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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 12, Part 1: Hydrozoa to Epistle of Jeremy

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Information
Information, In English Law, A Proceeding On Behalf Of The Crown Against A Subject Otherwise Than By Indictment Is Either Criminal Or Civil. Criminal Informations Are Ex Officio Or By The Master Of The Crown Office. An Ex Officio Information Is A Proceed Ing In The King's Bench By The ...

Informer
Informer, The Term Applied To A Person Who Prosecutes In Any Of The Courts Of Law Those Who Break Any Law Or Penal Statute, Without Any Direct Injury Having Been Done To Himself. Such A Person Is Called A Common Informer When He Furnishes Evidence On Criminal Trials Or Prosecutes ...

Infusoria
Infusoria, A Name For The Group Of Single-celled Animals (protozoa) Usually Called Ciliata, And Distinguished By Numerous, Hair-like, Protoplasmic Processes (so-called Cilia), Which Are Used In Locomotion And Function Like Oars. The Infusoria Are Also Pecu Liar In Having Two Different Kinds Of Nuclei (micronuclei And Micronuclei), And A Peculiar ...

Ingelburge Ingeborg Ingeburge
Ingeborg (ingeburge, Ingelburge, Ingelborg, Isem Burge, Dan. Ingibjorg) (c. 1176-1237 Or 1238), Queen Of France, Was The Daughter Of Valdemar I., King Of Denmark. She Married In 1 193 Philip Ii. Augustus, King Of France, But On The Day After His Marriage The King Took A Sudden Aversion To Her. ...

Ingelheim
Ingelheim (ober-ingelheim And Nieder-ingelheim), The Name Of Two Contiguous Market-towns Of Germany, In The Land Of Hesse, On The Selz, Near Its Confluence With The Rhine, 9 M. W.s.w. Of Mainz On The Railway To Coblenz. Ober-ingelheim, Formerly An Imperial Town, Is Still Surrounded By Walls. Its Chief Industry Is ...

Ingersoll
Ingersoll, A Town And Port Of Entry Of Oxford County, Ontario, Canada, 19 M. E. Of London, On The River Thames And The Canadian National And Canadian Pacific Railways. Pop. The Principal Manufactures Are Agricultural Implements, Furniture, Pianos And Screws. There Is A Large Export Trade In Cheese And Farm ...

Inghirami
Inghirami, The Name Of An Italian Noble Family Of Vol Terra. The Following Are Its Most Important Members: ...

Ingle Nook
Ingle Nook, Originally The Corners Of A Large Fire-place, Under The Main Chimney-breast Opening, And On Either Side Of The Spot Where The Fire Was Built. In Many Tudor, Jacobean And Early American Fire-places There Is Sufficient Width And Depth To Place A Wooden Bench Or Settle On Each Side, ...

Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt, A Town Of Germany, In The Land Of Ba Varia, On The Left Bank Of The Danube At Its Confluence With The Schutter, 52 M. N. Of Munich, At The Junction Of The Main Lines Of Railway, Munich, Bamberg And Regensburg-augsburg. Pop. (1933) 29,232. Ingolstadt, Known As Aureatum Or ...

Ingot
Ingot, Originally A Mould For The Casting Of Metals, But Now A Mass Of Metal Cast In A Mould, And Particularly The Small Bars Of The Precious Metals, Cast In The Shape Of An Oblong Brick Or Wedge With Slightly Sloping Sides, In Which Form Gold And Silver Are Handled ...

Ingress
Ingress, Entrance As Opposed To Exit Or Egress; In Astron Omy, The Apparent Entrance Of A Smaller Body Upon The Disc Of A Larger One, As It Passes Between The Latter And The Observer ; In This Sense It Is Applied Especially To The Beginning Of A Transit Of A ...

Ingushetia
Ingushetia, An Autonomous Area Created In July, 1924, Within The North Caucasian Area, Occupying 3,199 Sq.km. The Watershed Of The Caucasus Forms Its Southern Boundary, Where Georgia Borders It, The Kabardian Territory Lies To The North, The Chechen To The East And The North Ossetian To The West. The Mountain ...

Inhambane
Inhambane, A Seaport Of Portuguese East Africa, In 23 5o' S., 35 25' E., 28o M. From Beira And 248 From Delagoa Bay. It Is Situated On A River Of The Same Name Which Enters Inham Bane Bay. In 1921 The Maximum Temperature Was 9o And The Minimum 58. The ...

Inheritance Economic Aspects
Inheritance: Economic Aspects. There Are No Ideas Of Inheritance Which Can Be Shown To Be "natural" Or Absolute, As May Well Be Seen By Comparing The Ideas Prevailing In Different Countries At The Same Time, Or In The Same Country At Different Times. It Has Been Well Said "most Englishmen ...

Inheritance Tax
Inheritance Tax, The Name Given, In The United States, To A Tax Or Charge Upon Property As It Passes To Heirs Or Legatees From A Deceased Person ; Known In Great Britain As Death Duties. Such A Tax Was Levied By The Federal Government At The Time Of The American ...

Inheritance
Inheritance. In English Law The Heir Is Simply The Person On Whom The Real Property Of The Deceased Devolved By Operation Of Law If He Died Intestate (see Heirs). Until 1926 The Devolution Of An Inheritance In England Was Regulated By The Rules Of Descent, As Altered By The Inheritance ...

Inhibition
Inhibition, An Act Of Restraint Or Prohibition, An English Legal Term, Particularly Used In Ecclesiastical Law, For A Writ From A Superior To An Inferior Court, Suspending Proceedings In A Case Under Appeal. It Applies Also To The Suspension Of Jurisdiction Of A Bishop's Court On The Visitation Of An ...

Inia
Inia (inia Geoffrensis), The Fresh-water Dolphin Of The Ama Zon Basin, Reaching 8 Ft. In Length And Pink, Or Black And Pink In Colour. (see Cetacea.) ...

Inisfail
Inisfail, A Poetical Name For Ireland. It Is Derived From Finis "island" And Lia-f Dil, The Celebrated Stone, Identified In Irish Legend With The Stone On Which The Patriarch Jacob Slept When He Dreamed Of The Heavenly Ladder. The Lia-f Ail Was Supposed To Have Been Brought To Ireland By ...

Initials
Initials, The First Letters Of Names. In English Law It Has Been Held That It Is Sufficient If A Person Affixes To A Document The Usual Form In Which He Signs His Name, With The Intent That It Shall Be Treated As His Signature. So, Signature By Initials Is A ...

Initiative
Initiative. The Initiative Is The Form Of Direct Legisla Tion Which Enables The Voters Popularly To Frame Or Direct A Legis Lative Body To Enact A Certain Law. It Is The Companion Popular Agency To The Referendum, Which Is The Reference To The Voters Of An Act Of The Legislature ...

Injector
Injector, An Induced Current Apparatus Which By Means Of A Jet Of Steam Feeds Water To A Boiler. The Invention Of Henri Giffard, Its Introduction In 1859 Created Great Interest, Because It Seemed Impossible That A Jet Of Steam From A Boiler Could Force Itself And The Water Back Into ...

Injunction
Injunction, In English Law, The Name For A Judicial Command Whereby A Party Is Required To Refrain From Doing A Particular Thing According To The Exigency Of The Writ. Formerly It Was A Remedy Peculiar To The Court Of Chancery, But Under The Present Constitution Of The Judicature, The Injunction ...

Ink
Ink, In Its Widest Signification, A Substance Employed For Pro Ducing Graphic Tracings, Inscriptions, Or Impressions On Paper Or Similar Materials. The Term Includes Two Distinct Conditions Of Pigment Or Colouring Matter ; The One Fluid, And Prepared For Use With A Pen Or Brush, As Writing Ink; The Other ...

Inkberry
Inkberry (ilex Glabra), A North American Shrub Of The Holly Genus (family Aquifoliaceae), Known Also As Evergreen Winter-berry And Appalachian Tea, Native To Sandy Soil From Nova Scotia To Florida And West To Louisiana, Mostly Near The Coast. It Is A Small Shrub, 2 Ft. To 6 Ft. High, With ...

Inland Revenue Duties
Inland Revenue Duties. These Duties Are De Scribed Under The Headings Estate Duties; Income Tax; Death Duties; Stamp Duty; Land Taxes, Etc.; See Also The Relevant Sections Of The Articles Great Britain And United States. ...

Inland Water Transport
Inland Water Transport. Transport By Navi Gable Waterways In The Last Years Before The World War Reached Very High Figures Indeed. In 1875, 10,40o,00o Tons Were Carried By Water In Germany; In 191o, 64,750,00o Tons. The Bulk Of The Increase Was On The Large Rivers And Canals; The Less Important ...

Inlaying
Inlaying, A Method Of Ornamentation By Inserting In One Material A Substance Differing Therefrom In Colour Or Composition. The Art Is Practised In The Fabrication Of Furniture And Artistic Objects In All Varieties Of Wood, Metal, Shell, Ivory, Coloured And Hard Stone, And In Compound Substances. Forms Of Inlay Include: ...

Inn
Inn, A Right Bank Tributary Of The Danube. It Rises In A Small Lake Under Piz Longhino, In The Swiss Canton Of The Grisons. After Flowing For 55 M. Through The Engadine, It Enters Austria At Martinsbruck, And Continues As A Swift Mountain Stream Along The Inn Thal As Far ...

Innate Ideas
Innate Ideas, Ideas Or Intellectual Functions Which Are Supposed To Be Inborn In, Or Native To, The Human Mind, As Dis Tinguished From Those Which Are "acquired" In The Course Of Experience, Or Are Constructed By The Mind On The Analogy Of Experienced Objects. The Existence Of Innate Ideas Formed ...

Innerleithen
Innerleithen, A Police Burgh, Parish And Health Resort Of Peeblesshire, Scotland, On Leithen Water, Near Its Junction With The Tweed, 61 M. S.e. Of Peebles By The L.n.e. Railway. Pop. (1931) 2,359. It Seems Once To Have Been Known As Horne Huntersiand, And To Have Been Mentioned As Early As ...

Innocent I
Innocent I., Pope From 402 To 417, Was The Son Of Pope Anastasius I. During His Papacy The Siege Of Rome By Alaric (408) Took Place; The Pope Was, However, Absent From Rome On A Mission To Honorius At Ravenna At The Time Of The Sack In 41o. He Maintained ...

Innocent Ii
Innocent Ii. (gregorio Paparesci Dei Guidoni), Pope From 113o To I143, Was Originally A Benedictine Monk. His Ability, Pure Life And Political Connections Raised Him Rapidly To Power. Made Cardinal Deacon Of Sant Angelo In Pescheria By Paschal Ii. He Was Employed In Various Diplomatic Missions. Calixtus Ii. Appointed Him ...

Innocent Iii
Innocent Iii. (lando Da Sezza), Anti-pope (i179-8o), Sprang From A Noble Lombard Family. Opponents Of Alexander Iii. Tried To Make Him Pope In Sept. 1179. Alexander, However, Bribed His Partisans To Give Him Up, And Imprisoned Him In The Cloister Of La Cava In Jan. 1180. ...

Innocent Iii_2
Innocent Iii. (lotario De' Conti Di Segni), Pope From 1198 To 1216, Son Of Trasimondo, Count Of Segni, And Of Claricia, A Roman Lady Of The Noble Family Of Scotti, Was Born At Anagni About 116o. At The University Of Paris He Laid The Foundations Of His Profound Knowledge Of ...

Innocent Iv
Innocent Iv. (sinibaldo Fiesco), Pope 1243-54, Belonged To The Noble Genoese Family Of The Counts Of Lavagna. Born At Genoa, He Was Educated Under The Care Of His Uncle Opizo, Bishop Of Parma. After Taking Orders At Parma, When He Was Made Canon Of The Cathedral, He Studied Jurisprudence At ...

Innocent Ix
Innocent Ix. (giovanni Antonio Fachinetti) Was Born In 1519. He Filled The Offices Of Apostolic Vicar Of Avignon, Legate At The Council Of Trent, Nuncio To Venice, And President Of The Inquisi Tion. He Became Cardinal In 1583 ; And Under The Invalid Gregory Xiv. Assumed Almost The Entire Conduct ...

Innocent V
Innocent V. (pierre De Champagni Or De Tarentaise), Pope From Jan. 21 To June 22, 1276, Was Born About 1225 In Savoy And Entered The Dominican Order At An Early Age. He Studied Theology Under Thomas Aquinas, Albertus Magnus And Bonaventura, And In 1262 Was Elected Provincial Of His Order ...

Innocent Vi
Innocent Vi. (etienne Aubert), Pope From Dec. 18, 1352, To Sept. 12, 1362, Was Born At Mons In Limousin. He Became Pro Fessor Of Civil Law At Toulouse And Subsequently Chief Judge Of The City. Having Taken Orders, He Was Raised To The See Of Noyon And Translated In 134o ...

Innocent Vii
Innocent Vii. (cosimo Dei Migliorati), Pope From Oct. 17, 1404, To Nov. 6, 1406, Was Born At Sulmona In The Abruzzi In He Was Made Papal Vice-chamberlain And Archbishop Of Ravenna By Urban Vi., And Appointed By Boniface Ix. Cardinal Priest Of Sta. Croce In Gerusalemme, Bishop Of Bologna, And ...

Innocent Viii
Innocent Viii. (giovanni Battista Cibo), Pope From Aug. 29, 1484, To July 25, 1492, Successor Of Sixtus Iv., Was Born At Genoa (1432), The Son Of Arano Cibo, Who Under Calixtus Iii. Had Been A Senator Of Rome. Through The Favour Of Cardinal Calandrini, Half-brother Of Nicholas V., He Obtained ...

Innocent X
Innocent X. (giovanni Battista Pamfili) Was Born In Rome On May 6, 1574, Served Successively As Auditor Of The Rota, Nuncio To Naples, Legate Apostolic To Spain, Was Made Cardinal In 1627, And Succeeded Urban Viii. As Pope On Sept. 15, 1644. Through Out His Pontificate Innocent Was Completely Dominated ...

Innocent Xi
Innocent Xi. (benedetto Odescalchi), Pope From 1676 To 1689, Was Born At Como On May 16, 161i. He Studied Law In Rome And Naples, Entered The Curia Under Urban Viii., And Became Successively Protonotary, President Of The Apostolic Chamber, Governor Of Macerate And Commissary Of Ancona. Innocent X. Made Him ...

Innocent Xii
Innocent Xii. (antonio Pignatelli), Pope From 1691 To 1700 In Succession To Alexander Viii., Was Born In Naples On March 13, 1615, Was Educated At The Jesuit College In Rome, Entered Upon His Official Career At The Age Of 20, And Became Vice-legate Of Urbino, Governor Of Perugia, And Nuncio ...

Innocent Xiii
Innocent Xiii. (michele Angelo Conti), Pope From 1721 To 1724, The Son Of The Duke Of Poli, And A Member Of A Family That Had Produced Several Popes, Among Them Innocent Iii., Was Born In Rome On May 13, 1655, Served As Nuncio In Switzer Land And Portugal, Was Made ...

Innocents Day Or Childermas
Innocents' Day Or Childermas, A Festival Celebrated In The Latin Church On The 28th Of December, And In The Greek Church On The 29th (o.s.) In Memory Of The Massacre Of The Children By Herod. The Church Early Regarded These Little Ones As The First Martyrs. It Is Uncertain When ...

Inns And Innkeepers
Inns And Innkeepers. An Inn Is A Hostelry, Hotel Or Public House Kept For Reward, For The Lodging And Entertainment Of Travellers Or Of Any Who Need Temporary Accommodation. The Name Is Also Given, In A Specialized Sense, To The Institutions Set Apart For The Study And Practice Of The ...

Inns Of Court And
Inns Of Court And Chancery. The Inns Of Court Seated In London, Lincoln's Inn, Gray's Inn, The Inner And Middle Temple, Are Voluntary Societies, Unchartered, Unincor Porated And Unendowed. Their Early History Is Very Obscure And The Date Of Their Respective Foundations Cannot Be Precisely Deter Mined. It Is Quite ...

Inowraclaw
Inowraclaw (hohensalza), Town Of Poland, 21 M. S.w. Of Thorn. Pop. (1931) 30,862. It Is Situated On Rising Ground Above A Fertile District And Has An Agricultural Trade. Iron-found Ing And The Manufacture Of Machinery And Chemicals Are Im Portant. In The Vicinity Are Important Salt Works And A Sulphur ...

Insanity In Law
Insanity In Law. It Would Be Difficult To Find A More Satisfactory Term For Unsoundness Of Mind Than The Old Phrase Hallowed By Usage Non Compos Snentis And It Is Interesting To Note In The Legislation Of Saskatchewan The Phrases Mentally Incompe Tent Person And Mentally Incompetent For Lunatic And ...

Insanity
Insanity. This Term Ordinarily Connotes More Or Less Severe Unsoundness Of Mind. Though Its Loose Usage Is Almost Synonymous With Mental Disease, Scientifically The Term Should Only Be Applied To The Mental Condition Of An Individual Who, Through Socially Inefficient Conduct, Has To Be Placed Under Supervision And Control. The ...

Inscriptions
Inscriptions, Documents Incised On Some Hard Or Per Manent Material In The Form Of Letters Or Other Conventional Signs, For The Purpose Of Conveying Some Information Or Preserving A Record. They Are, Therefore, To Be Distinguished On The One Hand From Manuscripts, Or Documents Written On Papyrus, Parchment, Paper Or ...

Insect Bites And Stings
Insect Bites And Stings. Insects May Be The Cause Of Disease Or Of Morbid Conditions In Man In Several Different Ways: (i) By Living On His Skin Or Hair, As In The Case Of Three Varieties Of Pediculi Or Lice (the Head-louse, The Body-louse, The Crab Louse) ; Or In ...

Insecticides
Insecticides, Chemicals Used For Destroying Insect Pests. When Employed To Protect Plants They May Be Applied In The Form Of Wet Sprays Or As Dusts ; Those Most Commonly Used For This Purpose Include Various Arsenicals, Nicotine, Oil Emulsions, Soaps, Caustic Alkalis, Etc. When It Is Desired To Kill Insects ...

Insectivora
Insectivora, An Order Of Placental Mammals Of Small Size, With A Dentition Adapted To An Insect-diet. Nearly All Mem Bers Of This Order Are Nocturnal .and Terrestrial, Many, However, Are Fossorial Or Arboreal, And A Few Are Aquatic. There Are Gen Erally Five Toes, Each Terminating In A Claw; The ...

Insectivorous Plants
Insectivorous Plants. Insectivorous Or, As They Are Sometimes More Correctly Termed, Carnivorous Plants Are, Like The Parasites, The Climbers Or The Succulents, A Physiological Assemblage Belonging To A Number Of Distinct Natural Orders. They Agree In The Extraordinary Habit Of Adding To The Supplies Of Nitrogenous Material, Afforded Them In ...

Insects
Insects, The Ordinary Name Used For Those Animals Placed By Zoologists In The Class Insecta (or Hexapoda) Of The Phylum Arthropoda (q.v.) And Whose Scientific Study Forms That Branch Of Zoology Termed Entomology (q.v.). In Former Times The Word Insect Had A Much Wider And Looser Significance Than To-day And ...

Insein
Insein, A Town And District Of Lower Burma In The Pegu Division. Lying Immediately To The North Of Area 1.914 Sq.m. ; Poll The District Includes A Large Tract Of The Irrawaddy Delta On Either Side Of The Hlaing Or Rangoon River And On The East Of The Irrawaddy Itself. ...

Insein_2
Insein, The Chief Town. Lies To M. N.w. Of Rangoon, Of Which It Is Now Almost A Suburb. It Has A Population 0931) Of 20,487, Has Railway Workshops. A Government Engineering School And A Large Gaol. ...

Inspiration
Inspiration Is Strictly The Act Of Dr Wing Physical Breath Into The Lungs As Opposed To "expiration.. _ . _ _ : : Llz- The Term Is Used Generally Of Analc_ : Us Mental H ::: _.:::. : __ Us W Speak Of A Sudden Spontanec::: :s An "iris.:: ::. ...

Installation
Installation, The Action Of Installing Or Formally Placing Some One In Occupation Of An Office Or Place. The Word Is Used Of The Ceremonial Induction Of An Ecclesiastic, Such As A Canon Or Prebendary, To His Stall In His Cathedral Choir. Similarly Knights Of An Order Of Chivalry Are Ceremonially ...

Instalment Purchase
Instalment Purchase, In The Law Of Contract, A Form Of Purchase Of Goods On A System Of Extended Credit. Origin Ally Applied To The Sale Of The More Expensive Kinds Of Goods, Such As Pianos And Articles Of Furniture, The Instalment System Has Now Been Extended To Almost Every Description. ...

Instalment Selling In Great
Instalment Selling In Great Britain Instalment Selling Has Proved An Invaluable Aid To Certain Young And Some Old British Industries Since The World War. It Is Un Likely That The Motor, Wireless, Electrical Equipment, Pianoforte Or Furniture Industries Would Be In Their Present Healthy State, Had Not Instalment Selling Come ...

Instalment Selling
Instalment Selling, A System Of Retail Trading Which Is In Essence An Extension Of Credit To Purchasers, Under Some Form Of Contract By Which The Purchaser Agrees To Make Partial Payments At Stated Intervals Over A Period Of Weeks, Months Or Even Years. In This Article A Resume Of American ...

Insterburg
Insterburg, A Town In The Province Of East Prussia, At The Point Where Angerapp And Inster Join To Form The Pregel, 57 M. E. Of Konigsberg By The Railway To Eydtkuhnen, And At The Junction Of Lines To Memel And Allenstein. Pop. (1933) 41,216. Insterburg, The "burg" On The Inster, ...

Instinct In Man
Instinct In Man. The Current Views Regarding Human Instinct At The Beginning Of The Modern Period Are Very Well Repre Sented In Lord Herbert Of Cherbury's De Veritate ("on Truth"), Published In 1625. In Enumerating The Human Faculties Lord Herbert Starts With "natural Instinct." This Has Two Aspects. On The ...

Institute Of The Christian
Institute Of The Christian Brothers, Or, More Fully, "institute Of The Brothers Of The Christian Schools," A Religious Fraternity Founded At Reims In 168o, And Formally Organ Ized In 1683, By The Priest, Jean Baptiste De La Salle, For The Purpose Of Affording A Free Education, Especially In Religion: To ...

Instrument Of Government
Instrument Of Government, The Name Given To The Decree, Or Written Constitution, Under Which Oliver Cromwell As "lord Protector Of The Commonwealth" Governed England, Scotland, And Ireland From Dec. 1653 To May The Long Parliament Was Expelled In April 1653 And The Council Of State Dissolved; The Little, Or Nominated, ...

Instrument
Instrument, That Which Can Be Used As A Means To An End, Hence A Mechanical Contrivance, Implement Or Tool ; The Word Is More Particularly Applied To The Implements Of Applied Science, In Mathematics, Surgery, Surveying, Etc., While Those Of .the Handi Crafts Are Generally Known As "tools." A Specific ...

Instrumentation
Instrumentation Is The Aspect Of Music Which Deals With Timbre, And With The Technical Possibilities And Characters Of Instruments And Voices. The Treatment Of The Orchestra Has For The Last Hundred Years Been The Most Popular Branch Of The Art. Hence The Vogue Of The Narrow Term "orchestration." The Collo ...

Instruments
Instruments Measurements Of Capacity And Inductance Are Generally Made By Comparison With Fixed Or Variable Standard Condensers Or In Ductances. Condensers Are Of Various Forms, Fixed Condensers Of High Capacity From Oooi To Many Microfarads, Variable Vane Condensers Of Low Capacity As Are Used In Radio, Standard Air Con Densers, ...

Insubres
Insubres, A Celtic People Of Upper Italy, The Most Power Ful In Gallia Transpadana. Livy States That Bellovesus And His Gauls, Having Crossed The Alps And Defeated The Etruscans Near The Ticinus, Found Themselves In The Territory Of The Insubres (also The Name Of A Pagus Of The Aedui). Here ...

Insulator
Insulator, In Electricity, Is A Non-conducting Device, Or Material, Used To Separate Two Electrical Conductors. ...

Insulin
Insulin. Insulin Belongs To The Group Of Substances Known As Hormones And Is Secreted Into The Blood By Cells Which Are Situ Ated In Or Near The Pancreas. In The Mammalia, In Which The Pan Creas Is Well Defined, The Insulin Secreting Cells Lie In Scattered Groups, Called The Isles ...

Insurance Post Office Facilities
Insurance: Post Office Facilities. The Grant Of Government Life Insurances In Great Britain Through The Agency Of The Post Office Was Inaugurated By The Government Annuities Act, 1864. The Avowed Object Of The Scheme Was To Provide Facili Ties For Members Of The Working Classes To Insure Their Lives For ...

Intaglio
Intaglio, A Term Applied To Any Recessed Carving, In Which No Part Projects Beyond The Original Face Of The Material. In Some Cases, As In Gem Cutting, The Entire Relief Is Reversed. In Others, As In Some Egyptian Wall Carvings, The Outline Is Suffi Ciently Incised So As To Allow ...

Integration
Integration, A Physiological Term, Designating The Various Processes By Which The Multifarious Activities And Func Tions Of The Organism Are Knit Together To Produce A Unified Individual. The Nervous System (q.v.) Is By Far The Most Im Portant Integrative Mechanism. By Nerve Impulses, Organs Or Tissues In One Part Of ...

Integument
Integument, The Cell Membrane Enveloping The Proto Plasts Of Plants. It Is Composed Of Cellulose Together With A Num Ber Of Other Substances Known As Pectic Compounds. In Biology The Term Also Implies The Skin Or External Covering Of An Animal. See Plants. ...

Intellect
Intellect, The General Term For The Mind In Reference To Its Capacity For Understanding (lat. Intellectus, From Intelligere, To Understand). See Intelligence ; Intellectualism. ...

Intellectualism
Intellectualism, A Term Applied, Sometimes In A De Rogatory Sense, To The Tendency To Emphasize Or Over-emphasize The Importance Of Thought At The Expense Of Feeling Or Volition, Or Even Of Sensation And Intuition. In Moral Philosophy Intellec Tualism Tends To Identify Virtue With Knowledge, Evil With Igno Rance. In ...

Intelligence In Peace Time
Intelligence In Peace Time In Time Of Peace, The Relative Military Power Of A Nation With Regard To Other Foreign Powers, And In Particular To Its Immediate Neighbours, Necessarily Affects Its Foreign Policy. Every Govern Ment Therefore Maintains An Intelligence System, Which Generally Forms A Section Of The Headquarters Staff ...

Intelligence In War Time
Intelligence In War Time In War, The Greatly Increased Activities Of The Home Or Head Quarters Intelligence Service Are Mainly Directed To Areas Outside The Theatre, Or Theatres, Of Operations. In The Latter, The Armies In The Field Are Provided With Intelligence Services Of Their Own, Who Form An Additional ...

Intelligence Or Understanding
Intelligence Or Understanding Is A Term That Is Still Used By Psychologists With Considerable Latitude Of Meaning. Sometimes It Is Used As A Synonym Of "cognition," That Is To Say, It Is Applied To Any Of The Numerous Processes By Which Knowledge Is Built Up. Sometimes It Is Restricted To ...

Intelligence Tests
Intelligence Tests. An Intelligence Test Or Intelli Gence Examination Is An Instrument To Measure The Amount Of Intelligence Shown By A Human Being Or A Lower Animal. The Instrument Consists Of A Series Of Questions To Be Answered, Or Directions To Be Followed, Or Things To Be Learned, Or Intellectual ...

Intendant
Intendant, In Certain Countries An Official Title Having The Same General Sense As "superintendent" (from Lat. Intendere, To Apply The Mind To, Watch Over). Thus In Germany It Is Applied To The Head Of Public Institutions, E.g., State Theatres, And In Both France And Germany To Certain Military Offices Connected ...

Intent
Intent, In Law, The Purpose Or Object With Which An Act Is Done. The Question Of Intent Is Important With Reference Both To Civil And Criminal Responsibility. Briefly, It May Be Said That In Criminal Law The Constituent Element Of An Offence Is The Mens Rea Or The Guilty Intent. ...

Inter Allied Debts
Inter-allied Debts. An Examination Of The Methods By Which The Allies Financed The Cost Of The World War (that Is To Say, The Difference Between Normal Pre-war Expenditure And Actual Expenditure For The Period 1914-19 Inclusive) Can Only Give Approximate Results, But It Is Estimated That Of The Total War ...

Inter Ally Council Of War
Inter-ally Council Of War Purchases And Finance. This Council (commonly Called In British Documents The Inter-allied Council, Etc.), Was Set Up By The Al Lied Governments In The Late Summer Of 1917 With The Object Of, Firstly, Making Recommendations As To The Supplies And Finance Required By The Various Allies ...

Interamna Lirenas
Interamna Lirenas, An Ancient Town Of Italy In The Volscian Territory Near The Modern Pignataro Interamna, 5 M. S.e. Of Aquinum; The Additional Name Distinguishes It From Interamna Praetuttianorum (mod. Teramo) And Interamna Na Hartium (mod. Terni). It Was Founded By The Romans As A Latin Colony In 312 B.c. ...

Interborough Rapid Transit Company
Interborough Rapid Transit Company Was Incorporated In 1902 To Operate Rapid Transit Lines In The City Of New York. Its Capitalization Consisted Of $35,000,000, In Common Stock. It Acquired By Assignment The Lease Of The Original So-called Subway Of The City Of New York, Which Was Opened On Oct. 27, ...

Intercalary
Intercalary (lat. Intercalare, To Proclaim), A Term Applied To A Month, Day Or Days Inserted Between Other Months Or Days In Order To Adjust The Reckoning Of Time, To The Revolution Of The Earth Round The Sun, The Solar Year (see Calendar). From The Meaning, "something Placed Between," Intercalary Is ...

Intercolumniation
Intercolumniation, In Architecture, The Distance Be Tween The Columns Of A Colonnade; Usually Defined By The Number Of Times In Which The Bottom Diameter Of The Column Is Included In The Distance Between The Two Closest Points On Adjacent Columns. Thus The Distance Between The Centre Lines Of Two Columns ...

Interdict
Interdict, In Its Technical Sense As An Ecclesiastical Term, Is A Sentence By A Competent Ecclesiastical Authority Forbid Ding All Celebration Of Public Worship, The Administration Of Some Sacraments (baptism, Confirmation And Penance Are Permitted) And Ecclesiastical Burial. An Interdict Is A Measure Which Seeks To Punish A Population Or ...

Interdiction
Interdiction, In Scots Law, A Process Of Restraint Applied To Prodigals And Others Who, "from Weakness, Facility Or Profusion, Are Liable To Imposition." Its Only Effect Is To Prevent The Person Interdicted From Effectively Alienating His Heritable Or Real Prop Erty Without The Consent Of His Interdictors. It Leaves Him ...

Interesse Termini
Interesse Termini, In Law, An Executory Interest, Be Ing The Right Of Entry Which The Grant Of Lease Confers Upon A Lessee. Actual Entry On The Lands By The Lessee Converts . The Right Into An Estate. If The Lease, However, Has Been Created By A Bargain And Sale, Which ...

Interference
Interference Is The Confusion Of Radio Reception Due To Stray Electrical Disturbances, Undesired Signals Or Other Causes. The Name Interference Is Also Applied To That Which Produces The Confusion. ...

Interferometer
Interferometer. An Instrument Which Makes Use Of The Interference Of Light Waves (see Light) To Measure Very Small Differences In Length Or Very Small Differences In Wave Length. On The One Hand, If Very Homogeneous Light (i.e., Light Which Covers An Extremely Small Range Of Wave-length, Often Re Ferred To ...

Interglacial Stages
Interglacial Stages, A Series Of Comparatively Warm And Mild Intervals, Each Lasting Several Thousand Years, Between The Equally Prolonged Times Of Extreme Cold In The Pleistocene Glacial Period (q.v.). For The Stages Of Extreme Cold The Geologist Albrecht Penck Chose Names From Repre Sentative Districts In The Alps : Mindel, ...

Interim
Interim (lat. Interim, In The Meantime), A Word Specially Applied To Certain Edicts Passed By Imperial Diets During The Reformation In Germany With The Object Of Temporarily Settling Controversial Points Of Doctrine And Ecclesiastical Practice Until They Could Be Decided Finally By A General Council. The Interim Of Regensburg (ratisbon) ...

Interior Decoration
Interior Decoration, The Art Of Furnishing And Decorating The Interior Of A Building, Generally A Residence. Furni Ture, Rugs, Lamps, Wall-coverings, Curtains, Wall Paper, As Well As Fixtures, Bric-a-brac, Etc. Are The Principal Materials Involved In The Art Of Interior Decoration. This Article Will Treat Historically Styles Of Furniture, Etc., ...