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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 12, Part 2: Hydrozoa to Epistle of Jeremy

James Iii
James Iii. (1451-1488), King Of Scotland, Eldest Son Of James Ii., Was Born On July 10, 1451. He Was Crowned At Kelso In 1460. After The Death Of His Mother In 1463, And Of Her Principal Supporter, James Kennedy, Bishop Of St. Andrews, Two Years Later, The Person Of The ...

James Il
James Il (c. 1260-1327), King Of Aragon, Grandson Of James I. And Son Of Peter Iii. And Constance, Daughter Of Man Fred Of Beneventum, Was Left King Of Sicily (1285) By His Father. Upon Inheriting Aragon On The Death Of His Brother Alphonso (1291), He Resigned Sicily And Married Blanca, ...

James Iv
James Iv. (1473-1513), King Of Scotland, Eldest Son Of James Iii., Was Born On March 17, 1473. He Was Nominally The Leader Of The Rebels Who Defeated The Troops Of James Iii. At The Sauchieburn In June 1488, And Became King When His Father Was Killed. Few If Any Of ...

James I_2
James I. King Of Scotland And Poet, Son Of Robert Iii. And Annabella Drummond Of Stobhall, Was Born At Dunfermline In July 1394. Robert, Suspecting Robert, Duke Of Albany, Of Complicity In The Mysterious Death Of His Elder Son David, Sent James To France For Safety In 1406. He Was ...

James James Francis Edward
James (james Francis Edward Stuart) (1688-1766), Prince Of Wales, Known To The Jacobites As James Iii. And To The Hanoverian Party As The Old Pretender, The Son And Heir Of James Ii. Of England, Was Born In St. James's Palace, London, On June Io, 1688. The Scandalous Story That He ...

James Lange Theory Of Emotions
James-lange Theory Of Emotions. The Usual Way Of Thinking About The Emotional Experiences And Their Facial Or Other Bodily Manifestations Is That The Emotional Expe Rience Is Excited By The Perception Of Some Object, And That The Emotional Feeling Then Expresses Itself In The Bodily Manifesta Tions In Question. The ...

James V
James V. (1512-1542), King Of Scotland, Only Legitimate Son Of James Iv., Was Born At Linlithgow On April Io, 1512, And Suc Ceeded His Father In 1513. The Regency Was At First Vested In His Mother, But After Queen Margaret's Second Marriage, With Archi Bald Douglas, 6th Earl Of Angus, ...

James
James, A Masculine Proper Name Popular In Christian Coun Tries As Having Been That Of Two Of Christ's Apostles (a Variant Of The Name Jacob, Heb. Zpv., One Who Holds By The Heel, Outwitter, Through O.fr. James, Another Form Of Jacques, Jaques, From Low Lat. Jacobus). It Has Been Borne ...

Jamestown
Jamestown, City, Chautauqua County, New York, U.s.a., At The Southern Outlet Of Lake Chautauqua, 68m. S. By W. Of Buffalo. It Is Served By The Erie And The Jamestown, West Field And North-western Railways, By Inter-urban Trolley And Motor-bus Lines, And In Summer By Lake Steamers. The Population Was 38,917 ...

Jamestown_2
Jamestown, A City Of North Dakota, U.s.a., On The James River And Federal Highway So, Midway Between Fargo And Bismarck, At An Altitude Of 1,429 Ft.; The County Seat Of Stutsman County. It Is Served By The Midland Continental And The North Ern Pacific Railways. The Population In 1930 (federal ...

Jamestown_3
Jamestown, A Former Village In What Is Now James City County, Va., U.s.a., On Jamestown Island, In The James River, About 4o M Above Norfolk. It Was Here That The First Permanent English Settlement In America Was Founded On May 13, 1607, That Representative Government Was Inaugurated On The American ...

James_2
James, The Name Of Several Persons Mentioned In The New Testament (gr. 'ihkwj3os, The Heb. Yatakob Or Jacob). ...

Jamkhandi
Jamkhandi, A Native State Of India, In The Deccan Division Of Bombay, Ranking As One Of The Southern Mahratta Jagirs. Area, 524 Sq.m. Pop. (1931), 114,270; Tribute, £1,300. The Chief Is A Brahman Of The Patwardhan Family. Cotton, Wheat And Millet Are Produced, And Weaving And Dyeing Carried On. The ...

Jammu Or
Jammu Or Jummoo, Capital Of The State Of Jammu And Kash Mir In Northern India, On The River Tavi (ta-wi), A Tributary Of The Chenab. Pop. (1931), 38,613. The Town And Palace Stand Upon The Right Bank Of The River ; The Fort Overhangs The Left Bank, At A Height ...

Jamnia
Jamnia, An Ancient Town Of Southern Palestine 13 M. S. Of Joppa And 4 M. From The Sea. The Name Is A Graecized Form Of The Jabneh, Or Jabneel, Of The Old Testament. The Modern In Heritrix Of The Site Is A Large Village On A Sandy Hill In The ...

Jamrud
Jamrud, A Fort And Cantonment In India, Just Beyond The Border Of Peshawar District, North-west Frontier Province (q.v.), Situated At The Mouth Of The Khyber Pass, 9 M. W. Of Peshawar On The Extension Of The North-western Railway To The Afghan Frontier. It Was Occupied By Hari Singh, Ranjit Singh's ...

Jams And Jellies
Jams And Jellies. In The Article Food Preservation It Is Pointed Out That Concentrated Sugar Solutions Inhibit The Growth Of Organisms And So Have A Preservative Action. The Preparation Of Jams And Jellies Is Based Upon This Fact. All Fresh And Succulent Fruit Contains A Large Percentage Of Water, Amount ...

Jamshedpur
Jamshedpur, A Town In British India, In The Singhbhum District Of Behar And Orissa. The Town Is Situated In An Angle Of The Subarnarekha And Kharkhai Rivers, With A Station On The Bengal-nagpur Railway. With A Pop. (1931) Of 83,738, It Is The Third Largest Town In The Province, Though ...

Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen, An Arctic Island Between Greenland And The North Of Norway, About 7i° N., 8° W. It Is 34 M. Long And 9 M. In Greatest Breadth, And Is Divided Into Two Parts By A Low, Narrow Isthmus. The Island Is Of Quaternary Volcanic Formation And Mountainous, The Highest ...

Janesville
Janesville, A City Of Southern Wisconsin, U.s.a., On The Rock River, I3mi. From The Illinois State Line; The County Seat Of Rock County. It Is On Federal Highway 51, And Is Served By The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul And Pacific And The Chicago And North Western Railways, And By Interurban ...

Janina
Janina, A Town Of North Epirus In Greece. Pop. (1930) 21,503. The Largest Ethnical Groups In The Population Are The Albanian And Greek. The Position Of Janina Is Strikingly Pic Turesque. At The Foot Of The Grey Limestone Mass Of Mount Mitzekeli (1,50oft.), Which Forms Part Of The Fine Range ...

Janissaries
Janissaries, An Organized Military Force Constituting, Until 1826, The Standing Army Of The Ottoman Empire. The Word Is A Corruption Of The Turkish Yeni Chgiri, New Troops. At First Turkey Possessed No Standing Army. It Was Under Orkhan That A Regular Paid Army Was First Organized ; But The Result ...

Janiuay
Janiuay, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 74 Barrios Or Districts) Of The Province Of Iloilo, Island Of Panay, Philippine Islands, About 20 M. W.n.w. Of Iloilo, The Provincial Capital. Pop. (1918), 24,641. Excellent Motor Roads Connect It With Other Centres. The Surrounding Country, Although Hilly, Is Fertile And Well ...

Janjira
Janjira, A Native State Of India (kolaba Agency), In The Konkan Division Of Bombay, Situated Along The Coast Among The Spurs Of The Western Ghats, 4o M. S. Of Bombay City. Area, Sq. M. Pop. (1931) 98,296. There Is A Small Military Force; No Tribute. The Chief, Whose Title Is ...

Jansenism
Jansenism, The Religious Principles Laid Down By Cornelius Jansen In His Augustinus. This Was Simply A Digest Of The Teach Ing Of St. Augustine, Drawn Up With A Special Eye To The Needs Of The 17th Century. In Jansen's Opinion The Church Was Suffering From Three Evils. The Official Scholastic ...

January
January, The First Month In The Modern Calendar, Consist Ing Of 31 Days. The Name (lat. Lanuarius) Is Derived From The Two-faced Roman God Janus, To Whose Care The Month Was Dedicated As Looking Both Into The Past And The Future, And As The Deity Who Busied Himself With The ...

Janus
Janus, In Roman Cult, The God Of Doorways (lanuae). See Roman Religion. The Rationalists Explained Him As An Old King Of Latium, Who Built A Citadel For Himself On The Janiculum. It Was Believed That His Worship, Which Existed As A Local Cult Before The Foundation Of Rome, Was Introduced ...

Jaora
Jaora, An Indian State In The Malwa Agency, Central India. It Consists Of Two Isolated Tracts, Between Ratlam And Neemuch. Area, With The Dependencies Of Piplauda And Pant Piplauda, 602 Sq.m. Pop. (1931), 100,166. The Chief, Whose Title Is Nawab And Who Enjoys A Salute Of 13 Guns, Is A ...

Japan And The World
Japan And The World War The Siege Of Tsingtao.—in April 1914 Count Okuma, Who Of Recent Years Had Been Devoting All His Energies To The Foundation And Development Of The Waseda University In Tokyo, Undertook To Form A Cabinet. It Lasted Only Two Years But Is Memorable Because Under This ...

Japan
Japan, An Empire Of Eastern Asia, And One Of The Great Powers Of The World. The Following Article Is Divided For Con Venience Into Sections As Under: Geography ; Geology ; Cli Position And Continent Of Asia Stretches Two Arms Into The Pacific Ocean, Kamstchatka In The North And Ma ...

Japanese Architecture
Japanese Architecture. The Physical Features Of The Country And The National Characteristics Of Cleanliness And Simplicity Have Determined And Guided The General Trend Of Japanese Architecture ; Wood Is The Principal Building Material, For Japan Is Abundantly Supplied With Such Splendid Timber As Hinoki (chamaecyparis Obtusa), Which Is Still In ...

Japanese Art
Japanese Art: See Japanese Painting And Prints; Japanese Architecture; Japanese Sculpture; No Drama; Dance: Japan; Ivory Carving: Japanese; Jewellery: Chinese, Japanese, Indian And Persian; Enamel : Chinese And Japanese; Iron In Art : China And Japan; Pottery And Por Celain : Near And Far East; Textiles And Embroideries : The ...

Japanese Beetle
Japanese Beetle, A Beetle (popillia Japonica) Which Was Accidentally Introduced Into The United States Probably In The Larval Form In Earth Around The Roots Of Some Plant Imported From Japan. It Was First Discovered In The United States In 1916 Near Riverton, N.j. Since That Time It Has Spread To ...

Japanese Gardens
Japanese Gardens. The Art Of Garden-making Was Probably Imported Into Japan From China Or Korea. Records Show That The Imperial Palaces Had Gardens By The 5th Century, Their Chief Characteristic Being A Pond With An Islet Connected To The Shore By Bridges—as Is Shown Later By Mentions Of The Em ...

Japanese Language
Japanese Language. Japanese Is An Agglutinative Language. Its Origin Is Still A Matter Of Conjecture. Korea Was Probably The First Foreign Country With Which Japan Had Relations; But Whether And To What Extent She Borrowed From Its Language Is Uncertain, And It Is Not Till She Came Into Contact With ...

Japanese Literature
Japanese Literature. From The Neighbouring Con Tinent The Japanese Derived The Art Of Writing, Probably About The Middle Of The 3rd Century, But The Earliest Book Now Extant Dates From 712. This Is The Kojiki (record Of Ancient Matters), Translated Into English By Chamberlain, As Vol. X. Of The Trans ...

Japanese Music
Japanese Music. The Traditional Origin Of Japanese Music Is Generally Traced Back To Izanagi And Izanami, The Creator And Creatress Of The Country In Japanese Mythology, Whom The 8th Century Kojiki Records As Having Sung Together In Chorus. Danc Ing Is Likewise Linked With The Performance Of The Celestial Deities ...

Japanese Sculpture
Japanese Sculpture. It Is Surprising That So Many Pieces Of Sculpture Should Still Be Preserved In Japan When We Know That They Have Been Housed In Wooden Buildings Which Have Been Reduced To Ashes Again And Again By Recurrent Conflagrations. Such Preservation Has Been Mainly Due To The Important Part ...

Japanning
Japanning. The Art Of Coating Surfaces Of Metal, Wood, Etc., With A Variety Of Varnishes, Which Are Dried And Hardened On In Stoves Or Hot Chambers. These Drying Processes Constitute The Main Distinguishing Features Of The Art. The Trade Owes Its Name To The Fact That It Is An Imitation ...

Japheth
Japheth Was, According To The Tradition Of The "priestly" Stratum Of The Old Testament, The Third "son" Of Noah; But The Older Tradition Of Gen. Ix. 20-27 Represents Him As The Second Son. The Oracle Of Blessing, Gen. Ix. 27 ("god Enlarge Japheth, And Let Him Dwell In The Tents ...

Jararaca
Jararaca (lachesis Jararaca), A Poisonous Crotaline Snake Of Tropical South America, Related To The Bushmaster (q.v.). (see Snakes.) ...

Jargoon Or Jargon
Jargoon Or Jargon (occasionally In Old Writings Jar Gounce And Jacounce), A Name Applied By Modern Mineralogists To Those Zircons Which Are Fine Enough To Be Cut As Gem-stones, But Are Not Of The Red Colour Which Characterizes The Hyacinth (q.v.). The Name Is Related To Arab Zargun (zircon). Some ...

Jarir Ibn
Jarir Ibn 'atiitya Ul-khatfi (d. 728), Arabian Poet, Was A Member Of The Tribe Kulaib, A Part Of The Tamim, And Lived In Irak. He Succeeded In Winning The Favour Of Hajjaj, The Governor Of Irak. (see Caliphate.) He Became Widely Known By His Feud With Farazdaq And Akhtal, And ...

Jarkent
Jarkent, A Town Of Asiatic Russia In The Kazakstan A.s.s.r. In 44° 12' N. And 57' E. On A Tributary Of The Ili River. It Is On A Caravan Route From Kulja In East Turkistan, And Manufactures Makhorka Tobacco And Beer. Pop. (1926) 10,956. ...

Jarnac
Jarnac, A Town Of Western France In The Department Of Charente, On The Right Bank Of The River Charente, And On The Rail Way 23 M. W. Of Angouleme, Between That City And Cognac. Pop. (1931) 3,502. The Church Contains An Interesting Ogival Crypt. Brandy, Wine And Wine-casks Are Made ...

Jaro
Jaro, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 29 Barrios Or Districts), Of The Province Of Iloilo, Island Of Panay, Philippine Islands, On The Jaro River, 2 M. N.w. Of Iloilo, The Provincial Capital, With Which It Is Connected By Railway. Pop. (1918) 24,572. It Lies On A Plain, In The ...

Jarosite
Jarosite, A Mineral Species Consisting Of Hydrous Potas Sium And Aluminium Sulphate, And Often Occurring As Incrustations Of Minute Indistinct Crystals With A Yellowish-brown Colour And Brilliant Lustre. The Best Specimens, Consisting Of Crystalline Crusts On Limonite, Are From The Jaroso Ravine In The Sierra Al Magrera, Province Of Almeria, ...

Jarrah Wood
Jarrah Wood, The Product Of A Large Tree (eucalyptus Marginate) Found In South-western Australia, Where It Is Said To Cover An Area Of 14,000 Sq.m. The Trees Grow Straight In The Stem To A Great Size, And Yield Squared Timber Up To 4o Ft. Length And 24 In. Diameter. The ...

Jashpur
Jashpur, A Feudatory State Of India In The Central Prov Inces, Having Been Transferred From Bengal In 1905. The Country Is Divided Almost Equally Into High And Low Lands. The Uparghat Plateau On The East Rises 2,200 Ft. Above Sea Level, And The Highest Hill In These Uplands Is Ranijula ...

Jasmine Or Jessamine
Jasmine Or Jessamine, Botanically Jasminum, A Genus Of Shrubs Or Climbers Of The Family Oleaceae, And Comprising About Too Species, Of Which 4o Or More Occur In The Gardens Of Great Britain And North America. The Plants Of The Genus Are Mostly Natives Of The Warmer Regions Of The Old ...

Jason Of Cyrene
Jason Of Cyrene, A Hellenistic Jew, Who Lived About Ioo B.c. And Wrote A History Of The Times Of The Maccabees Down To The Victory Over Nicanor (175-161 B.c.). This Work Is Said To Have Been In Five Books And Formed The Basis Of The Present 2 Macc. (see Ch. ...

Jason
Jason, In Greek Legend, Son Of Aeson, King Of Iolcus In Thessaly. After His Return From Colchis (see Argonauts), He Lived At Corinth With His Wife Medea (q.v.) For Many Years. At Last He Put Away Medea In Order To Marry Glauce (or Creiisa), Daughter Of The Corinthian King, Creon. ...

Jasper
Jasper, An Impure Variety Of Quartz. It Is Compact, And Being Very Hard It Takes A Fine Polish. It Occurs In Many Colours— Dark Green, Brown, Yellow And Sometimes Blue Or Black. Occa Sionally It Is Found Banded With Many Different Coloured Stripes. Unlike Chalcedony, It Is Opaque, And Does ...

Jassy
Jassy (rum. Iasi), The Capital Of The Department Of Jassy, Rumania ; Situated On The Left Bank Of The River Bahlui, An Affluent Of The Jijia, About Io M. W. Of The Pruth. Pop. (193o) 102,595 Including A Great Number Of Jews. Jassy Communicates By Rail With Galatz, Kishinev And ...

Jataka
Jataka, The Technical Name, In Buddhist Literature, For A Story Of One Or Other Of The Previous Births Of The Buddha. The Word Is Also Used For The Name Of A Collection Of 547 Of Such Stories Included In The Buddhist Pali Canon. The Form Of Most Of These Tales ...

Jath
Jath, Native State Of India (bijapur Agency), In The Deccan Division Of Bombay. The Small State Of Daphlapur Was Added To Jath On The Death Of Its Last Ruler In 1917. Area, 981 Sq.m. Pop. (1931) 91,099. Tribute £756. Agriculture And Cattle-breeding Are Carried On; There Are No Important Manufactures. ...

Jativa
Jativa (formerly Written Xativa) Or San Felipe De Jativa, A Town Of Eastern Spain, In The Province Of Valencia, On The Right Bank Of The River Albaida, A Tributary Of The Jucar, And At The Junction Of The Valencia-murcia And Valencia-albacete Railways. Pop. (1930), 15,087. Jativa Was The Roman Saetabis. ...

Jauer
Jauer, A Town In The Prussian Province Of Silesia, 13 M. South Of Liegnitz, On The Wiithende Neisse. Pop. (1933) 12,628. The Town Was First Mentioned In 1242, And Was Formerly The Capi Tal Of A Principality Embracing About 1,200 Square Miles. From 1392 To 1741 It Belonged To The ...

Jauhari Abu Nasr Ismail
Jauhari (abu Nasr Ismail Ibn Hammad Ul-jauhari) (d. 1002 Or Ioio), Arabian Lexicographer, Was Born At Farab On The Borders Of Turkistan. He Studied In Farab And Bagdad, And Settled First In Damghan, Then At Nishapur, Where He Died. His Great Work Is The Kitdb Us-sandh Fil-lugha, An Arabic Dictionary, ...

Jaundice Or Icterus
Jaundice Or Icterus, A Term In Medicine Applied To A Yellow Coloration Of The Skin And Other Parts Of The Body, Of Ten Associated With Some Derangement Affecting The Liver. This Yellow Colour Is Due To The Presence In The Blood Of Bile Or Some Of Its Constituents. Jaundice, However, ...

Jaunpur
Jaunpur, A City And District Of British India, In The Benares Division Of The United Provinces. The City Is On The Left Bank Of The River Gumti, 34 M. N.w. From Benares By Rail. Pop. (1931), 37,675. Jaunpur Is An Ancient City, The Former Capital Of A Mohammedan Kingdom Which ...

Java
Java, Fourth In Area But Most Important Of The Islands Of The Malay Archipelago Which Constitute The Dutch East Indies, Belonging To The Netherlands, Is Separated From Sumatra On The West By The Sunda Strait, 14-50 M. Wide, And From Bali On The East, By Bali Strait, Ii M. Wide ...

Javelin Throwing
Javelin Throwing, The Art Of Throwing A Spear To The Greatest Possible Distance In A Straight Line At Right Angles To A Given Scratch Line. Javelin Throwing Is A Natural, War-like Sport, Which Was Prac Tised At The Ancient Olympic Games And Has Been Revived In The Modern Olympiads Instituted ...

Javelin
Javelin, A Spear, Particularly One Light Enough To Be Thrown, A Dart. The Javelin Was Often Provided With A Thong To Help In Casting. (see Spear.) Formerly The Sheriff Of A County Or Borough Had A Body Of Men Armed With Javelins, And Known As Javelin-men, Who Acted As A ...

Jawhar
Jawhar,, A Native State Of India (thana Agency), In The Konkan Division Of Bombay, Situated Among The Lower Ranges Of The Western Ghats. Area 310 Sq.m. Pop. (1931) 57,261; There Is No Tribute. The Chief, Who Is A Koli By Caste, Traces Back His Descent To 1343. The Chief Crops ...

Jaworow
Jaworow, A Town Of Poland, 3o M. W. Of Lemberg (lwow) On The River Skto. Pop. (1931) 50,690. It Has Pottery Works And Some Trade In Agricultural Produce. The Town Was Once The Residence Of John Sobieski. It Passed To Poland From Austria After The World War. ...

Jay Treaty
Jay Treaty, The Name Applied, In U.s. History, To A Treaty Signed On Nov. 19, 1794 By John Jay And Lord Grenville On Behalf Of The United States And Great Britain, Respectively. The American Grievances Which Led To The Negotiations Consisted Princi Pally In Great Britain's Refusal To Withdraw Her ...

Jazz
Jazz Is (i) A Technique For The Playing Of Any Music, Em Bracing Tricks Of Accent And Rhythm, Interpolated Melodic Figures, And Instrumental Effects; And (2) Written Music Calling For The Use Of That Technique Or Exhibiting Its Influence. It May Have Originated In A Revolt Of The Individual ; ...

Jealousy
Jealousy, Originally A Condition Of Zealous Emulation, Hence The Modern Sense Of Resentment At Being Supplanted In The Affection Of Another. The Word Is Another Form Of "zealous," And Is Derived From Gr. ''cixos, Ardour, From 4ft.v, To Boil, Ferment. A. Thick, Ribbed And Non-transparent Glass Was Formerly Called "jeal ...

Jean Baptiste Isabey
Isabey, Jean Baptiste (1767-1855) , French Painter, Was Born At Nancy On April Ii, 1767. He Went To Paris In 1785 And Became A Pupil Of David. Employed At Versailles On Por Traits Of The Dukes Of Angouleme And Berry, He Was Given A Corn Mission By The Queen, Which ...

Jean Bernard Jaureguiberry
Jaureguiberry, Jean Bernard , French Admiral, Was Born At Bayonne On Aug. 26, 1815. He En Tered The Navy In 1831, Served In Crimea And In China, Was Gov Ernor Of Senegal, And Was Promoted To Rear-admiral In 1869. He Was The The Most Distinguished Of The Many Naval Officers ...

Jean Darras
Jean D'arras, A 15th-century Trouvere, Was The Collabo Rator With Antoine Du Val And Fouquart De Cambrai In A Collection Of Stories Entitled Evangiles De Quenouille, Told By Ladies At Their Spinning, Who Relate The Current Theories On A Great Variety Of Subjects. The Work Throws Much Light On Mediaeval ...

Jean De Meun Or
Jean De Meun Or De Metjng (1250?-1305?), Whose Original Name Was Jean Clopinel Or Chopinel, Was Born At Meun Sur-loire. Tradition Asserts That He Studied At The University Of Paris. At Any Rate He Was, Like His Contemporary, Rutebeuf, A Defender Of Guillaume De Saint-amour And A Bitter Critic Of ...

Jeannette
Jeannette, A Borough Of Westmoreland County, Pa., U.s.a., 23m. S.e. Of Pittsburgh ; Served By The Pennsylvania Rail Road. The Population Was 20,627 In 1920 (2o% Foreign-born White), And Was 15,126 Under The Federal Census Of 1930. It Is Supplied With Natural Gas, And Is Primarily A Manufacturing Centre, With ...

Jebeil
Jebeil, A Village Of Syria, About 20 M. N. Of Beirut. Pop. About I,000. There Are Traces Of Ancient Magnificence In The Ruins Of Its Wall, Castle, Temple And In Its Numerous Granite Columns. Written In Ink On Earthen Vessels Recently Discovered At Luxor Were Lists Of Foreign Peoples, And ...

Jebel
Jebel, An Arabic Word For A Mountain Chain Or A Moun Tain, Frequently Used In Place Names, E.g., Gibraltar, I.e., Tarik's Mountain. Jebili Signifies A Mountaineer. ...

Jedburgh
Jedburgh (jed'bilr-9), Royal Burgh, Parish And County Town, Roxburghshire, Scotland. Pop. (1931), 3,057; On Jed Water, A Tributary Of The Teviot, 56/ M. S.e. Of Edinburgh By The L.n.e. Railway, Via Roxburgh And St. Boswells (49 M. By Road). There Have Been Many Variants Of The Name, While Locally The ...

Jefferson City
Jefferson City (legally And Officially The City Of Jeffer Son), The Capital Of Missouri, U.s.a., And The County Seat Of Cole County, On The South Bank Of The Missouri River, Near The Centre Of The State. It Is On Federal Highways So, 54 And 63 ; Is Served By The ...

Jeffersonville
Jeffersonville, A City Of Southern Indiana, U.s.a., On The Ohio River, Opposite Louisville, Ky. ; The County Seat Of Clark County. It Is Served By The Baltimore And Ohio, The Big Four, The Interstate Public Service Company (electric), And The Pennsylvania Railways, And By River Packet Lines. The Population Was ...

Jehoiachin
Jehoiachin, Son Of Jehoiakim And King Of Judah (2 Kings Xxiv. 8 Sqq.; 2 Chron. Xxxvi. 9 Seq.; Jer. Xxii. 20-30). He Came To The Throne At The Age Of 18 In The Midst Of The Chaldean Invasion Of Judah, And Is Said To Have Reigned Three Months. He Was ...

Jehoiakim
Jehoiakim, Son Of Josiah (q.v.) And King Of Judah (2 Kings Xxiii. 34–xxiv. 6; Jer. Xxii. 13-19). On The Death Of Josiah At Megiddo His Younger Son Jehoahaz (or Shallum) Was Chosen By The Judaeans, But The Egyptian Conqueror Necho Summoned Him To His Headquarters At Riblah And Removed Him ...

Jehol Or
Jehol Or Cheng-te-fu Is The Capital Of A Special Adminis Trative Area, To The North Of The Great Wall, Formerly Attached To The Chinese Province Of Chihli. The City Is Situated About 13o M. N. E. Of Peking At The Head Of Navigation Of The Lwan-ho On A Plain Within ...

Jehoram
Jehoram, The Name Of Two Kings In The Bible (also Joram). I. The Son Of Ahab, And King Of Israel In Succession To His Brother Ahaziah. He Maintained Close Relations With Judah, Whose King Seems To Have Recognised His Suzerainty, And Came To His Help Against Moab, Who Had Revolted ...

Jehoshaphat
Jehoshaphat Was The Son Of Asa And King Of Judah In The Early Part Of The Ninth Century B.c. He Seems To Have Been A Subordinate Ally Of The House Of Omri ; His Son Jehoram Married Ahab's Daughter Athaliah, And He Himself Took Part In Ahab's Fatal Expedition To ...

Jehovah
Jehovah, The God Of Israel. The Pronunciation "jehovah" Is An Error Resulting Among Christians From Combining The Con Sonants Yhwh (jhvh) With The Vowels Of 'adhondy, "lord," Which The Jews In Reading The Scriptures Substituted For The Sacred Name, Commonly Called The Tetragrammaton As Containing Four Consonants. It Is First ...

Jehu
Jehu, A King Of Israel. Son Of Jehoshaphat And Grandson Of Nimshi, He Was At First General Of Ahab And Jehoram Of Israel, And Was Noted For His Furious Driving Of The Chariot. During The Joint Expedition Of Jehoram Of Israel And Ahaziah Of Judah, The Former Was Wounded, And ...

Jelgava
Jelgava (german, Mitau), A Town Of Latvia, 29 M. By Rail S.w. Of Riga, On The River Aa, In A Fertile Plain Only 12 Ft. Above Sea Level. Pop. (1930) 33,048. Jelgava Is Supposed To Have Been Founded In 1266 By Conrad Mandern, Grand-master Of The Order Of The Brethren ...

Jemappes
Jemappes, Town, Province Of Hainaut, Belgium, Near Mons, The Scene Of The Battle At Which Dumouriez, With The French Revolutionary Army, Defeated The Austrian Army Under The Duke Of Saxe-teschen And Clerfayt On Nov. 6, 1792 (see French Revolutionary Wars). Were Eager To Attack, He Opened The Battle By A ...

Jena
Jena, A University Town Of Germany, In The Land Of Thur Ingia, On The Left Bank Of The Saale, 56 M. S.w. From Leipzig By The Grossberigen-saalfeld And 12 M. S.e. Of Weimar By The Wei Mar-gera Lines Of Railway. Pop. (1933) 58,357. Jena Appears To Have Possessed Municipal Rights ...

Jenghiz Khan
Jenghiz Khan (jen'giz Thahn) (1162-1227), Mongol Emperor, Born On The Banks Of The River Onon. His Father Yesukai Was Absent At The Time Of His Birth, In A Campaign Against A Tatar Chieftain Named Temuchin. The War Brought Success To Yesu Kai, Who Having Slain His Enemy Returned To His ...

Jenne
Jenne, A City Of West Africa, Formerly The Capital Of The Songhoi Empire, Now Included In The French Colony Of French Sudan. Jenne Is Situated On A Marigot Or Natural Canal Connecting The Niger And Its Affluent The Bani Or Dienne, And Is Within A Few Miles Of The Latter ...

Jennet
Jennet, A Small Spanish Horse ; The Word Is Sometimes Ap Plied In English To A Mule, The Offspring Of A She-ass And A Stallion. ...

Jenolan Caves
Jenolan Caves, A Series Of Remarkable Caverns In Rox Burgh County, New South Wales, Australia 113 M. W. By N. Of Sydney, And 36 M. From Tarana, Which Is Served By Railway. They Are The Most Celebrated Of Several Similar Groups In The Limestone Country. The Stalactitic Formations, Sometimes Pure ...

Jens Peter Jacobsen
Jacobsen, Jens Peter (1847-85), Danish Writer, Was Born At Thisted, Jutland, On April 7, 1847. In 1870, Although He Was Secretly Writing Verses Already, Jacobsen Adopted Botany As A Profession. He Was Sent By A Scientific Body In Copenhagen To Report On The Flora Of The Islands Of Anholt And ...

Jeopardy
Jeopardy, Risk Of Death, Loss Or Other Injury, From O.fr. Ju (later Jeu) And Parti, Even Game. It Was Originally Used Of A Problem In Chess Or Of A Stage In Any Other Game At Which The Chances Of Success Or Failure Are Evenly Divided Between The Players. ...

Jephthah
Jephthah, One Of The Judges Of Israel, In The Bible, Was A Son Of Gilead By A Secondary Wife, And, Being Expelled From His Father's House By His Brethren, Took Refuge In The Syrian Land Of Tob, Where He Gathered Around Him A Powerful Band Of Homeless Men Like Himself. ...

Jerahmeel
Jerahmeel, In The Bible, A Clan Which With Caleb, The Kenites And Others Occupied The Southern Steppes Of Palestine ( R Sam. Xxx. 29), And Was Subsequently Incorporated Into Judah (q.v.). The Chronicles Of Jerahmeel (m. Gaster, Oriental Trans Lation Fund, 1899) Is A Late Production Containing A Number Of ...

Jerba
Jerba, An Island Off The Coast Of North Africa In The Gulf Of Gabes, Forming Part Of Tunis. It Is Separated From The Mainland By Two Narrow Straits, And Save For These Channels Blocks The Entrance To A Large Bay Identified With The Lake Triton Of The Romans. The Western ...

Jerboa
Jerboa, The Name Of An Arabian And North African Jump Ing Rodent Mammal, Jaculus Aegyptius, Typifying The Family Jaculidae, But In A Wider Sense Applied To Most Of The Representa Tives Of That Family, Which Are Distributed Over The Desert And Semi-desert Tracts Of The Old World, Although Unknown In ...

Jeremiah Whipple Jenks
Jenks, Jeremiah Whipple American Economist, Was Born In St. Clair, Mich., On Sept. 2, 1856. He Graduated At The University Of Michigan In 1878; Was Admitted To The Michigan Bar; Taught Languages In Mt. Morris College (ill.) ; Studied In Germany At The University Of Halle; Taught Political Science And ...