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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 12, Part 2: Hydrozoa to Epistle of Jeremy

Interpellation
Interpellation, A Term Meaning, In General, An Inter Ruption, More Particularly Used Of A Method Of Procedure Adopted In Some Of The Legislative Chambers Of Continental Europe, Especi Ally Those Of France And Italy. It Was Originally Confined To The Asking Of A Question, After Due Notice, On Some Affair ...

Interpenetrating Mouldings
Interpenetrating Mouldings, In Architecture, Are Mouldings Of The Same Or Different Profiles, Which Meet At An Angle, As At The Top Of An Arch Or The Corner Of An Opening, And Instead Of Stopping At The Line Of Intersection, Are Carved As Though They Passed Through Each Other And Continued ...

Interpolation
Interpolation, In Mathematics, The Process Of Obtain Ing Intermediate Terms Of A Series Of Which Particular Terms Are Known; From The Latin Interpolare, To Alter, Or Insert Something Fresh, Connected With Polire, To Polish. The Logarithms, For In Stance, Shown In Table I, May Be Regarded As Terms Of A ...

Interpretation
Interpretation, In General, The Action Of Explaining, Or Rendering The Sense Of An Obscure Form Of Words Or An Unknown Tongue Into A Language Comprehended By The Person Addressed. In Legal Use The Word Is Employed In The Sense Of Ascertaining The Meaning Of The Language Of A Document. (see ...

Interregnum
Interregnum, Strictly A Period During Which The Normal Constituted Authority Is In Abeyance, And Government Is Carried On By A Temporary Authority Specially Appointed (lat. Inter, Between, And Regnuni, Reign). Though Originally And Specifically Confined To The Sphere Of Sovereign Authority, The Term Is Commonly Used By Analogy In Other ...

Interrupted Continuous Waves
Interrupted Continuous Waves, In Radio, Are Waves Obtained By The Interruption At Audio-frequency In A Periodic Manner Of An Otherwise Continuous Wave. ...

Intersubjective
Intersubjective, In Psychology, Means That Which Per Tains At Once To A Number Of Conscious Beings. So Whatever Is Ex Perienced Simultaneously By Several Minds Is Described As Inter Subjective Experience; And Whatever Is Valued In The Same Way By A Number Of Persons Is Said To Have Intersubjective Value. ...

Interval
Interval, A Space Left Between The Component Parts Of A Continuous Series, A Pause In Continuous Action, A Period Of Time Intervening Between Two Other Points Of Time. (lat. Intervallum, Space Between The Palisades On A Rampart [vallum], Or Between The Rampart And The Tents Of The Legionaries.) In Military ...

Intestacy
Intestacy, In English Law, Applies To The Case Of A Person Who Dies Leaving Property But No Will Or One Which Fails To Operate. It Is Also Applied Under The Administration Of Estates Act, 1925, To Cases Where A Person Dies Leaving A Will Which Does Not Dispose Of All ...

Intestinal Obstruction Ileus
Intestinal Obstruction (ileus), In Surgery, A Condition In Which The Onward Passage Of The Intestinal Contents Is Prevented. It Is Often Associated With Strangulation Of The Gut, Leading To Gangrene, And With Systemic Poisoning Due To The Absorption Of Toxins, Resulting From The Changes In The Intestinal Wall. The Sole ...

Intestine
Intestine, In Anatomy, The Lower Part Of The Alimentary Canal; In Man And Mammals Divided Into The Small Intestine, From The Pylorus To The Iliocaecal Valve, And The Large, Reaching From The Caecum And Colon To The End Of The Rectum. The Word Is Frequently Applied To The Whole Of ...

Intoxication
Intoxication, Poisoning, Or The Action Of Poisons, Whether Of Drugs, Bacterial Products Or Other Toxic Substances, And Hence The Condition Resulting From Such Poisoning, Particularly The Disorder Of The Nervous System Produced By Excessive Drink Ing Of Alcohol. (see Inebriety, Law Of, And Drunkenness.) ...

Intransigent
Intransigent, One Whose Attitude Is That Of An Irrecon Cilable. The Term Is Used Chiefly Of Politicians Of An Advanced Type ; Those In Complete Antagonism To The Existing Form Of Gov Ernment ; But Is Especially Applied On The Continent Of Europe To Members Of Legislatures Holding Extreme Radical ...

Introspection
Introspection, In Psychology, The Process Of Examining The Operations Of One's Own Mind With A View To Discovering The Laws Which Govern Psychic Processes (lat. Introspicere, To Look Within). The Introspective Method Has Been Adopted By Psycho Logists From The Earliest Times, More Especially By Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, And ...

Intuition
Intuition, A Term Employed In Philosophy And In Ordinary Life In Many Different Meanings, Some Of Which Indeed Are Not Only Different But Opposite. To Disentangle Them All Adequately Would Require A Discussion Of The Philosophical Conceptions Which Lie At Their Several Bases. The Salient Points May Be Indicated As ...

Inulin
Inulin, In Chemistry, A Starch-like Carbohydrate Known Also As Alantin, Menyanthin, Dahlin, Synanthrin And Sinis Trin. It Occurs In Many Plants Of The Large Family Compositae, To Which The Elecampane (lnula Helenium) Belongs; And Forms A White Tasteless Powder, Sparingly Soluble In Cold Water, Very Soluble In Hot Water And ...

Invalidity Pensions
Invalidity Pensions. It Is A Generally Accepted Principle In Almost All Civilized Countries That Where An Employed Person Becomes Permanently Incapacitated For Work Through Sickness Or Accident He Should Receive From Some Source Regular Periodical Payments With A View To Preventing Him From Falling Into Destitution. Provision Of This Kind ...

Invar
Invar, An Alloy Of Nickel And Steel, Characterized By An Extremely Small Coefficient Of Thermal Expansion ; It Is Specially Useful In The Construction Of Pendulums And Of Geodetic Measur Ing Apparatus, In Fact, In All Mechanical Devices Where It Is An Advantage To Avoid Temperature Compensation. The Name Was ...

Invariable Plane
Invariable Plane, In Celestial Mechanics (q.v.), That Plane On Which The Sum Of The Moments Of Momentum Of All The Bodies Which Make Up A System Is A Maximum. It Derives Its Celebrity From The Demonstration By Laplace That To Whatever Mutual Actions All The Bodies Of A System May ...

Inventions And Discoveries
Inventions And Discoveries. The Act Of Inven Tion, Like Many Other Human Activities, Is Difficult To Define Pre Cisely. The Distinction Often Made Between Invention And Dis Covery Is Not Logically Justifiable. For Example, The Great Advance Which Primitive Man Made In The First Use Of Pottery May Be Viewed ...

Inventory
Inventory, A Detailed List, Schedule Or Enumeration In Writing, Of Goods And Chattels, Credits And Debts, And Sometimes Also Of Lands And Tenements. (see Also Bankruptcy ; Executors And Administrators; Stock-taking.) ...

Inveraray
Inveraray, Royal Burgh And County Town Of Argyllshire, Scotland. Pop. (1931) 455. It Lies On The Southern Shore Of A Bay, Where The River Aray Enters Loch Fyne, 4o M. Directly N.w. Of Glasgow, And 85 M. By Water. Near The Church Stands An Obelisk In Memory Of The Campbells ...

Invercargill
Invercargill, The Chief Town Of Southland County, South Island, New Zealand, 139 M. By Rail S.w. By W. From Dunedin. Pop. (1936) 25,772. It Lies On A Deep Estuary Of The South Coast Named New River Harbour, Which Receives Several Streams Famous For Trout-fishing. It Is The Centre Of The ...

Inverell
Inverell, A Town Of Gough County, New South Wales, Australia, On The Macintyre River, 341 M. N. Of Sydney, With Which It Is Connected By Rail. Pop. (1933) 5,304. It Is The Centre Of An Agricultural District Producing, Chiefly, Wheat And Maize; The Vine Is Also Grown And Excellent Wine ...

Inverness
Inverness, Royal Burgh, Seaport And County Town, In Verness-shire, Scotland. Pop. (1931) 22,582. It Lies On The Ness. It Is An Important Railway Centre, 118 M. N. Of Perth By The L.m.s.r. Owing To Its Situation At The North-east Of Glen More, The Beauty Of Its Environment And Its Fine ...

Inverse Interpolation
Inverse Interpolation 1o. Inverse Interpolation: Simple Cases.—in All Cases Of Inverse Interpolation We Have To Pay Special Attention To The Degree Of Accuracy Of The Result. This Depends Largely, In Ordinary Cases, On The Initial Figure Of The First Difference. If The First Difference Is Practically Constant, Inverse Interpola Tion ...

Inversion
Inversion, A Term Used In The Study Of Geometric Figures. To Take A Simple Case, Suppose In This Figure That Op=i, And 0p2=2. Then Op1.op2=0p. Let Us Say That Then It Is Evident That There Is An Infinite Num Ber Of Points Pi, P2 On The Line Such That A ...

Invertebrata
Invertebrata, A Term Commonly Used In Zoology To Denote All Those Animals Not Possessing A Backbone (e.g., Insects, Snails, Worms), In Contradistinction To The Vertebrata (q.v.), In Which A Backbone, Or Some Structure Representing It, Is Present. The Animals Thus Brigaded Together Do Not Form In Any Sense A Natural ...

Invertebrate Embryology
Invertebrate Embryology. The Word Em Bryology Means Literally The Science Of The Fruit Of The Womb (greek But In Practice Its Meaning Is Extended To Embrace All Forms Of Individual Development Or Life-history, Whether That Development Takes Place Within The Mother's Womb, As In A Human Being, Within A Shell, ...

Inverurie
Inverurie, Royal Burgh And Parish, Aberdeenshire, Scot Land, Situated At The Confluence Of The Rivers Don And Ury, 164 M. N.w. Of Aberdeen By Rail, On The L.n.e. Railway. Pop. (1931) Paper-making And The Making Of Mineral Waters Are The Chief Manufactures. It Also Contains Railway Workshops And Is A ...

Investiture
Investiture, The Formal Installation Into An Office Or Estate, Which Constituted In The Middle Ages One Of The Acts That Betokened The Feudal Relation Between Suzerain And Vassal. The Suzerain, After Receiving The Vassal's Homage And Oath Of Fealty, Invested Him With His Land Or Office By Presenting Some Symbol, ...

Investment Trusts
Investment Trusts. Although Stock Exchange Deal Ings As We Know Them To-day, Originated With The Dutch, The Investment Trust Is Essentially A British Invention. In The Early Part Of The 19th Century, Following Upon The Emancipation From Spanish Rule Of Many Portions Of South America, There Was A Flood Of ...

Investment
Investment. An Investment May Roughly Be Defined As The Depository Of Savings. The Term Is Usually Applied To Money, But Strictly Speaking It Is Equally Applicable To All Kinds Of Property, Such As Land, Buildings And Furniture. In Short, The Whole Of An Individual's Property, Including The Debts Due To ...

Invoice
Invoice, A Statement Giving Full Particulars Of Goods Sent Or Shipped By A Trader To A Customer, With The Quantity, Quality And Prices, And The Charges Upon Them (originally A Plural, In Voyes Or Invoys, Of Invoy, A Variant Of "envoy" From The French Envoyer, To Send). Consular Invoices, I.e., ...

Involucre
Involucre. The Whorl Of Bracts At The Base Of The In Florescences Or General Umbel In Umbelliferous Plants Is Called A General Involucre; The Similar Leafy Whorl Adjoining The Smaller Umbels Or Umbellules Being Termed An Involcel Or Partial In Volucre. In Compositae The Name Is Applied To The Bracts ...

Involution
Involution, In Arithmetic Is The Operation Of Raising A Number To Any Power, Rolling It Up, As It Were, By Continued Multi Plication. Before The Invention Of A Satisfactory Symbol Like Or The Greeks Spoke Of The Second Power As A "tetragon Number" (terplrycovos Aptopos, Tetrag' Onos Arithmos', Four-angled Number) ...

Iodine Bush
Iodine-bush (allenrolfea Occidentalis), A North Ameri Can Plant Of The Goosefoot Family (chenopodiaceae), Native To Moist Alkaline Clay Soil From Western Texas To Central California. It Is An Erect, Diffusely Branched Shrub, 2 Ft. To 5 F T. High, With Alternate, Fleshy, Green, Apparently Leafless, Jointed Branches, The Leaves Being ...

Iodine Value
Iodine Value, Of An Oil Or Fat, Is The Percentage Of Iodine It Absorbs When Dissolved In Chloroform Or Carbon Tetra Chloride And Treated With Iodine Chloride. This Furnishes One Of The Most Important Methods Of Identifying An Oil Or Fat; It Gives A Measure Of The Unsaturated Fatty Acids ...

Iodine
Iodine, A Chemical Element, Belonging To The Halogen Group, Was Discovered In 1812 By B. Courtois When Investigating The Products Obtained From The Mother-liquors Prepared By Lixiviat Ing Kelp Or Burnt Seaweed. It Forms Heavy, Blackish Scales With A Violet Lustre Which Gives It A Metallic Appearance. In 1815 L. ...

Iodoform
Iodoform, A Valuable Antiseptic Discovered By G. S. Serullas In 1822. Iodoform, Is Formed By The Action Of Iodine And Aqueous Potassium Hydroxide On Ethyl Alcohol, Acetone, Acetaldehyde, Isopropyl Alcohol And Most Compounds Containing The Group Ch,co.c—. It Crystallizes In Yellow Hexagonal Plates, Melting At 119-12o° C, And Is Readily ...

Iola
Iola, City, South-eastern Kansas, U.s.a., On The Neosho River; The County Seat Of Allen County. It Is On Federal Highways 54 And 73w, And Is Served By The Missouri-kansas-texas, The Missouri Pacific And The Santa Fe Railways. The Population In 193o Was 7,16o. It Is The Trade Centre Of One ...

Iolite
Iolite : See Cordierite. (loc. Cit.) He Composed Comedies, Dithyrambs, Epigrams, Paeans, Hymns, Scolia, Encomia And Elegies. He Also Wrote An Account Of The Antiquities Of Chios And Bramutat, Recollections Of Visitors To The Island. See C. Nieberding, De Lonis Chii Vita (1836, Containing The Frag Ments) ; F. Allegre, ...

Iona Or Icolmkill
Iona Or Icolmkill, Island, Inner Hebrides, Argyllshire, Scotland, 61 M. S. Of Staffa And 14 M. W. Of The Ross Of 1,lull, From Which It Is Separated By The Shallow Sound Of Iona. Pop. (1931) 141. It Is About 31 M. Long And 12 M. Broad; Its Area Being Some ...

Ionia
Ionia, In Ancient Geography, The Name Given To A Portion Of The West Coast Of Asia Minor, Adjoining The Aegean Sea And Bounded On The East By Lydia. It Consisted Of A Narrow Strip Of Land Near The Coast, Which Together With The Adjacent Islands Was Occupied By Immigrant Greeks ...

Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands, The Collective Name For The Greek Islands Of Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, Santa Maura, Ithaca, Cythera (cerigo) And Paxo (q.v.), With Their Minor Dependencies. These Islands, Though Of Ten Described As The ("seven Islands"), Have No Geographical Unity. The Name "ionian" Is Obscure, But Is Probably Due To Ancient ...

Ionian School Of Philosophy
Ionian School Of Philosophy. Under This Name Are Included A Number Of Philosophers Of The 6th And 5th Centuries B.c. Mainly Ionians By Birth, They Are United By A Local Tie And Represent All That Was Best In The Early Ionian Intellect. It Is A Most Interesting Fact In The ...

Ionians
Ionians. This Name Was Used In Classical Times For One Of The Four Divisions Of The Greek World, The Remaining Three Being Aeolic, Doric And Arcado-cypriote Or Achaean. This Is Strictly A Linguistic Division, And The Greeks Did Not Recognize It In An Exact Sense. Aeolian, Dorian And Ionian Were ...

Ionia_2
Ionia, City, Michigan, U.s.a., On The Grand River, 34m. E. Of Grand Rapids; The County Seat Of Ionia County. It Is Served By The Grand Trunk And The Pere Marquette Railways. The Popula Tion Was 6,935 In 1920 (89% Of Native Whites) And In 1930 By The Federal Census 6,562. ...

Ionic Order
Ionic Order, One Of The Classic Orders (q.v.), Usually Listed As The Second Greek Or The Third Roman. It Is Characterized By The Capital Whose Most Important Feature Is A Horizontal Band Terminating At Either End In Large Spiral Scrolls Or Volutes. ...

Iophon
Iophon, Greek Tragic Poet, Son Of Sophocles. He Gained The Second Prize In 428 B.c., Euripides Being First, And Ion Third. In The Frogs Of Aristophanes (405) He Is Spoken Of As The Only Good Athenian Tragic Poet. He Wrote So Plays, Of Which Only A Few Fragments Remain. It ...

Iota
Iota, The Ninth Letter Of The Greek Alphabet Corresponding To The Ninth Letter Of The English Alphabet. See I. ...

Iou I
I.o.u. ("i Owe You"), A Written Acknowledgment Of A Debt. It Usually Runs Thus : An I.o.u., If Worded As Above, Or Even If The Words "for Value Received" Are Added, Needs No Stamp In Britain, As It Contains No Term Of Agreement. If Any Such Words As "to Be ...

Iovilae Or
Iovilae Or Jovilae, A Latinized Form Of Iiivilas, The Name Given By The Oscan-speaking Campanians In The 5th, 4th And 3rd Centuries B.c. To An Interesting Class Of Monuments, Not Yet Fully Understood. They All Bear Crests Or Heraldic Emblems Proper To Some Family Or Group Of Families, And Inscriptions ...

Iowa City
Iowa City, A City Of South-eastern Iowa, U.s.a., On The Iowa River, 120m. E. Of Des Moines; The County Seat Of Johnson County. It Is On Federal Highways 32 And 161; Is Served By The Cedar Rapids And Iowa City (electric) And The Rock Island Rail Ways, And Is A ...

Ipecacuanha
Ipecacuanha. The Root Used In Medicine Under This Name Is Obtained From Psychotria (or Uragoga) Ipecacuanha, A Rather Small Shrubby Plant Of The Family Rubiaceae. It Is A Native Of Brazil, Growing In Clumps Or Patches In Moist Shady Forests From 8° To S., And Is Also Found In Colombia ...

Ipek
Ipek, One Of The Two Largest Towns In Montenegro, Yugo Slavia. Pop. 13,194, Almost Entirely Albanian. The Town Lies In A Fertile Plain On Which Tobacco Is Cultivated. Ipek Is Sur Rounded By Trees And Gardens, While A Pleasant Stream Runs Through It. Nearly Every House Is Provided With A ...

Iphicrates
Iphicrates, Athenian General, Son Of A Shoemaker, Flourished In The Earlier Half Of The 4th Century B.c. He Is Chiefly Known For The Use He Made Of Lightly Armed Troops (peltasts) ; He Increased The Length Of Their Weapons, And Improved Their Mobility By Reducing Their Defensive Armour. He Also ...

Iphigeneia
Iphigeneia, Daughter Of Agamemnon (q.v.) ; Not Men Tioned In Homer, But By Some Absurdly Identified With The Iphi Anassa Of Ii. Ix, 145, Who Was Alive And Well Some Ten Years After Iphigeneia's Supposed Death. As She Is Constantly Represented As Connected In Some Way With Artemis, And As ...

Ipomoea
Ipomoea, A Large Genus Of Mainly Climbing Herbs Or Shrubs Of The Convolvulus Family (convolvulaceae, Q.v.), Containing About 400 Species. It Includes The Sweet Potato (1. Batatas), The Cultivated Morning Glory (i. Purpurea) And The Jalap (i. Purga). ...

Ipswich
Ipswich, A Town Of Stanley County, Queensland, Australia, On The River Bremer, 234 M. By Rail W. By S. Of Brisbane. Pop. (1933) It Is The Centre Of A Rich And Populous Agricul Tural Mining And Manufacturing District. Coal Outcrops On The Surface And Is Worked On The Banks Of ...

Ipswich_2
Ipswich, Municipal, County And Parliamentary Borough And County Town Of Suffolk, England, 69 M. From London By L.n.e.r. Pop. (1931) 87,557. It Stands On The Left Bank Of The River Gipping. In The Lower And Older Portion Of Ipswich Are A Few Antiquarian Remains. Sparrowe's House (1567), And Archdeacon's Place ...

Ipswich_3
Ipswich, A Town Of Essex County, Massachusetts, U.s.a., 28m. N.n.e. Of Boston, On Both Sides Of The Ipswich River And Fronting On Ipswich Bay; Served By The Boston And Maine Railroad. The Population Was 5,599 In 1930 And Is Increased In The Summer By Some 2,000 Seasonal Residents. The Town ...

Iquique
Iquique, A City And Port Of Chile, Capital Of The Province Of Tarapaca, 820m. N. Of Valparaiso, In 20° 12' 15" S., I 5" W. Population (1930) 46,458. The Coast Here Runs Due North And South And The City Is Built On A Narrow Level Plain Between The Sea And ...

Iquitos
Iquitos, A Tribe Of South American Indians. It Is Divided Into Many Branches, Some On The River Tigre, Others On The Nanay. Missionary Efforts Have Failed And They Remain Savages, Worship Ping Figures Carved In The Shape Of Birds And Beasts. They Brew The Indian Fermented Liquor Chicha Better Than ...

Iquitos_2
Iquitos, A City And River Port Of Peru, And Capital Of The Great Department Of Loreto, On The Left Bank Of The Upper Ama Zon Near The Mouth Of The Rio Nanay, 2,33o M. From The Atlantic, 25" W., 45' 23" S. During The Height Of The Rubber Boom (1906-1912) ...

Iran
Iran, The Great Plateau Between The Plain Of The Tigris In The West And The Valley Of The Indus In The East, The Caspian Sea And The Turanian Desert In The North, And The Persian Gulf And The Indian Ocean In The South, Surrounded On All Sides By High Mountain ...

Iranian Languages And Persian
Iranian Languages And Persian. Three Suc Cessive Stages In The History Of The Iranian Languages, Viz., Ancient, Middle And Modern, In Persian, The Principal Branch Of The Group, Correspond With Epochs Of National Vicissitudes. Old Persian Was Used On The Monuments Of The Achaemenian Dynasty (558-339 B.c.) Destroyed By Alexander ...

Iraq
`iraq. The Modern Independent Arab Kingdom Of 'iraq Was Formed After The World War Out Of The Former Turkish Vilayets Of Mosul, Baghdad And Basra. It Includes An Area Of Over 140,000 Sq.m. With A Population According To The Census Of 1920 Of 2,849, 282. Of This Number 1,146,685 Were ...

Iraq_2
'iraq, A Province Of Persia, Situated South Of Hamadan And West Of Qum. The District Is An Agricultural One—producing Much Grain, And Grapes And Raisins Are Of Particularly Good Quality. The Revenue In 1926-27 Amounted To 1,450,876 Krans St.=45 Krans). Sultanabad, The Administrative Centre, Is Situated 34° 6' N. And ...

Irbit
Irbit, A Town Of The Uralsk Area Of The R.s.f.s.r. In Lat. 57° 38' N., Long. 63° 6' E., At The Junction Of The Irbit And Niza Rivers Which Drain Into The Tura, A Tributary Of The Irtish. The Niza Is Navigable As Far As Irbit In Spring. It Is ...

Ireland
Ireland, An Island To The West Of Great Britain, Extending From 51° 26' To 55° 2i' N., And From 5° 25' To O° 3o' W. The Zoo Fathom Line Lies A Short Distance Beyond Its Western Coast And Leaves It In Structural Affinity With Western Europe. The North Channel Between ...

Irenaeus
Irenaeus (b. C. 13o), Bishop Of Lyons At The End Of The 2nd Century, Was One Of The Most Distinguished Theologians Of The Ante-nicene Church. Very Little Is Known Of His Early History. His Childhood Was Spent In Asia Minor, Probably At Or Near Smyrna; For He Says (adv. Hoer. ...

Irene
Irene, The Name Of Several Byzantine Empresses. Attendants On The Asiatic Shore Of The Bosporus, The Emperor Was Carried Back To The Palace At Constantinople ; And There, By The Orders Of His Mother, His Eyes Were Stabbed Out. Irene Reigned In Prosperity And Splendour For Five Years. She Is ...

Iriarte
Iriarte (or Yriarte), Tomas De (1750-1791), Span Ish Poet, Was Born In The Island Of Teneriffe. His Fdbulas Literarias (1781), Composed In A Great Variety Of Metres, Show Considerable Ingenuity In Their Humorous Attacks On Literary Men And Methods; But Their Merits Have Been Greatly Exaggerated. During His Later Years, ...

Iridaceae
Iridaceae (the Iris Family), In Botany, A Family Of Flower Ing Plants Belonging To The Order Liliiflorae Of The Class Mono Cotyledons, Containing About Boo Species In 6o Genera, And Widely Distributed In Temperate And Tropical Regions. The Members Of This Family Are Generally Perennial Herbs Growing From A Corm ...

Iridium
Iridium, A Metal Found In Small Amounts In Ordinary Platinum Ore, But Generally Ob Tained From The Native Alloy Osmiridium. (symbol Ir, Atomic Number 77, Atomic Weight 193.1.) The Best Method Of Obtaining It Is That Of Deville And De Bray (see Ruthenium And ...

Iriga
Iriga, A Municipality (with 13 Barrios Or Districts) Of The Province Of Camarines Sur, Philippine Islands, On The Bikol River, About 20 M. S.e. Of Naga, The Provincial Capital, And Near The South-west Base Of Mt. Iriga, A Volcanic Peak Reaching A Height Of About 4,00o Ft. Above Sea-level. It ...

Iris
Iris, In Greek Mythology, Daughter Of Thaumas And The Ocean Nymph Electra (according To Hesiod), The Personification Of The Rainbow And Messenger Of The Gods; As A Messenger Of The Gods, She Is Mentioned Frequently In The Iliad, But Never In The Odyssey, Where Hermes Takes Her Place. She Is ...

Irish Free State Saorstat
Irish Free State (saorstat Eireann). The Irish Free State, With The Status Of A British Dominion, Came Officially Into Being On Jan. 15, 1922, When The Irish Peace Agreement, Signed In London On Dec. 6, 1921, By The British And Irish Delegations, Already Ratified By The British Parliament On Dec. ...

Irish Literature
Irish Literature. The English Occupation Of Ire Land Raised Its First Literary Monument In The Kildare Poems Of The Early 14th Century Whose Interest Is Now Mainly Philo Logical. Up To The Middle Years Of The I6th Century The Use Of English Was Limited To A Few Towns And To ...

Irish Moss Or Carrageen
Irish Moss Or Carrageen (irish Carraigeen, "moss Of The Rock"), A Seaweed (chondrus Crispus) Which Grows Abundantly Along The Rocky Parts Of The Atlantic Coast Of Europe And North America. In Its Fresh Condition The Plant Is Soft And Cartilaginous, Varying In Colour From A Greenish-yellow To A Dark Purple ...

Irish
Irish, The Celtic Language Of Ireland (q.v.), Also Called Erse. Old Irish (700—i I 00) Contains A Wealth Of Inflectional Forms In Declension And Conjugation. Many Of The Forms, However, Dis Appeared Early. An Interesting Rule Of Vocalic Harmony (slender To Slender And Broad To Broad) Is Recorded. In Irish ...

Iris_2
Iris. In Botany, The Iris Plant Belongs To The Family Iridaceae Of The Class Monocotyledons ; It Is Characterized By A Petaloid Six-parted Perianth, An Inferior Ovary And Only Three Stamens (the Outer Series), Being Thus Distinguished From The Amaryllidaceae Family, Which Has Six Stamens. They Are Handsome Showy-flowered Plants, ...

Irkutsk
Irkutsk, A Town In The Siberian Area Of The R.s.f.s.r. In Lat. 36' N., Long. 10' E., Altitude 1,490 Ft. It Is Situated On The Right Bank Of The Angara River, A Tributary Of The Yenisei River, 45 M. Below Its Outflow From Lake Baikal; Its Suburb Glazkovskoe Lies On ...

Irmin Or Irminus
Irmin Or Irminus, In Teutonic Mythology, A Deified Eponymic Hero Of The Herminones. The Chief Seat Of His Worship Was Irminsal, Or Ermensul, In Westphalia. Wooden Pillars Raised To His Honour Were Regarded As Sacred By The Saxons. ...

Irnerius
Irnerius, Italian Jurist, Sometimes Referred To As "lucerna Iuris." He Taught The "free Arts" At Bologna, His Native City, Dur Ing The Earlier Decades Of The 12th Century. Of His Personal History Little Is Known, Except That He Died, Perhaps During The Reign Of The Emperor Lothair Ii., But Certainly ...

Iron And Steel Worlds
Iron And Steel: World's Statistics. In Tracing The Development Of The World's Iron And Steel Output It Is Necessary To Commence With Great Britain, For Although The Out Put Of Pig Iron In Great Britain Was In 1938 Only 8.4 Per Cent Of The World's Total And Of Steel Only ...

Iron And Steel
Iron And Steel. Iron Is The Most Useful Metal Of Ma Terial Civilization; It Means Plant, Tools, Machinery. It Is Princi Pally Used When Alloyed With Other Elements, Notably Carbon ; A Moderate Amount Produces Steel, An Excess Produces Cast Iron. Many Special Steels For Particular Uses Have Been Devised ...

Iron Cross
Iron Cross. A German Decoration, Instituted In 1813 As A Reward For Distinguished Service In The War Of Liberation. (see Numismatics; Medals Of Other Countries.) ...

Iron In Art
Iron In Art. Iron Work Is A Term Used Generally To Denote Anything Made Of Iron, But Specifically Applied To The Designing And Handicraft Of Iron As A Work Of Art. The Working Of Iron Has Engaged The Activities Of The Human Race From Remote Antiquity, Especially In The Continents ...

Iron Mask
Iron Mask (masque De Fer). The Identity Of The "man In The Iron Mask," One Of Louis Xiv.'s Political Prisoners Who Died In The Bastille In 1703, Is A Famous Historical Mystery. In 1698, Saint-mars, The New Governor Of The Bastille, Brought With Him From Pinerolo In Piedmont A Prisoner ...

Iron Mountain
Iron Mountain, A City Of Michigan, U.s.a., On The West Ern Edge Of The Upper Peninsula, Near The Wisconsin State Line (the Menominee River), At An Altitude Of ,i6oft. ; The County Seat Of Dickinson County. It Is On Federal Highway 2, And Is Served By The Chicago And North ...

Iron Ore
Iron Ore Iron Is Smelted From Several Oxidized Minerals Occurring In Abundance In The Earth's Crust. In Order Of Commercial Import Ance These Minerals Are Hematite (fe203), Magnetite Li Monite (hydrated Iron Oxide) And The Carbonate Siderite (feco3). Great Deposits Of These Minerals In Relatively Pure State, Close Enough To ...

Iron River
Iron River, A City Of Iron County, Michigan, U.s.a., In The Western Part Of The Upper Peninsula, 5 M. From The Wis Consin State Line (the Menominee River). It Is On Federal High Way 2, And Is Served By The Chicago And North Western And The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul ...

Iron Wood
Iron-wood, The Name Applied To Several Kinds Of Timber, The Produce Of Trees From Different Parts Of The Tropics, And Belong Ing To Very Different Natural Families. Usually The Wood Is Extremely Hard, Dense And Dark-coloured, And Sinks In Water. Several Species Of Sideroxylon (sapotaceae) Yield Iron-wood, Sideroxylon Cinereum Or ...

Iron
Iron, A Metallic Chemical Element. Although Iron (symbol Fe, Atomic Number 26, Atomic Weight 55.84, Isotopes 56 And 54) Occurs Only Sparingly In The Free State, The Abundance Of Ores From Which It May Be Readily Obtained Led To Its Application In The Arts At A Very Remote Period. It ...

Ironbark
Ironbark, The Name Applied To Species Of Eucalyptus (q.v.) In Australia, From The Hardness Of The Bark. ...

Ironsides
Ironsides, A Nickname Given To One Of Great Bravery, Strength Or Endurance, Particularly As Exhibited In A Soldier. In English History Ironside Or Ironsides First Appears As The Name Of Edmund Ii., King Of The English. In The Great Rebellion It Was First Given By Prince Rupert To Cromwell, Of ...

Ironton
Ironton, A City Of Southern Ohio, U.s.a., On The Ohio River, 142m. E.s.e. Of Cincinnati, Opposite Russell, Ky. ; The County Seat Of Lawrence County. It Is On Federal Highway 52, And Is Served By The Chesapeake And Ohio, The Detroit, Toledo And Iron Ton And The Norfolk And Western ...

Ironwood
Ironwood, A City Of Gogebic County, Michigan, U.s.a., In The Western Tip Of The Upper Peninsula, On The Montreal River. It Is On Federal Highway 2, And Is Served By The Chicago And North Western, The Duluth, South Shore And Atlantic And The Soo Line Railways. The Population Was 15,739 ...