (lead Mines Of Derbyshire), "water-gates" (north Of England), "sorre" (yorkshire), ...

Adjective Law
Adjective Law. This Term Means The Law Of Procedure And Distinguishes It From The Substantive Law Which It Is Designed To Enforce, The Former Being Viewed As The Machinery By Means Of Which The Latter Is Brought Into Operation. ...

Adjective
Adjective, A Word Used Chiefly In Its Grammatical Sense Of Limiting Or Defining The Noun To Which It Refers (lat. Ad-jacio, To Throw To). Grammarians Used To Speak Of A Noun And Its Adjective Together As A Noun-adjective. In The Art Of Dyeing, Adjective Colours Are Those Which Require Mixing ...

Adjournment
Adjournment, The Act Of Postponing A Meeting Of Any Private Or Public Body, Particularly Of Parliament, Or Any Business, Until Another Time, Or Indefinitely (in Which Case It Is An Adjourn Ment Sine Die). The Word Applies Also To The Period During Which The Meeting Or Business Stands Adjourned. ...

Adjudication
Adjudication, Generally A Trying Or Determining Of A Case By The Exercise Of Judicial Power; A Judgment. In A More Technical Sense, In English And American Law, An Adjudication Is An Order Of The Bankruptcy Courts By Which A Debtor Is Adjudged Bankrupt And His Property Vested In A Trustee. ...

Adjunct
Adjunct, That Which Is Joined On To Another, Not An Essen-, Tial Part, And Inferior To It In Mind Or Function, But Nevertheless Amplifying Or Modifying It. (lat. Ad, To, Jungere, To Join.) Adverbs And Adjectives Are Adjuncts To The Words They Qualify. Twelve Members Of The Royal Academy Of ...

Adjutant Bird
Adjutant Bird, The Name Given To Large Storks Of The Genus Leptoptilus, Distinguished By Their Dull Plumage, Black Scab Rous Head And Enormous Pouch, Of Doubtful Function, Connected With The Respiratory System. The Largest Is L. Dubius Of India. It Feeds On Offal, Frogs And Fish, And Is A Most ...

Adjutant General
Adjutant-general, An Army Official, Originally (as Indicated By The Word) The Chief Assistant (lat. Adjuvare) Staff Officer To A General In Command, But Now A Distinct High Function Ary At The Head Of A Special Office In The British And American War Departments. In England The Second Military Member Of ...

Adjutant
Adjutant, A Helper Or Junior In Command, One Who Assists His Superior, Especially An Officer Who Acts As An Assistant To The Officer Commanding A Battalion Or Unit Of Similar Scale. In The British Army The Appointment Of Adjutant Is Usually Held By A Captain Or Lieutenant. The Adjutant Acts ...

Admetus
Admetus, In Greek Legend, Son Of Pheres, King Of Pherae, In Thessaly. By The Aid Of Apollo, Who Served Him As A Slave— Either As A Punishment For Having Slain The Cyclops, Or Out Of Affection For His Mortal Master—he Won The Hand Of Alcestis, The Most Beautiful Of The ...

Administration
Administration, The Performance Or Management Of Affairs, A Term Specifically Used In Law For The Administration Or Disposal Of The Estate Of A Deceased Person. (see Will Or Testa Ment.) It Is Also Used Generally For "government," And Specifi Cally For "the Government" Or The Executive Ministry, And In Such ...

Administrator
Administrator: See Will Or Testament. Admirable Crichton: See Crichton, James. ...

Admiral
Admiral, The Rank And Title Of The Naval Officer Who Com Mands A Fleet Or Sub-division Of A Fleet. In The British Navy There Are Four Grades Of Admiral; I.e., Admiral Of The Fleet, Admiral, Vice-admiral And Rear-admiral, In Descending Order Of Seniority. These Titles Superseded Those In Vogue In ...

Admiralty Islands
Admiralty Islands, About 4o Islands Of The Bis Marck Archipelago, North Of New Guinea, Between 1 ° And S. And 146° And 148° E. Area 600 Sq. Miles. Manus, The Largest Island, Has A Length Of 6o Miles ; It Is Sometimes Termed Great Admiralty Island, Its Chief Town Being ...

Admiralty Jurisdiction
Admiralty Jurisdiction. The Courts By Which, As Far As We Know, Admiralty Jurisdiction In Civil Matters Was First Exercised Were The Following. In And Throughout England The Courts Of The Several Admirals Soon Combined Into One High Court Of Admiralty (see Admiralty, High Court Of). Within The Territories Of The ...

Admiralty
Admiralty. The Department Of State Which Regulates, Controls, And Maintains The Navy On Behalf Of The British Govern Ment Is The Admiralty. The Term "admiralty" Is Used- (to Quote The Old Official Definition) To Mean "the Lord High Admiral For The Time Being . . . And When There Shall ...

Admittance
Admittance, In Alternating Current Electricity, The Re Ciprocal Of The Reactance. (see Electricity.) ...

Ado
Ado (died 874), Archbishop Of Vienne In Lotharingia, Held His Archiepiscopal See From 859 Till His Death Dec. 16, 874. His Extant Letters Reveal Their Writer As An Energetic Man Of Wide Sympathies. Ado's Principal Works Are A Martyrologium (printed Inter Al. In Migne, Patrolog. Lat. Cxxiii. Pp. 181-420 ; ...

Adobe Soil
Adobe Soil, A Term Used In The Western United States, Particularly In California, To Designate The Structural Quality Of Various Clay Soils, Referring Usually To The Characteristic Breakage Of Such Soil Material Into Small Angular Blocks When It Dries. These Soils Are Very Heavy In Texture, Being Composed Of Extremely ...

Adobe
Adobe (4-clo'be), A Spanish-american Word (often Cor Rupted To Dobie) For The Sun-dried Clay Used For Building By The Indians In The Arid Regions Of The South-western United States And Northern Mexico (from Spanish Adobar, To Plaster). The Use Of Such Building Material Is Said To Have Been Anciently Introduced ...

Adolescence
Adolescence, The Term Now Commonly Adopted For The Period Between Childhood And Maturity, During Which The Char Acteristics (mental, Physical And Moral) That Are To Make Or Mar The Individual Disclose Themselves, And Then Mature, In Some Cases By Leaps And Bounds, In Others By More Gradual Evolution. The Annual ...

Adolph Of Nassau
Adolph Of Nassau (c. 1255-1298), German King, Son Of Walram, Count Of Nassau. On May 5, 1292 He Was Chosen German King, In Succession To Rudolph I., An Election Due Rather To The Political Conditions Of The Time Than To His Personal Qual Ities. His Position Was Unstable, And The ...

Adolphe Charles Adam
Adam, Adolphe Charles (1803-1856), French Composer Of Light Operas Which Enjoyed Great Favour, Was Born In Paris July 24, 1803, And Died There May 3, 1856. Boieldieu Taught And Encouraged Him And He Became In Due Course One Of The Most Prolific And Popular Composers Of His Time. Of His ...

Adolphus Frederick I
Adolphus Frederick (i 7'o-1770, King Of Sweden, Was Born At Gottorp On May 14, 171o, The Son Of Christian Augustus (1673-1726), Duke Of Schleswig-holstein-gottorp And Albertina Frederica Of Baden-durlach. From 1727 To 175o He Was Bishop Of Liibeck, And Administrator Of Holstein-kiel During The Minority Of Duke Charles Peter Ulrich, ...

Adoni
Adoni, A Town Of British India, In The Bellary District Of Madras, 307m. From Madras By Rail. Pop. (1931) 35,635. It Has Manufactures Of Carpets, Silk And Cotton Goods, Factories For Gin Ning And Pressing Cotton And A Considerable Trade In Cotton. The Hill-fort Above, Now In Ruins, Was A ...

Adonijah
Adonijah. A Name Borne By Several Persons In The Old Testament, Of Whom The Best Known Is The Fourth Son Of David. Shortly Before The Death Of David, He Made Preparations To Seize The Throne, To Which He Was The Natural Heir After The Death Of Absalom, And Received The ...

Adonis
Adonis, In Classical Mythology, A Youth Of Remarkable Beauty, The Favourite Of Aphrodite. According To One Account, He Was The Son Of The Syrian King, Theias, By His Daughter Smyr Na (myrrha), Who Had Been Inspired By Aphrodite With Unnat Ural Love. When Theias Discovered The Truth He Would Have ...

Adonis_2
Adonis, A Genus Of Plants Of The Crowfoot Family (ranuncu Laceae, Q.v.) Known As Pheasant's Eye And Flos Adonis. There Are About 20 Species, Natives Of Europe And Asia. They Are Erect Herbs With Much Divided Leaves And Yellow Or Red Flowers. Three Species, A. Vernalis, A. Aestivalis And A. ...

Adoptianism
Adoptianism. As The Theological Doctrine Of The Logos Which Bulks So Largely In The Writings Of The Apologists Of The 2nd Century Came To The Front, The Trinitarian Problem Became Acute. The Necessity Of A Constant Protest Against Polytheism Led To A Tenacious Insistence On The Divine Unity, And The ...

Adoption
Adoption Is The Act Of A Person Taking Upon Himself The Position Of Parent To Another Who Is Not In Fact Or Is Not Treated By Law As His Child, And The Person So Acting Is Recognized By The Law As Having The Rights And Duties Of A Parent By ...

Adoration
Adoration, Primarily An Act Of Homage Or Worship, Performed Among The Romans By Raising The Hand To The Mouth, Kissing It And Then Waving It In The Direction Of The Adored Object (lat. Ad, To; Os, Mouth; I.e., Carrying To The Mouth). Saturn And Hercules Were Adored With The Head ...

Adorf
Adorf, A Town In The Land Of Saxony, 3m. From The Czechoslovakian Frontier, At A Height Of 1,400ft. Above Sea. Pop. (1933) 7,886. Musical Instruments, Objects In Mother Of Pearl, Textiles And Carpets Are Made. ...

Adour
Adour, A River Of South-west France, Rising In The Depart Ment Of Hautes Pyrenees, South Of The Pic Du Midi De Bigorre, And Flowing In A Wide Curve To The Bay Of Biscay. It Traverses The Beautiful Valley Of Campan And, After Passing Bagneres De Bigorre, Enters The Plain Of ...

Adra
Adra (anc. Abdera), A Seaport Of Southern Spain, In The Province Of Almeria. Pop. (1930) 10,314. Adra Is The Port Of Shipment For The Lead Obtained In The Sierra De Gador Near Berja, M. North-east, And Also Exports Grapes, Sugar And Espar;:o Grass. ...

Adrar
Adrar (berber For "uplands"), The Name Of Various Dis Tricts Of The Sahara, Northern Africa. Adrar Sutuf Is A Hilly Re Gion In Southern Rio De Oro (q.v.). Adrar El Jebli, Otherwise Adghagh, A Plateau North-east Of Timbuktu, Is The Headquarters Of The Awellimiden Tuareg (see Tuareg And Sahara). Adrar ...

Adrenal Glands
Adrenal Glands, Two Flattened, Yellowish Brown Bodies, About Tin. Long Which Lie On The Upper Anterior Surface Of The Kidneys, Called Also Suprarenal Glands. They Have No Ducts But Pour Their Secretions Directly Into The Blood Stream, And Are Therefore Called Ductless Or Endocrine Glands. Their Function Is Closely Related ...

Adrenalin
Adrenalin (adrenine, Epinephrine Or Hemieine) Is Ob Tained From The Medulla Of The Suprarenal Glands Of Animals, Duct Less Glands Situated Immediately Above Each Kidney. Its Chief Action Is Upon The Heart And Small Arteries. The Heart Is Some What Slowed, But The Force Of Its Contractions Is Increased And ...

Adria
Adria (anc. Atria; The Form Adria Or Hadria Is Less Correct: Atria Was A Town In Picenum, The Modern Atri), Town And Episcopal See, Province Of Rovigo, Italy, 15m. E. By Rail From The Town Of Rovigo. It Is Situated Between The Mouths Of The Adige And The Po, About ...

Adrian I
Adrian I., Pope From 772 To 795, Was The Son Of Theodore, A Roman Nobleman. Soon After His Accession Adrian Found It Neces Sary To Invoke The Aid Of Charlemagne Against Desiderius, King Of The Lombards. In His Contest With The Greek Empire And The Lombard Princes Of Benevento, Adrian ...

Adrian Ii
Adrian Ii., Pope From 867 To 872, Was A Member Of A Noble Roman Family, And Became Pope In 867, At An Advanced Age. Like His Predecessor, Nicholas, Adrian Ii. Was Forced To Submit, At Least In Temporal Affairs, To The Tutelage Of The Emperor, Louis Ii., Who Placed Him ...

Adrian Iii
Adrian Iii., Pope, Was Born At Rome. He Succeeded Martin Ii. In 884, And Died In 885, On A Journey To Worms. ...

Adrian Iv
Adrian Iv. (nicholas Breakspear), Pope From 1154 To The Only Englishman Who Has Occupied The Papal Chair, Was Born Before A.d. I Roo At Langley, Near St. Albans, In Hertfordshire. Nicholas Went To Paris And Became A Monk Of The Cloister Of St. Rufus, Near Arles. He Rose To Be ...

Adrian V
Adrian V. (ottobuono De' Fieschi), Pope In 1276, Was A Genoese Who Was Created Cardinal Deacon By His Uncle Innocent Iv. In 1264 He Was Sent To England To Mediate Between Henry Iii. And His Barons. He Was Elected Pope To Succeed Innocent V. On July Ii, 1276, But Died ...

Adrian Vi
Adrian Vi. (adrian Dedel, Not Boyens, Probably Not Roden Burgh, 1459-1523), Pope From 1522 To 1523, Was Born At Utrecht In March And Became Tutor To The Seven-year-old Charles V. Charles Secured His Succession To The See Of Tortosa, And On Nov. 14, 1516, Commissioned Him Inquisitor-general Of Aragon. During ...

Adrian
Adrian, A City In South-eastern Michigan, U.s.a., About 3om. N.w. Of Toledo. It Is The County Seat Of Lenawee County, And Is Served By The New York Central, The Wabash, The Detroit, Toledo And Ironton And The Toledo And Western (electric) Rail Ways. The Population Was 11,878 In 1920, And ...

Adrianople
Adrianople, The Capital Of The Vilayet Of Adrianople, Turkey In Europe, 137m. By Rail W.n.w. Of Constantinople. It Occupies Both Banks Of The River Tunja, At Its Confluence With The Maritsa, Which Is Navigable To This Point In Spring And Winter. The Nearest Seaport By Rail Is Dedeagatch, West Of ...

Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea (ancient Adria Or Hadria), An Arm Of The Mediterranean Sea Separating Italy From The Balkan Peninsula, Occupying A Structural Depression Between The New Fold Moun Tain Systems Of The Apennines And The Dinaric Alps. The Sea Extends From North-west To South-east Between Lat. And 45' N., A Length ...

Adscript
Adscript. A Villein Was Called An "adscript Of The Soil" (adscriptus Glebae) Since He Could Be Sold Or Transferred With It, As In Feudal Days, And As In Russia Until 1861. See Villeinage. ...

Adsorption
Adsorption. If A Gas Or Solution Is Brought Into Contact With A Very Finely Divided Or Porous Material (e.g., Charcoal, Kao Lin) The Pressure Of The Gas Or The Concentration Of The Solution Generally Decreases, The Gas Or Solute Being Concentrated On The Surface Of The Solid. This Phe Nomenon ...

Adulis
Adulis (mod. Zula).—an Ancient City Of Eritrea. Accord Ing To Pliny, It Was Founded By Slaves Who Had Fled From Their Egyptian Masters. Excavations Have Led To The Discovery Of A Considerable Amount Of Prehistoric Pottery, And Of Various Build Ings, Including An Altar Of The Sun And Two Christian ...

Adullam
Adullam, A Canaanite City (gen. Xxxviii. 2), Fortified By Rehoboam (2 Chron. Xi. 7), And Still A Pldce Of Importance At The Time Of The Maccabees (2 Mac. Xii. 38). Its Chief Interest Lies In Its Connection With David Who Took Refuge In Its Stronghold ("cave" Is A Scribal Error) ...

Adult Education
Adult Education, A Phrase Originally Meaning Educa Tion Of Adults Who Have Not Been Properly Educated As Children. As The Educational System Improved, The Need For Such Education Diminished, But As Democratic Government Developed, It Brought With It The Need, Felt By Everyone, For Education In Citizenship. Adult Education In ...

Adulteration Colouring Matter
Adulteration - Colouring Matter A Similar Criticism Applies To The Continually Extending Use Of Colouring Matter In Food. Civilized Man Requires His Food Not Only To Be Healthy And Tasty, But Also Attractive In Appearance. ...

Adulteration Food Lawsin
Adulteration - Food Laws In The United States In The United States The Control Of Foods Is Exercised By The Federal Government Of The United States Under The Federal Food And Drugs Act, The Meat Inspection Act, The Tea Inspection Act And Certain Acts Relating To Specific Products Such As ...

Adulteration Particular Articlesadulterated
Adulteration - Particular Articles Adulterated We Will Now Proceed To Consider Adulteration As Practised Dur Ing Recent Years In The More Important Articles Of Food. ...

Adulteration Preservatives Infood
Adulteration - Preservatives In Food While From Time Immemorial Certain Articles Of Food Have Been Preserved By Salting, Smoking, Drying, The Addition Of Sugar Or Of Saltpetre, During The Last Quarter Of The I9th Century The Use Of Chemicals Acting As Antiseptics Or Preservatives Extended Enor Mously. Refrigeration And Cold-storage ...

Adulteration
Adulteration, The Act Of Debasing A Commercial Com Modity With The Object Of Passing It Off As Or Under The Name Of A Pure Or Genuine Commodity For Illegitimate Profit, Or The Substitu Tion Of An Inferior Article For A Superior One, To The Detriment Of The Purchaser. Although The ...

Adultery
Adultery, The Sexual Intercourse Of A Married Person With Another Than The Offender's Husband Or Wife (from Lat. Adulterium). Among The Greeks, And In The Earlier Period Of Roman Law, It Was Not Adultery Unless A Married Woman Was The Offender. The Foundation Of The Later Roman Law With Regard ...

Aduwa
Aduwa (previously Adowa), In The Province Of Tigre, Northern Abyssinia, 145m. North-east Of Gondar And 17m. East By North Of Aksum, The Ancient Capital Of Abyssinia. Aduwa, A Hill-slope At An Elevation Of 6,5ooft., In A Rich Agricultural Dis Trict, Is An Important Market Centre. On A Hill About 21m. ...

Advanced Guard
Advanced Guard, The Protective Detachment Pushed Forward In Advance Of An Army, Or Smaller Force, Moving Towards The Enemy. Although Protective In Purpose, Its Action Is Largely Offensive In Order To Fulfil Its Duties. These Are To Gain Informa Tion Of The Position And Strength Of The Enemy's Main Forces, ...

Advancement
Advancement, A Term Used In English Law To Describe A Sum Of Money Or Other Benefit Conferred By A Father Or A Person In Loco Parentis Upon A Child By Blood Or Adoption For The Purpose Of Establishing Such Child In Life. It May Be Considered Thus : I. Advancements ...

Advantage
Advantage, That Which Gives Gain Or Helps Forward In Any Way (fr. Avant, Before). It Is Often Contracted To "vantage." In Some Games (e.g., Lawn Tennis) The Term "vantage" Is Used Technically In Scoring. A Position Which Gives A Better Chance Of Success Than Its Surroundings Is Called A "vantage ...

Advent
Advent (lat. Adventus, Sc. Redemptoris, "the Coming Of The Saviour"), A Holy Season Of The Christian Church, The Period Of Preparation For The Celebration Of The Nativity Or Christmas. In The Ethiopic Church It Lasts From Nov. 11, In Other Churches From The Sunday Nearest To Nov. 3o, Till Christmas. ...

Adventitious
Adventitious, Coming From Outside, In No Sense Part Of The Substance Or Circumstance (lat. Adventicius, Coming From Abroad). Carlyle Called A Man's Clothes, Or Condition Of Life "adventitious Wrappages," As Being Superadded And Not A Natural Part Of Him. In Botany The Word Means That Which Is Not Normal To ...

Adventure
Adventure, A Hazardous Enterprise. Thus An "adven Turer," From Meaning One Who Takes Part In Some Speculative Course Of Action, Came To Mean One Who Lived By His Wits And A Person Of No Character. The Word Is Also Used In Certain Restricted Legal Connections. Joint Adventure, For Instance, May ...

Adverb
Adverb, A Part Of Speech Modifying Or Qualifying An Adjective, Verb Or Other Adverb. According To Their Function They Are Divided Into Adverbs Of Time, Place, Quantity, Manner, Etc. ...

Advertising Agent Or Agency
Advertising Agent Or Agency, An Individual Or An Organization Engaged Primarily In The Preparation Of Adver Tising And Also In Giving Counsel And Assistance In The Advertising And Merchandising Of Commodities, Securities And Services. In The United States, Where Advertising As A Business Is Most Highly Developed, And Where The ...

Advertising In Business
Advertising In Business There Are Wastes In Advertising, But There Are Wastes Everywhere In Production, In Distribution, In Personal Selling. Economy In The Distribution Side Of Business Has Lagged Behind, But Distinct Advances Have Been Made. Probably The Chief Sources Of Waste In Advertising Are : ( I) The Lack ...

Advertising
Advertising, The Process Of Disseminating Information For Commercial Purposes. Advertisement Has Existed From Early Times. Traders Made Themselves Known And Called Attention To Their Products By Mural Inscriptions Before The Age Of Printing: A Papyrus, Discovered At Thebes Offering A Reward For A Runaway Slave, Is Reputed To Be 3,00o ...

Advice
Advice, Counsel Given After Consideration, Or Information From A Distance Giving Particulars Of Something Prospective (e.g., "advice" Of An Imminent Battle, Or Of A Cargo Due). In Com Merce It Is A Common Word For A Formal Notice From One Person Concerned In A Transaction To Another. ...

Advocate
Advocate, A Person Called In To Plead The Cause Of Another; Especially One Entitled, As Having The Right Of Audience, To Plead The Cause Of Another In A Court Of Law. In Scotland The Word Is Used Particularly To Designate A Member Of The Bar Of Scotland (see Advocates, Faculty ...

Advocates Diaboli
Advocates Diaboli, Devil's Advocate, The Popular Name For The Promoter Of The Faith (promotor Fidei), An Officer Of The Sacred Congregation Of Rites At Rome, Whose Duty Is To Prepare All Possible Arguments Against The Beatification Or Canonization Of An Alleged Saint. This Functionary First Occurs In Connection With The ...

Advowson
Advowson, The Right Of Presentation To A Vacant Ecclesias Tical Benefice, So Called Because The Patron Defends Or Advocates The Claims Of The Person Whom He Presents, Or Because He Is The Advocate, Patron Or Defender Of The Church And Benefice And Is As Such Given The Right To Name ...

Adwan
Adwan, A Moabite Tribe Claiming An Arabian Origin. They Declare That Ten Generations Ago They Formed Part Of A Settled Population In A Fertile District Of Arabia And Were Driven Out By Invaders Much Stronger In Numbers. See The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. I., 2nd Ed. (1924). ...

Adytum
Adytum, The Most Sacred Part Of A Shrine, Temple Or Church Such As The Holy Of Holies Of The Temple At Jerusalem, Or The Cave Of The Oracle Of Apollo At Delphi, Occasionally Used For The Chancel (q.v.) Of A Christian Church. ...

Adze
Adze, A Tool Used For Cutting And Planing. It Is Somewhat Like An Axe Re Versed, The Edge Of The Blade Curving Inward And Placed At Right Angles To The Handle. This Shape Is Most Suitable For Planing Uneven Timber, As Inequalities Are "hooked Off" By The Curved Blade. At ...

Adzharsk
Adzharsk, An Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic, A Zone Under The Protection Of The Georgian S.s.r. Its Boundaries Are, On The West, The Black Sea, On The South, Turkey, On The North And East, The Georgian S.s.r. Area 1,328sq.km.; Pop. (1926) 128,553: Urban 47,241 And Rural 81,312. It Consists Mainly Of ...

Aeacus
Aeacus, In Greek Legend, Was The Son Of Zeus And Of Aegina, Daughter Of The River-god Asopus. His Mother Was Car Ried Off By Zeus To The Island Of Oenone, Afterwards Called By Her Name. The Island Having Been Depopulated By A Pestilence, Zeus Changed The Ants Upon It Into ...

Aeclanum
Aeclanum, An Ancient Town Of Samnium, Italy, 15m. E. S.e. Of Beneventum, On The Via Appia (near Modern Mirabella). It Became The Chief Town Of The Hirpini After Beneventum Had Become A Roman Colony. Sulla Captured It In 89 B.c. By Setting On Fire Its Wooden Breastwork, And New Fortifications ...

Aedesius
Aedesius (d. A.d. 355), Neoplatonist Philosopher, Was Born Of A Noble Cappadocian Family. He Migrated To Syria, Attracted By The Lectures Of Iamblichus, Whose Disciple He Became. He Taught At Pergamum, His Chief Disciples Being Eusebius And Maximus. See Ritter And Preller, 552 ; Ritter's Geschichte Der Philosophie; T. Whittaker, ...

Aedicula
Aedicula, A Small House Or Temple, Especially The Roman Household Shrine Of The Lares And Penates. ...

Aediles
Aediles, The Magistrates At Rome Who Had Care Of The Temples (cedes). Created In The Same Year As The Tribunes Of The People (494 B.c.), They Were Plebeians, Elected, Two In Num Ber, By The Concilium Plebis. Intended As Assistants To The Trib Unes, They Exercised Police Functions And Had ...

Aedui
Aedui (i-thro-e), Haedui Or Hedui, A Gallic People Of Gallia Lugdunensis, Who Inhabited The Country Between The Arar (saone) And Liger (loire). Their Territory Thus Included The Greater Part Of The Modern Departments Of Saone-et-loire, Cote D'or And Nievre. According To Livy (v. 34), They Took Part In The Expedition ...

Aegean Civilization Generalnature
Aegean Civilization - General Nature Of The Evidence For Details Of Monumental Evidence The Articles On Crete, Mycenae, Tiryns, Troy, Cyprus, Etc., Must Be Consulted. The Most Representative Site Explored Up To Now Is Cnossus, Which Has Yielded The Most Various And The Most Continuous Evidence From The Neolithic Age ...

Aegean Civilization
Aegean Civilization. Of The Iliad Was Reminiscent Of The Mycenaean. Schliemann Got To Work Again At Hissarlik In 1878, And Greatly Increased Our Knowledge Of The Lower Strata, But Did Not Recognize The Aegean Remains In His "lydian" City Of The 6th Stratum, Which Were Not To Be Fully Revealed ...

Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea, An Arm Of The Mediterranean Sea, Between Greece On The West And Asia Minor On The East, And Connected By The Dardanelles With The Sea Of Marmora, And The Black Sea. The Name Archipelago (q.v.) Was Formerly Applied Scientifically To This Sea. Various Derivations Suggest Origin Of "aegean" ...

Aegeus
Aegeus, Son Of Pandion And Grandson Of Cecrops, Was King Of Athens And The Father Of Theseus (q.v.). , ...

Aegina History
Aegina - History Aegina, According To Herodotus (v. 83), Was A Colony Of Epidaurus, To Which State It Was Originally Subject. The Dis Covery Of Gold Ornaments Belonging To The Latest Period Of Mycenaean Art Suggests The Inference That The Mycenaean Cul Ture Held Its Own In Aegina For Some ...

Aegina
Aegina (egina Or Engia), A Greek Island, In The Saronic Gulf, 20m. From The Piraeus. Tradition Derives The Name From Aegina, The Mother Of Aeacus, Who Was Born _in And Ruled The Island. In Shape Aegina Is Triangular, 8m. Long From North-west To South-east, And 6m. Broad, With An Area ...

Aegis
Aegis, In Homer, The Shield Or Buckler .of Zeus. It Was Fur Nished With Tassels And Bearing The Gorgon's Head In The Centre. Originally Symbolical Of The Storm-cloud, It Probably Signifies Rapid, Violent Motion (gr. Aisso). In The Later Story Zeus Is Said To Have Used The Skin Of The ...

Aegisthus
Aegisthus, In Greek Legend The Son Of Thyestes By His Own Daughter Pelopia (hyginus, Fab. 88). Having Been Exposed By His Mother, He Was Found By Shepherds And Suckled By A Goat (a1.), Whence His Name. His Uncle Atreus, Who Had Married Pelopia, Took Him To Mycenae, And Brought Him ...

Aegospotami
Aegospotami, A Small Creek Issuing Into The Hellespont, North-east Of Sestos, The Scene Of The Decisive Battle In 405 B.c. In Which Lysander Destroyed The Last Athenian Squadron In The Peloponnesian War (q.v.). The Existence Of A Township Is At Tested By Coins Of The 5th And 4th Centuries. ...

Aelfric
Aelfric, Called The "grammarian" (c. 955-1020, Eng Lish Abbot And Author, Was Educated In The Benedictine Monastery At Winchester Under Aethelwold, Who Was Bishop There From 963 To 984. Aelfric Gained Some Reputation As A Scholar At Win Chester, For When, In 987, The Abbey Of Cernel (cerne Abbas, Dorsetshire) ...

Aelia Capitolina
Aelia Capitolina. The Destruction Of Jerusalem And The Temple In A.d. 7o Was Followed By A Second Revolt Of The Jews. After Their Defeat Hadrian Made The Ruined Jerusalem Into A Roman Colony, Aelia Capitolina, Subordinate To Caesarea, The Then Capital Of Palestine (about A.d. 13o). Aelia Commemorated The Emperor's ...

Aelian Aelianus
Aelian (aelianus Tacticus), Greek Military Writer Of The 2nd Century A.d., Resident At Rome. He Is Sometimes Confused With His Namesake Claudius Aelianus (q.v.). Aelian's Military Treatise, T Akt Lk?) 0€oopla, Is Dedicated To Hadrian, Though This Is Probably A Mistake For Trajan, And The Date A.d. 1°6 Has Been ...