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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 2 Annu - Baltic

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Abu Ubaid Abdallah Ibn
Bakri, Abu `ubaid `abdallah Ibn `abd Ul-`aziz Ul-bakri (1040-1094) , Arabian Geographer, Was Born At Cordova. He Com Piled A Dictionary Of Geographical Names Occurring In The Poets (edited By F. Wuestenfeld, Goettingen, See C. Brockelmann, Gesch. Der Arab. Literatur (weimar, 1898), Vol. I., P. 476. ...

Abyssinia Bibliography T
Abyssinia). ...

Actiniaria
Actiniaria The Actiniaria Or Sea Anemo Nes (fig. 8) Constitute A Large And Varied Group Of Anthozoa Which Are Closely Related To The True Corals (madreporaria) But Which Contrast With The Latter In A Num Ber Of Ways. No Sea Anemone Forms Any Skeleton; None Pro Duces A Colony, So ...

Adelardo Lopez De Ayala
Ayala Y Herrera, Adelardo Lopez De (1828-1879), Spanish Writer And Politician, Was Born At Guadal Canal And At A Very Early Age Began Writing For The Theatre. A Four-act Play In Verse, Un Hombre De Estado, Was Accepted By The Managers Of The Teatro Espanol, And Given On Jan. 25, ...

Adrian Balbi
Balbi, Adrian (1782-1848), Italian Geographer, Was Born In Venice. He Was Professor Of Geography At Murano, Then Of Physics At Fermo, And For Some Years A Customs Officer In Venice. The Years 1821-32 Were Spent In Portugal. His Most Important Works Were Atlas Ethnographique Du Globe . . . (1826), ...

Adrien Baillet
Baillet, Adrien (5649-1706), French Scholar And Critic, Was Born On June 13 1649, At The Village Of Neuville Near Beauvais, In Picardy, And Died In Paris On Jan. 21 1706. He Became In 168o Librarian To M. De Lamoignon, Advocate-general To The Parlement Of Paris, Of Whose Library He Made ...

Aelius Aristeides
Aristeides, Aelius, Surnamed Theodorus, Greek Rhet Orician And Sophist (a.d. 117, Or Perhaps 129-189). After Study Ing At Pergamum And Athens, He Lived At Smyrna. In 178, When It Was Destroyed By An Earthquake, He Wrote An Account Of The Disaster To Aurelius, And Induced Him To Rebuild The City. ...

Aemilius Asper
Asper, Aemilius, Latin Grammarian, Possibly Lived In The 2nd Century A.d. He Wrote Commentaries On Terence, Sallust And Virgil. Editions In Keil, Probi In Vergilii Bucolica Commentarius (1848) ; See Also Suringar, Historia Critica Scholiastarum Latinorum Grsfenhan, Geschichte Der Klassischen Philologie Im Alterthum, Iv. ...

Air Survey
Air Survey Long Before Aeroplanes Were Invented It Was Confidently Hoped That Vertical Photographs Would Some Day Be Taken, And It Was Felt Certain That, If So, They Would Greatly Assist Archaeology. Maj. Elsdale Was The Pioneer Of Air-photography In The British Army. Between About 188o And 1887 He Carried ...

Al E K S
Arakcheyev, Al E K S Y E I Andreyevich, Count (1769-1834), Russian Soldier And Statesman,. Was De Scended From An Ancient Family Of Great Novgorod. In July 1791 He Was Made An Adjutant On The Staff Of Count N. I. Saltuikov, Who Recommended Him To The Tsarevich Paul Petrovich For ...

Albert Apponyi
Apponyi, Albert, Count Hungarian Statesman, The Most Distinguished Member Of An Ancient Noble Family, Dating Back To The 13th Century, And Son Of The Chancellor Gyorgy Apponyi (1808-99) And The Accomplished And Saintly Countess Julia Sztaray, Was Born At Pest On May 29, 1846. Edu Cated At The Jesuit Seminary ...

Albert Ball
Ball, Albert (1896-1917), English Airman, Was Born At Nottingham On Aug. 21, 1896, Son Of An Estate Agent. He Entered The Army In 1914 And Passed Into The Air Service In Oct. 1915, Going Out To France On Feb. 18, 1916. He Proved To Be One Of The Most Daring ...

Albert Ballin
Ballin, Albert German Shipowner, Was Born In Ham Burg Aug. 15, 1857. Educated For A Mer Cantile Career, His First Notable Achieve Ment Was The Organization Of The Emigrant Traffic On The Carr Line. He Then Took Over The Management Of The Passenger Traffic On The Hamburg-amerika Line, Becoming, In ...

Albert Henry Stanley Ashfield
Ashfield, Albert Henry Stanley, 1st Baron (1874— ) British Business Man, Was Born At Derby Nov. 8 1874. He Spent His Early Years In The United States, And Was Edu Cated At American Technical Schools And Colleges. He Entered The Service Of The Detroit City Street Railways And Had A ...

Alcyonaria
Alcyonaria The Alcyonaria Contrast Sharply With The Two Other Main Groups (actiniaria And Madreporaria). Alcyonarians Almost In Variably Construct Colonies. Their Polyps Are Usually Small And Muscle Down One Side, The Fibres In The Strip Being Supported By Ridges Or Lamellae Of Mesogloea And Running In A Longitudinal Direction. The ...

Alessio Baldovinetti
Baldovinetti, Alessio (1427-1499), Florentine Painter And Restorer Of The Disused Art Of Mosaic, Was Born On Oct. 14, 1427, And Died On Aug. 29, 1499. He Belonged To The Group Of Scientific Realists And Naturalists In Art Which Included Andrea Del Castagno, Paolo Uccello And Domenico Veneziano, The Influence Of ...

Alexander Arbuthnot
Arbuthnot, Alexander Scottish Ec Clesiastic And Poet, Educated At St. Andrews And Bourges, Was Principal Of King's College, Aberdeen, From 1569 Until His Death. His Extant Works Are (a) Three Poems, "the Praises Of Wemen" (22,4 Lines), "on Luve" (10 Lines), And "the Miseries Of A Pure Scholar" (189 Lines), ...

Alexander Bain
Bain, Alexander (1818-1903), Scottish Philosopher And Educationist, Was Born In Aberdeen, Where He Began Life As A Weaver. In 1836 He Entered Marischal College, And Towards The End Of His Arts Course Became A Contributor To The Westminster Review (first Article "electrotype And Daguerreotype," Sept. 5840). This Was The Beginning ...

Alexander Baring Ashburton
Ashburton, Alexander Baring, I St Baron (1774-1848), English Politician And Financier, 2nd Son Of Sir Francis Baring (the Founder Of The House Of Baring Brothers And Co.) , Was Brought Up In His Father's Business. He Was A Mem Ber Of Parliament From 1806-35. He Regarded Politics From The Point ...

Alexander Dallas Bache
Bache, Alexander Dallas Ameri Can Physicist, Great-grandson Of Benjamin Franklin, Was Born At Philadelphia, Pa., July 19, I8o6. After Graduating At The United States Military Academy At West Point In 1825, And Holding An Assistant Professorship There, He Was For A Year Or Two A Lieutenant In The Corps Of ...

Alexandre Averescu
Averescu, Alexandre (1859-1938), Rumanian Gen Eral And Politician, Born March 9 18s9, At Ismail (bessarabia), Was A Volunteer In The War Of Independence Against Turkey, 78. After The War He Remained In The Army And Studied At The High Military School Of Turin (italy). He Was Minister Of War In ...

Alfred Arneth
Arneth, Alfred, Ritter Von (1819-1897), Austrian Historian, Born In Vienna On July To 1819, Was The Son Of Joseph Calasanza Von Arneth An Historian And Archae Ologist, Who Wrote A History Of The Austrian Empire (vienna, 1827) And Several Works On Numismatics. Alfred Arneth Studied Law And Became An Official ...

Alfred Austin
Austin, Alfred ), English Poet-laureate, Was Born At Headingley, Near Leeds, May 3o 1835, And Died June 2 1913 At Swinford Old Manor, Near Ashford, Kent. He Was Educated At Stonyhurst, Oscott, And London University, From Which He Was Graduated In 1853, And Was Called To The Bar F Our ...

Amedeo Avogadro
Avogadro, Amedeo, Conte Di Quaregna (1776 1856), Italian Physicist, Was Born At Turin On June 9 1776, And Died There On July 9 1856. He Was For Many Years Professor Of Higher Physics In Turin University. He Is Chiefly Remembered For His "essai D'une Maniere De Determiner Les Masses Relatives ...

Anders Kristensen Arreboe
Arreboe, Anders-kristensen (1587-1637), Danish Poet, Was Born In The Island Of Aeroc On Jan. 2, 1587, And Died At Vordingborg, Zealand, On March 7, 1637. After Studying At The University Of Copenhagen He Was Appointed To Preach At The Danish Court, And, In 1618, Was Nominated Bishop Of Dron Theim; ...

Andre Antoine
Antoine, Andre ), French Was Born At Limoges, And In His Early Years Was In Business. But He Was An Enthusiastic Amateur Actor, And In 1887 He Founded In Paris The Theatre Libre, In Order To Realize His Ideas As To The Proper Development Of Dramatic Art. In This Undertaking ...

Andrea Appiani
Appiani, Andrea (1754-1817), The Best Fresco Paint Er Of His Age, Was Born At Milan. He Was Made Pensioned Artist To The Kingdom Of Italy By Napoleon, But Lost His Allowance After The Events Of 1814 And Fell Into Poverty. His Best Pieces, Which Are In The Church Of Santa ...

Andrew Geddes Bain
Bain, Andrew Geddes (1797-1864), British Geolo Gist, Was A Native Of Scotland. In 1820 He Emigrated To Cape Colony, Carried On For Some Years The Business Of A Saddler At Graaf Reinet, And Served In The Kafir War Of 1833-34. He Discovered The Remains Of Many Reptilia, Including The Dicynodon, ...

Anne Askew Or Ascue
Askew Or Ascue, Anne (1521 ?-1546), English Protes Tant, Born At Stallingborough About 1521, Second Daughter Of Sir William Askew (d. 154o) Of South Kelsey, Lincoln. She Came To London And Made Friends With Joan Bocher, Who Was Already Known For Heterodoxy, And Other Protestants. Anne Was Examined For Heresy ...

Annual Register
Annual Register, The Title Of An An Nual Periodical Begun With A Volume Giv Ing "a View Of The History, Politicks And Literature Of The Years 1758," By R. Dods Ley, With Edmund Burke As Editor. Burke Had Imo Oo A Year For His Services, But Never Acknowledged His Relation ...

Annuals
Annuals, In Botany, The Name Applied To Plants Which Com Plete Their Life-cycle In One Year, In Contradistinction To Biennials (q.v.), Which Require Two Years And Perennials (q.v.), Which Live For An Indefinite Number Of Years. ...

Annuity
Annuity, In The Simplest Sense Of The Word, Denotes A Payment Made Yearly The Term Is Also Applied To Any Series Of Periodical Payments Which Fulfil The Essential Condition That They Are Made At Regular Fixed Intervals. Thus An Annuity May He Payable Yearly, Half-yearly, Quarterly, Monthly, Or Even More ...

Annulate Annular
Annular, Annulate, Ringed. "annulate" Is Used In Botany And Zoology In Connexion With Certain Plants, Worms, Etc. (see Annelida). The Word "annulated" Is Also Used In Heraldry And Architecture. An Annulated Cross Is One With The Points Ending In An "annulet" (an Heraldic Ring, Supposed To Be Taken From A ...

Annunciation
Annunciation, The Announcement Made By The Angel Gabriel To The Virgin Mary Of The Incarnation Of Christ (luke I. 26-38). The Feast Of The Annunciation In The Christian Church Is Celebrated On March 25. The First Authentic Allusions To It (apart From The Gelasian And Gregorian Sacramentaries, In Both Of ...

Anoa
Anoa, The Small Wild Buffalo Of Celebes Island, Anoa De Pressicornis, Which Is The Most Diminutive Of All Wild Cattle. It Is Nearly Allied To The Larger Asiatic Buffaloes. The Horns Are Peculiar For Their Upright Direction And Comparative Straightness, Although They Have The Same Triangular Section As In Other ...

Anode
Anode, The Metallic Conductor Or Electrode Through Which An Electric Current Enters An Electrolyte (q.v.). The Direction Of The Current Is Considered That In Which A Positive Charge Would Move, And Is The Opposite Of The Direction Of Travel Of A Stream Of Elec Trons, Which Are Negative Charges, In ...

Anodyne
Anodyne, Anything Which Relieves Pain. The Term Is Com Monly Applied To Medicines Which Lessen The Sensibility Of The Brain Or Nervous System, Such As Morphia, Etc. ...

Anoka
Anoka, A City Of Minnesota, U.s.a., On The Mississippi River And Federal Highway Io, 27m. N.w. Of St. Paul; The County Seat Of Anoka County. It Is Served By The Great Northern And The Minneapolis, Anoka And Cuyuna Range (electric) Railways. The Population Was 4,287 In 1920, And Was 4,851 ...

Anomaly
Anomaly, In Astronomy, Is A Technical Term Used In Describing The Position Of A Planet In Its Orbit. The True Anomaly Is The Angle Between The Radii Drawn From The Sun To The Planet And To The Perihelion Point—or The Angle Turned Through By The Line Joining Sun And Planet ...

Anonaceae
Anonaceae, The Custard-apple Family, An Important Group Of Dicotyledonous Plants Allied To The Magnolias (q.v.). They Are Chiefly Tropical Shrubs And Trees And Comprise About 8o Genera And 82o Species. The Leaves Are Simple, Entire And Alternate; The Flowers Are Regular, Usually With 3 Sepals And 6 Petals, The Latter ...

Anonymous
Anonymous, Usually Abbreviated To Anon., A Term To In Dicate Unnamed Authorship Of Any Composition. The Earliest Pub Lished Researches Into The Subject Of Anonymous Literature Were Those Of Fredericus Geisler (leipzig, 1669). The First Comprehen Sive Work Was That Of Vincent Placcius (1642-69), Developed By Matthias Dreyer Into The ...

Anopheles
Anopheles, A Genus Of Mosquitoes (q.v.), Including The Species That Transmit Malaria, Yellow Fever And Other Diseases. (see Diptera; Entomology, Medical.) ...

Anorthite
Anorthite, The Calcium End Member Of The Plagioclase (q.v.) Group Of Felspars (from The Gr. Ay, Privative And Opoos, Upright, In Allusion To Its Oblique Crystals). Anorthite Crystal Lizes In The Triclinic System, And Has The Chemical Composition Caalsi.,08• Perfectly Pure Anorthite Is Unknown In Nature, But Is Readily Synthesized. ...

Anorthoclase
Anorthoclase, The Name Given By Rosenbusch In 1885 To Include Triclinic Potash-soda Felspars Having Cleavage Angles Varying But Slightly From 9o° (87°-89° 3o'). The Form Develop Ment Is Variable, Like That Of Orthoclase (q.v.), But The Best Known Crystals Have A Characteristic Habit In Which Only The Forms (irt), (i ...

Anosmia
Anosmia Is Lack Of The Sense Of Smell. This Deficiency May He Due To Nasal Obstruction Or To Disease Of The Nerves Concerned In Smelling. It Is Sometimes A.manifestation Of Hysteria. In The First Category, The Common Cold In The Head Is The Most Usual Cause. Other Frequent Causes Are ...

Anoxaemia
Anoxaemia Is A General Term Comprising Those Conditions Of The Body Under Which The Tissues Are Starved Of Oxygen. There Are Three Main Types : The Anoxic Type, In Which The Blood Going To The Tissues Carries Oxygen At Too Low A Pressure And Con Sequently The Haemoglobin Is Only ...

Ansa
Ansa, In Astronomy, One Of The Apparent Ends Of The Rings Of Saturn As Seen In Perspective From The Earth ; So-called Because, In The Earlier Telescopes, They Looked Like Handles Projecting From The Planet. In Anatomy The Word Is Applied To Nervous Structures Which Resemble Loops. In Archaeology It ...

Ansbach
Ansbach, A Town In Bavaria, Germany, Originally Onolz Bach, 27m. S.w. Of Nurnberg By Rail. Pop. 23,045. The Palace Of The Margraves Is Celebrated For Its Fine Gardens. In 1791 The Last Margrave Sold His Principality To Prussia And In 1806 It Was Transferred To Bavaria. In Gumbertus Kirche Are ...

Anselm
Anselm (1033?-1109), Who Has Been Called The Greatest Thinker That Ever Adorned The Throne Of Canterbury, Was Born At Aosta In Piedmont. At An Early Age He Crossed The Alps, And Finally Settled In The Famous Abbey Of Bec Where In 1056 He Was Elected Prior, And In 1078, Abbot. ...

Anselme
Anselme (father Anselme Of The Virgin Mary) French Genealogist, Was Born In Paris In 1625, And Died On Jan. 17 1694 At The Couvent Des Petits Peres, Paris. As A Layman His Name Was Pierre Guibours. He Entered The Order Of The Bare Footed Augustinians In 1644. Honore Caille, Seigneur ...

Anselm_2
Anselm, Of Laon (died 1117), French Theologian, Was Born Of Very Humble Parents At Laon Before The Middle Of The 11th Century. He Is Said To Have Studied Under St. Anselm At Bec. About 2076 He Taught With Great Success At Paris, Where, As The Associate Of William Of Champeaux, ...

Ansonia
Ansonia, A City Of New Haven County, Conn., U.s.a., At The Foot Of The Berkshire Hills, On The Naugatuck River, Immediately North Of Derby, And About Io M. N.w. Of New Haven. It Is Served By The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railroad. The Land Area Is About 5.4 ...

Anstruther
Anstruther (locally Pronounced Anster), Seaport, Fif E Shire, Scotland. It Comprises The Royal Burghs Of Anstruther Easter (pop. In 1931, 682), Anstruther Wester (j93), And Of Kilrenny (2,3j7), And Lies 9m. S.s.e. Of St. Andrews, Having A Station On The L.n.e.r. The Town's Chief Industries Include Coast And Deep-sea Fisheries, ...

Ant Eater
Ant-eater, A Term Applied To Several Mammals That Live Mainly Upon Ants. For The Cape Ant-eater, See Aard-vark; For Scaly Ant-eater, See Pangolin ; For Banded Ant-eater, See Mar Supialia, And For Spiny Ant-eater See Monotremata And ...

Ant Lion
Ant-lion, The Name Given To Neuropterous Insects Of The Family Myrmeleonidae, With Relatively Short And Apically Clubbed Antennae And Four Narrow Densely Reticulated Wings Which Are Usually Marked With Brown Or Black. The Perfect Insects Are Mostly Nocturnal And Are Believed To Be Carnivorous. The Best-known Species, Myrmeleon Formicarius, Which ...

Ant
Ant. In The Zoological Sense Ants Are A Very Natural Group Of Insects Which Forms The Superfamily Formicoidea Of The Order Hymenoptera (q.v.). They Are Easily Recognized By The Elbowed Antennae, The Conspicuous "waist" Formed By A Constriction Of The Abdomen Where It Unites With The Thorax, And Generally By ...

Antaeus
Antaeus, In Greek Mythology, A Giant Of Libya, The Son Of Poseidon And Ge. He Compelled All Strangers Who Were Passing Through The Country To Wrestle With Him, And As, If Thrown, He Derived Fresh Strength Whenever He Touched His Mother Earth, He Proved Invincible. Heracles, In Combat With Him, ...

Antalcidas
Antalcidas (an-tal-ke-das), Spartan Soldier And Diplo Matist. In 393 (or 392) B.c. He Was Sent To Tiribazus, Satrap Of Sardis, To Undermine The Friendly Relations Then Existing Between Athens And Persia By Offering To Recognize Persian Claims To The Whole Of Asia Minor. The Athenians Sent A Counter-embassy Under Conon. ...

Antananarivo
Antananarivo, The Capital Of Madagascar, Situated About 9om. From The Eastern Coast Of The Island, In 18° 55' S., 3o' E. It Is 135m. W.s.w. Of Tamatave, The Principal Seaport Of The Island, With Which It Is Connected By Railway. The Town, Pic Turesquely Built On A Basaltic Ridge Which ...

Antarah Ibn Shaddad
Antarah Ibn Shaddad, Arabian Poet And Warrior Of The 6th Century, Was Famous Both For His Poetry And His Adven Turous Life. His Chief Poem Is Contained In The Mo`allakdt. His Father, Shaddad, Was A Soldier, And His Mother, Zabuba, A Negro Slave. He Took Part In The Great War ...

Antarctic Regions
Antarctic Regions. The Remoteness Of The Antarctic Regions From The Centres Of Civilization Delayed Their Exploration Until Comparatively Modern Times. The Existence Of Zones Of Climate Similar To Those In The Northern Hemisphere Had Been Pre Dicted By The Greek Philosophers, But It Was Not Until Prince Henry The Navigator ...

Antarctic
Antarctic, The Epithet Applied To The Region, Including Both The Ocean And The Lands, Round The South Pole (gr. Avti, Opposite, And Aprcros , The Bear, The Northern Constellation Of Ursa Major). The Antarctic Circle Is Drawn At 66° 3o' S., But Polar Conditions Of Climate, Etc., Extend Considerably North ...

Antares
Antares, A Scorpii (a Scorpionis), The Brightest Star In The Constellation Scorpio (q.v.), Is Of A Reddish Hue And Appears At The Heart Of The Scorpion. It Is A Giant Star Of Low Density, Having A Diameter Of 360,000,00o Miles, According To Measurements Taken On Mt. Wilson. ...

Antelope
Antelope, A Zoological Name Which Was Applied By The Earlier English Naturalists, And Afterwards By B Uff On, To The Indian Blackbuck, Which Is Thus Entitled To Rank As The Antelope. No True Antelopes Are American, The Prongbuck (antilocapra), Which Is Commonly Called "ante Lope" In The United States, Repre ...

Antemnae
Antemnae, Ancient Village Of Latium, West Of The Via Salaria, Am. North Of Rome, Where The Anio Falls Into The Tiber. It Is Said That Romulus Took It After The Rape Of The Sabine Women, And That It Helped The Tarquins. Certainly It Soon Lost Its Independence, And In Strabo's ...

Antenatal Clinics
Antenatal Clinics. In Great Britain, At The Begin Ning Of The 20th Century The Only Antenatal Clinic Was That Of Dr. J. W. Ballantyne At The Edinburgh Royal Maternity Hos Pital. It Was Not Till 1915 That A Definite Scheme Was Initiated To Promote The Antenatal Supervision Of The Expectant ...

Antenna Resistance
Antenna Resistance, In Radio Transmission, An Ef Fective Resistance Which Is Numerically Equal To The Average Power In The Entire Antenna Circuit Divided By The Square Of The Effective Current At The Point Of Maximum Current. Antenna Resistance In Cludes Radiation Resistance, Ground Resistance, Radio-frequency Resistance Of Conductors In Antenna ...

Antenna
Antenna, A Device For Radiating Or Absorbing Radio Waves. There Are Two General Classes Of Antennae, The Condenser And The Coil. The Condenser Type Consists Of An Elevated Horizontal Aerial, Together With A Connection To The Ground Or To A Network Of Wires Near The Ground, Called A Counterpoise. The ...

Antenor
Antenor, An Athenian Sculptor, Of The Latter Part Of The 6th Century B.c. He Was The Author Of The Group Of The Tyranni Cides Harmodius And Aristogeiton, Set Up By The Athenians On The Expulsion Of The Peisistratidae, And Carried Away To Persia By Xerxes. A Basis With The Signature ...

Antenor_2
Antenor, In Greek Legend, Head Of The Peace-party In Troy During The Trojan War. Because Of This, He Was Spared When The City Fell. A Late Legend Makes Him Betray The City. Afterwards, He Either Rebuilt Troy Or Settled At Cyrene, Or Became The Founder Of Patavium. Homer, Iliad Iii. ...

Antequera
Antequera (anc. Anticaria), A City In Southern Spain, Province Of Malaga. Pop. A Fortress Town Of The Muslim Period, Taken By The Christians In 1410, It Occupies A Commanding Position Overlooking The Structural Depression Followed By The River Guadalhorce (see Andalusia). The Sierra De Las Torcales, On The South Side ...

Anteros
Anteros, Pope For Some Weeks At The End Of 235. He Died On Jan. 3 236. According To The Liber Pontificales, He Was Mar Tyred For Having Ordered A Collection Of The Acts Of The Martyrs To Be Made, And Included In The Archives Of The Church. His Original Epitaph ...

Anthelion
Anthelion, The Luminous Ring Or Halo Sometimes Seen In Alpine Or Polar Regions Surrounding The Shadow Of The Head Of An Observer Cast Upon A Bank Of Cloud Or Mist. The Halo Diminishes In Brightness From The Centre Outwards, And Is Probably Due To The Diffraction Of Light. Under Favourable ...

Anthelmintics
Anthelmintics Are Remedies Used Either To Kill Or To Cause The Expulsion Of Intestinal Worms, In The Former Case Being Known As Vermicides, In The Latter As Vermifuges. Cathartics, Since They Cause The Expulsion Of Worms, Are Vermifuges. Used Alone, However, They Are Rarely Wholly Effective, It Being Neces Sary ...

Anthem
Anthem, Derived From The Gr. Avrl4wva, Through The Saxon Ante/n, A Word Which Originally Had The Same Meaning As Antiphony (q.v.). It Is Now, However, Generally Restricted To A Form Of Church Music, Particularly In The Service Of The Church Of England, In Which It Is Appointed By The Rubrics ...

Anthemion
Anthemion - A Conventional Design Consisting Of A Number Of Radiat Ing Petals, Developed By The Greeks From The Egyptian And Asiatic Form Known As The Lotus Palmette. One Of The Most Fertile Sources Of Decorative Ornament, It Was Not Only Used Widely By The Greeks And Romans But Occurs ...

Anthemius
Anthemius, Son Of Stephanus Of Tralles, Greek Mathema Tician And Architect. He Produced, Under The Patronage Of Justin Ian, The Original And Daring Plans For The Church Of St. Sophia In Constantinople. The Building Was Finished In 537, But In 558, After The Death Of Anthemius, It Had To Be ...

Anthesteria
Anthesteria, One Of The Four (or Five) Athenian Fes Tivals In Honour Of Dionysus, Held Annually For Three Days (i 1 Th 13th) In The Month Of Anthesterion (feb.-march). Its Object Was To Celebrate The Maturing Of The Wine Stored At The Previous Vintage, And The Beginning Of Spring. On ...

Anthim The Iberian
Anthim The Iberian, A Notable Figure In The Ecclesi Astical History Of Rumania. A Georgian By Birth, He Came To Rumania Early In The Second Half Of The 17th Century, As A Simple Monk. He Became Bishop Of Ramnicu In 1705, And In 1708 Arch Bishop Of Wallachia. Taking A ...

Anthocyanins And Anthoxanthins
Anthocyanins And Anthoxanthins. The Term Anthocyanin Has Been Employed By Botanists To Denote All The Water-soluble Pigments Of Flowers And Blossoms, But With New Knowledge Of The Chemical Nature Of These Colouring Matters A More Exact Classification Has Become Possible And The Expression Is Now Applied To Particular Substances Which ...

Anthology
Anthology, A Term Literally Denoting A Garland Or Col Lection Of Flowers (gr. Avooxo'yia, Lat. Florilegium), Hence A Collection Of Short Pieces Or Extracts, Especially In Verse, And In Particular : The Greek Anthology.—the Art Of Occasional Poetry Had Been Cultivated In Greece From An Early Period, Especially For Short ...

Anthony Babington
Babington, Anthony (156r-1586), English Con Spirator, Son Of Henry Babington Of Dethick In Derbyshire, And Of Mary, Daughter Of George, Lord Darcy, Was Born In October 1561, And Was Brought Up Secretly A Roman Catholic. As A Youth He Served At Sheffield As Page To Mary Queen Of Scots, For ...

Anthozoa
Anthozoa (i.e., "flower-animals"), A Group Of Animals Belonging To The Phylum Coelenterata (q.v.). Many Of Them Form A Strong Skeleton Known As "coral" (q.v.) . The Term "coral" Is Applicable To The Hard Parts Of Any Coelenterate Which Secretes A Firm Skeletal Support, But Most Of These Forms Are Anthozoa, ...

Anthracene
Anthracene, C 14h10, A Hydrocarbon Obtained From The Fraction Of The Coal-tar Distillate Boiling Between 2 And 400° C. (from The Greek Avopae, Coal). This High Boiling Fraction Is Allowed To Stand For Some Days, When It Partially Solidifies. It Is Then Separated In A Centrifugal Machine, The More Fusible ...

Anthracite
Anthracite. The Word "anthracite" Is Derived From The Greek Avepae€c Used In Connection With The First Mention Of Coal About 371 B.c., When Theophrastus, A Pupil Of Aristotle, Men Tions In His Treatise "on Stones" Fossil Substances (xt06s Avopakos) "that Are Called Coals Which Kindle And Burn Like Wood Coals. ...

Anthracotherium
Anthracotherium (gr. "coal-animal"), An Extinct Mammal Whose Jaws, Bones And Remains Are Occasionally Found In Lignite And Coal In America, Asia And Europe. It Had The Typical Dental .formula Of The Artiodactyls, A Group Of Animals Whose Toes Are Even In Number And Grow In Pairs; A Formula That Is ...

Anthraquinone
Anthraquinone, An Important Derivative Of Anthracene, First Prepared In 1834 By A. Laurent. It Is Prepared Commercially From Anthracene By Stirring A Sludge Of Anthracene And Water In Horizontal Cylinders With A Mixture Of Sodium Bichro Mate And Caustic Soda. This Suspension Is Then Run Through A Conical Mill In ...

Anthrax
Anthrax (syn.: Splenic Fever, Malignant Pustule, Wool Sorters' Disease). An Acute, Specific, Infectious, Virulent Disease, Caused By The Bacillus Anthracis, In Animals, Chiefly Cattle, Sheep And Horses, And Sometimes Occurring In Workers In The Wool Or Hair, As Well As In Those Handling The Hides Or Carcasses, Of Beasts, Which ...

Anthropocentric Philosophy
Anthropocentric Philosophy, A System Of Philosophy Which Treats Man As The Centre Of Interest. In This Wide Sense Of The Term The Philosophy Of Socrates (who Was Only In Terested In Problems Of Human Conduct), The Philosophy Of Pro Tagoras (who Regarded Man As The Measure Of All Things) And ...

Anthropoid Apes
Anthropoid Apes Is The Name Given To The Family Simiidae, Because, Of All The Ape-world, They Most Closely Resem Ble Man. This Family Includes The Gibbons Of S.e. Asia, The Orangs Of Borneo And Sumatra, The Gorillas Of W. Equatorial Af Rica, And The Chimpanzees Of W. And Central Equatorial ...

Anthropological Articles
Anthropological Articles. In Addition To The General Articles Anthropology ; Anthropology, Applied; An ...

Anthropology And Ethnology
Anthropology And Ethnology Asia Presents To The Anthropologist The Widest Range Of Different Types Of Any Of The Continents. So Vast Is Its Area, So Varied Its Climate, That Ethnic Types Of All Kinds Are Found Within Its Borders. This Being So, No Complete Anthropologic Or Ethnologic Study Of Asia ...

Anthropology
Anthropology, That Branch Of Natural History Which Deals With The Human Species (from Gr. Anthropos, Man; Logos, Theory). It Is Thus Part Of Biology, The Science Of Living Things In General. Indeed, It Was The Development Of Biological Studies Dur Ing The I 9th Century, Chiefly Due To The Stimulus ...

Anthropometry
Anthropometry. Anthropological Science Aims At The Establishment Of Man's Position In Nature, The Discovery Of The Extent Of Human Variation, The Ordination Of The Fundamental Facts Concerning The Growth Of The Individual, And The Bearing On Human Evolution Of The Evidence Drawn From Comparisons Of The Existing Human Types With ...

Anthropomorphism
Anthropomorphism, The Attribution Of Human Form, Or The Character Or Qualities Of Humanity, To Objects Believed To Be Above Humanity In The Scale Of Being, And In Particular To God Or The Gods. The Word Is Also Used In A Wider Sense To Signify The Attribution Of Human Qualities To ...

Anti Aircraft Defence
Anti-aircraft Defence The Problem Of Anti-aircraft Defence Enters Into All Forms Of Action Against A Well-equipped Enemy, And Anti-aircraft Artillery Is Now Provided In Most Armies. Anti-aircraft Artillery May Act In Co-operation With Fighting Aircraft, When Its Main Task Will Be To Assist Them By Breaking Up Formations Of Hostile ...

Anti Aircraft
Anti-aircraft, The Term Applied To The Several Means Of, And Personnel For, Action Against Aircraft In War, Commonly Abbreviated To A.a. Thus A-a. Gun, 1st A-a. Brigade, Royal Artillery. See Artillery, Anti-aircraft Artillery. ...

Anti Corn Law League
Anti-corn-law League, A Body Formed At Man Chester In 1838 To Oppose The Corn Laws. It Was Led By Cobden, Bright And Villiers, Formed Branches Throughout The Country, And Became A Very Powerful Political Force. It Was Dissolved Upon The Attainment Of Its Object In The Repeals Of 1846-49. (see ...

Anti Freeze
Anti-freeze, A Substance Which Is Added To The Water Used In Cooling Systems Of Automobiles Or Similar Machines To Lower Its Freezing Point. For Use In Automobile Radiators, The Anti-freeze Material Should Not Contain Anything Which Is An Electrolyte, Since This Would Corrode The Metal. The Material Used Should Be ...

Anti Masonic Party
Anti-masonic Party, An American Political Organi Zation Which Had Its Rise After The Mysterious Disappearance, In 1826, Of William Morgan (c. 1776—c. 1826), A Freemason Of Batavia (n.y.) Who Had Become Dissatisfied With His Order And Had Planned To Publish Its Secrets. When His Purpose Became Known To The Freemasons, ...