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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 2 Annu - Baltic

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George Fisher Baker
Baker, George Fisher American Finan Cier, Was Born In Troy, N. Y., March 27, 1840. When He Was Eight Years Old His Family Removed To Brooklyn, N. Y., And Later To Williamsburg, N. Y. Most Of His Boyhood Was Spent At Dedham, Mass. After A Brief Period Of Schooling At ...

George John Douglas Campbell
George John Douglas Campbell, 8th Duke (1823-1900), The Second Son Of The 7th Duke, Was Born April 3o 1823, And Suc Ceeded His Father In April 1847. He Had Already Written Some Pamphlets Against The Disruption Of The Church Of Scotland, And He Rapidly Became Prominent On The Liberal Side ...

George Pierce Baker
Baker, George Pierce (1866-1935), American Edu Cator, Was Born At Providence (r.i. ), On April 4, 1866. He Graduated From Harvard In 1887, And From 1905 To 1924 Was Professor Of English There. His Courses Dealing With The Theory Of The Drama Were Highly Successful, And His Famous Laboratory, Known ...

Gertrudis Gomez De Avellaneda
Avellaneda, Gertrudis Gomez De 1873), Spanish Dramatist And Poet, Was Born At Puerto Principe (cuba) And Removed In 1836 To Spain, Where She Published Her First Poems (1839) Under The Pseudonym Of "la Peregrina." Her Novels, Such As Sab (1839) And Guatimozin (1846) Are Of No Great Importance. She Obtained, ...

Giacomo Antonelli
Antonelli, Giacomo (1806-1876), Italian Cardinal, Was Born At Sonnino April 2 1806. Created Cardinal (june I T 1847), He Was Chosen By Pius Ix. To Preside Over The Council Of State Entrusted With The Drafting Of The Constitution. On March 10 1848, Antonelli Became Premier Of The First Constitutional Ministry ...

Giovanni Aurispa
Aurispa, Giovanni (c. 1370-1459), Italian Scholar, Who Did Much To Promote The Revival Of The Study Of Greek In Italy, Was Born At Noto, In Sicily. In 1418 He Visited Constanti Nople, Where He Remained For Some Years, Perfecting His Knowledge Of Greek And Searching For Ancient Mss. His Efforts ...

Giovanni Maria Artusi
Artusi, Giovanni Maria, Italian Composer And Theorist (born In Bologna During The Second Half Of The 16th Century; Died 1613) Is To-day Remembered Only For His Attacks Upon Monteverde (q.v.) Embodied In His Delle Imper F Ezioni Della Musica Moderna And Other Controversial Works. See Dr. G. Vogel And 0. ...

Giuseppe Baini
Baini, Giuseppe Italian Priest, Musical Critic And Composer Of Church Music, Was Born At Rome On Oct. 21, 1775, And Died There On May 21, 1844. He Was Instructed In Composition By His Uncle, Lorenzo Baini, And Afterwards By G. Jannaconi. In 1814 He Was Appointed Musical Director To The ...

Gomes Eannes De Azurara
Azurara, Gomes Eannes De The Sec Ond Notable Portuguese Chronicler In Order Of Date. He Adopted The Career Of Letters In Middle Life. He Probably Entered The Royal Library As Assistant To Fernao Lopes (q.v.) During The Reign Of King Duarte (1433-38), And He Had Sole Charge Of It In ...

Gothic Architecture Tress
Tress, Gothic Architecture). The Principle Of The Arch Has Been Known From Very Early Times. When Neolithic Man Discovered That A Wide Opening Could Be Spanned By Leaning Two Stones Together At Its Apex, The First Arch Was Made, And Such Triangular Arches Are Widely Found Throughout The Mediterranean Basin ...

Gothic Architecture
Gothic Architecture By The End Of The 12th Century The Old Roman Empire Had Broken Up Into A Number Of Distinct Nations. The Church Domin Ated Each, However, For Ecclesiastics Possessed Most Of The Knowl Edge And Controlled Much Of The Wealth Of The Period. Commerce Had Increased And The ...

Gottfried Arnold
Arnold, Gottfried (1666-1714), German Protes Tant Divine, Was Born At Annaberg, In Saxony, Where His Father Was A Schoolmaster. His First Work, Die Erste Liebe Zu Christo, To Which In Modern Times Attention Was Again Directed By Leo Tolstoy, Appeared In 1696. It Went Through Five Editions Before 1728, And ...

Governmental Architecture
Governmental Architecture Many Municipalities In Europe Have Erected New And Imposing Buildings To House Local Administrations. State Governments In The United States Have Undertaken New Capitols. New, Modernized Post-offices, Custom-houses, Town-halls, Etc., Have Been Built In Many Places. The Plan Problem Of Modern Administrative Buildings Is Some What Similar To ...

Grades Animatism Animism Basket
Grades; Animatism; Animism; Basket; Bead; Blowgun; Boomerang; Cannibalism; Caste; Dance; Death; Divorce; Dual Organization ; Endogamy ; Exogamy ; Family ; Fire ; Gerontocracy; Group Marriage; Head-hunting; Infanti Cide; Kinship; Lycanthropy; Magic; Mana; Marriage And Marriage Classes ; Migrations ; Name ; Nomad ; Oath ; Or Deal ; Polyandry ...

Graziadio Isaia Ascoli
Ascoli, Graziadio Isaia (1829-1907), Italian Phi Lologist ; Of Jewish Family, Was Born At Goerz. He Founded The Archivio Glottologico Italiano In 1873, Publishing In It His Saggi Ladini, And Making It In Succeeding Years The Great Organ Of Original Scholarship On This Subject. He Was Universally Recog Nized As ...

Greek Architecture
Greek Architecture Coincident With This Movement Of Civilization Through Western Asia The People Of Greece Were Evolving A New Culture And With It A New Architecture That Was Destined To Become The Most Influen Tial, And Still Remains An Ever Recurring Factor, In The Art. Of The Prehistoric Period, Much ...

Guido Baccelli
Baccelli, Guido (183o-1916), Italian Physician And Politician, Was Born At Rome, And After Graduating In Medicine At The University Became Assistant Professor Of Medical Jurispru Dence In 1856, And Some Years Later Professor Of Clinical Medicine. He Devoted Himself Particularly To The Study Of Malaria, His Researches Giving An Impetus ...

Guillaume De Baillon
Baillon, Guillaume De French Physician, Studied In Paris, And Became Physician To The Dauphin, Son Of Henry Iv. He Has A Place In The History Of Epidemiology On Account Of Two Books Posthumously Published (1640) On Epi Demics, In Which He Revived The Hippocratic Doctrine Of "epidemic Constitutions" Which Seems ...

Guillaume Victor Emile Augier
Augier, Guillaume Victor Emile (182o 1889), French Dramatist, Was Born At Valence, Drome, On Sept. 17 182o. He Was The Grandson Of Pigault Lebrun, And Belonged To The Well-to-do Bourgeoisie In Principles And In Thought As Well As By Actual Birth. He Received A Good Education And Studied For The ...

Guillemots Or Murres Auks
Auks, Guillemots Or Murres, And Puffins, Northern Oceanic Birds Of The Family Alcidae, Breed Often In Vast Mixed Communities On Cliff Ledges From Greenland, Iceland And Spits Bergen To The St. Lawrence, Maine, Norway And The British Isles. As The Legs Are Set Far Back, They Stand Upright. Most Lay ...

Guinea
Guinea.) The Fundamental Feature In The Geological Structure Of Asia Appears To Be The Presence In The North And In The South Of Large Areas Which Have Remained Relatively Rigid Since The Beginning Of The Cambrian Period, While Between And Around Them Folding Of Mountain-building Type Has Taken Place At ...

Gulf Of Arta
Arta, Gulf Of (anc. Sinus Ambracius), An Inlet Of The Ionian Sea, 25m. Long And 1 Om. Broad, On The West Coast Of Greece. Its Only Important Affluent, Besides The Arta, Is The Luro (anc. Charadra). The Gulf Abounds With Mullets, Soles, And Eels. Around Its Shores Are Numerous Ruins ...

Gumersindo Azcarate
Azcarate, Gumersindo ), Spanish Politician, Was Born At Leon, Spain, Jan. 13 184o. Educated At The Universities Of Oviedo And Madrid, In 1868 He Was Appointed Assistant Professor Of Comparative Jurisprudence At The Uni Versity Of Madrid, And Four Years Later Became Professor. In 1875 He Resigned Rather Than Submit ...

Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt
Armfelt, Gustaf Mauritz, Count Son Of Charles Ii.'s General, Carl Gustaf Armfelt, Was Born In Finland March 31 1757. Gustavus Iii. Of Sweden Employed Him In The Negotiations With Catherine Ii. (1783) And With The Danish Government (1787), And During The Russian War Of 1788-90 He Was One Of The ...

Hans Georg Von Arnim Boytzenburg
Arnim-boytzenburg, Hans Georg Von German General And Diplomatist, Was Born In 1581 At Boytzenburg In Brandenburg. He Served In The Swedish Army Under Gustavus Adolphus, Took Part In The Russian War, And Afterwards Fought Against The Turks In The Service Of The King Of Poland. In 1626, Though A Protestant, ...

Harry Karl Kurt Eduard
Arnim, Harry Karl Kurt Eduard Von, Count (1824-81), German Diplomatist, Was Born In Pomerania, Oct. 3 1824, And Brought Up By His Uncle Heinrich Von Arnim, Who Was Prussian Ambassador At Paris And Foreign Minister From March To June 1848. After Holding Other Posts In The Diplomatic Service Arnim Was ...

Hartman Bache
Bache, Hartman (1797-1872), American Engineer And Army Officer, Was Born In Philadelphia, Pa., In 1797. He Graduated At West Point In 1818 And Entered The Engineer Corps Of The Army, Retiring As A Brevet Brigadier-general In 1867. He Made Numerous Topographical And Hydrographic Surveys But Is Particularly Remem Bered For ...

Hazards Of Aviation
Aviation, Hazards Of. Owing To Increased Knowl Edge, Greater Experience And Improved Apparatus, Aviation Haz Ards Are Decreasing At A Comparatively Rapid Rate All Over The World. Contrasted With 16o Flying Accidents In The United States In 1926, Including Passengers, Mechanics, Pilots And Others, During The Following Year, With About ...

Heneage Finch Aylesford
Aylesford, Heneage Finch, 1st Earl Of (1649?-1719), Son Of Heneage Finch, Earl Of Nottingham, Was Educated At Westminster School And At Christ Church, Oxford. In 1679, During The Chancellorship Of His Father, He Was Appointed Solicitor-general, Being Returned To Parliament For Oxford Univer Sity, And In 1685 For Guildford. In ...

Henri Arnaud
Arnaud, Henri (1641-1721), Pastor And General Of The Vaudois Or Waldensians Of Piedmont, Was Born At Embrun. About 165o His Family Returned To Their Native Valley Of Luserna, Where Arnaud Was Educated At La Tour (the Chief Village), Later Visiting The College At Basel (1662 And 1668) And The Academy ...

Henri Arnauld
Henri Arnauld (1597-1692), The Second Son, Became Bishop Of Angers In 1649 And Represented Jansenism On The Episcopal Bench For As Long As 43 Years. The Youngest Son, Antoine, (1612 1694), Was The Most Famous Of Jansenist Theologians (see Below). The Second Daughter, Angelique (1591-1661), Was Abbess And Reformer Of ...

Henri Eugene Philippe Louis
Aumale, Henri Eugene Philippe Louis D'orleans, Duc D' (1822-97), French Prince And Statesman, 5th Son Of Louis Philippe, Duke Of Orleans, Afterwards King Of The French, And Of Marie Amelie, Princess Of The Two Sicilies, Was Born In Paris, Jan. 16 1822. He Inherited A Large Fortune From The Prince ...

Henry Bacon
Bacon, Henry (1866-1924), American Architect, Was Born At Watseka, Ill., Nov. 28 1866. In 1884 He Entered The University Of Illinois To Study Architecture. From 1888 To 1897 He Was With Mckim, Meade & White, In New York, Except The Years 1889-91, Which He Spent In Europe As Rotch Travelling ...

Henry Baker
Baker, Henry English Naturalist, Was Born In London On May 8, 1698. His Invention Of A System Of Instruct Ing The Deaf And Dumb Brought Him To The Notice Of Daniel Defoe, Whose Youngest Daughter Sophia He Married In 1729. A Year Be Fore, Under The Name Of Henry Stonecastle, ...

Henry Balnaves
Balnaves, Henry (1 512 ?-1579), Scottish Politician And Reformer, Was Educated At St. Andrews, And Afterwards At Cologne, Where He Adopted Protestant Views. In 1538 He Was Appointed A Lord Of Session, And In Jan. I543 The Regent Arran Made Him Secretary Of State. In The Following November, When The ...

Henry Bennet Arlington
Arlington, Henry Bennet, Earl Of (1618-85), English Statesman, Son Of Sir John Bennet Of Dawley, Middlesex, Was Educated At Westminster School And Christ Church, Oxford. During The Civil War He Fought For The King, And After The King's Execution, Joined The Royal Family Abroad. At The Restoration He Was Made ...

Henry Edward Armstrong
Armstrong, Henry Edward British Chemist Born May 6, Became Professor Of Chemistry At South Ken Sington In 1874. Elected F.r.s. In 1876, He Served On The Council Of The Royal Society 1888-90, 1900-02 And Was Vice-president In 1901-02. He Achieved Considerable Success In His Researches On Organic And General Chemistry, ...

Henry Fitzalan
Henry Fitzalan (1517-80), 12th Earl Of Arundel, Son Of William, 11th Earl, By Anne, Daughter Of Henry Percy, 4th Earl Of Northumberland, Was Born About 1517 And Succeeded To The Earldom In 1554. He Was One Of The Council Of I2 Appointed By Henry Viii. To Assist The Executors Of ...

Henry Hugh Armstead
Armstead, Henry Hugh (1828-1905), English Sculptor, Was First Trained As A Silversmith, And Achieved Excellence In The "st. George's Vase" And The "outram Shield." His Chief Works Are The External Sculptural Decorations Of The Colonial Office In Whitehall, The Sculptures On The Southern And Eastern Sides Of The Podium Of ...

Henry Martyn Baird
Baird, Henry Martyn (1832-1906), American His Torian And Educator, Was Born In Philadelphia On Jan. 17, 183 2. He Spent Eight Years Of His Early Youth With His Father In Paris And Geneva, And In 1850 Was Graduated From New York Uni Versity. He Then Lived For Two Years In ...

Henry Van Balen
Balen, Henry Van (156o-1632), Flemish Painter, Was Born In Antwerp In 156o, And Died There On July 17, 163 2. He Was A Pupil Of Adam Von Noort, And After Travelling For A Time In Italy, He Joined The Gild Of St. Lucas At Antwerp In Balen Was The First ...

Herbert Henry Asquith
Asquith, Herbert Henry: See Oxford And Asquith, Herbert Henry Asquith, Earl Of. ...

Hermann Bahr
Bahr, Hermann (1863-1934), Austrian Author And Playwright, Member Of The Prussian Academy, Was Born At Linz, Upper Austria, July 19, 1863. After Studying At The Universities Of Vienna, Graz, Czernowitz And Berlin And Travelling Extensively, Bahr Settled In Vienna Where He Worked As Feuilletonist On The Staffs Of Various Newspapers. ...

Hertha Ayrton
Ayrton, Hertha (1854-1923), English Scientist, Was Born At Portsea, April 25 1854, The Daughter Of Levi Marks, A Clockmaker And Jeweller, And Was Brought Up In London By Her Aunt, Mrs. Alphonse Hartog. At Her Aunt's House She Met Ma Dame Bodichon, One Of The Founders Of Girton College, Who ...

Historical Architecture
Historical Architecture History Furnishes The Architectural Designer With Opportunities To Study Buildings In Such Mass And Detail That New Forms Can Be Based On Accurate Knowledge Of The Old As They Exist Or Existed, Full Size And In Position, With Their Natural Environment Of Light, Shade, Play Of Colour And ...

Historical I
Historical.-i, History Of Astronomy (forming Part Of The Article Astronomy) ; Constellation; Ancient Eclipses (in Article Eclipse) ; 2, Astrolabe; Armillary Circle; Dial. Thirty-two Short Articles On Individual Constellations Are Given (see Table At The End Of The Article Constellation). These Contain, Besides A Reference To The Mythology Of The ...

History Of Astronomy
History Of Astronomy A Practical Acquaintance With The Elements Of Astronomy Is Indispensable To The Conduct Of Human Life. Hence It Is Most Widely Diffused Among Uncivilized Peoples, Whose Existence De Pends Upon Immediate And Unvarying Submission To The Dictates Of External Nature. Having No Clocks, They Regard Instead The ...

Hosea Ballou
Ballou, Hosea (1771-1852), American Universalist Clergyman, Was Born In Richmond, N.h., April 3o, 1771. Self Educated, He Early Devoted Himself To The Ministry, And After Preaching At Various Places, Became Pastor Of The Second Uni Versalist Church In Boston From December 1817 Until His Death There, June 7, 1852. He ...

House Planning
House Planning.) Apartments (flats), Hotels.—apartment Or Flat Building, Especially In America, Is Not Confined To Cities And Towns Where The Concentrated Population Might Furnish An Excuse ; It Has An Increasing Vogue Even In Small Villages. The Apartment Building Is Simply A Combination Of Compact Homes One Above The Other. ...

Hugh Aston
Aston, Hugh (early I6th Century), An Old English Musi Cian, Of Considerable Historical Importance. He Was One Of The First Composers Of Purely Instrumental Works, And Is Further Re Garded By Some Authorities As The Actual Inventor Of The Instru Mental Variation Form. He Composed Also A Number Of Choral ...

Hugh De Balsham
Balsham, Hugh De (d. 1286), English Churchman, Ap Pears First As Sub-prior Of The Monastic Cathedral Of Ely. On The Death Of William Of Kilkenny In I 256 The Monks Elected Him Bishop Of Ely, To The Annoyance Of Henry Iii., Who Had The Temporalities Given To John De Waleran. ...

I Arion
Arion, (i) Of Methymna, In Lesbos, A Semi-legendary Poet And Musician, Friend Of Periander, Tyrant Of Corinth. He Flour Ished About 625 B.c. He Is Said To Have Invented The Dithyramb, I.e., Probably He Gave It Literary Form. The Name Cycleus Given To His Father Indicates The Connection Of The ...

I Arzamas
Arzamas, (i) A District, (2) A Town In The Nizhegorod Province Of The R.s.f.s.r. The District Has An Area Of 8,040 Sq.km. Pop. (1926) 350,964: Urban, 18,535, I.e., The Town Of Arzamas, Rural 33 2,429. The Town, 22' N., 43° 5o' E., Is At The Confluence Of The Rivers Tesha ...

I Badaga
Badaga, (i) A Term Applied To Telugu People Who Invaded The Tamil Country From Vijayanagara In The Later Middle Ages And Especially In The 16th Century (tamil Vadugan, "northerner") ; (2) An Agricultural Tribe Of The Nilgiris In Southern India, Which May Have Occupied Those Hills Before A.d. 1200, As ...

I St Earl Of
John Murray, I St Earl Of Atholl In The Murray Line (see Above), Died In 1642. On The Outbreak Of The Civil War He Called Out The Men Of Atholl For The King, And Was Imprisoned By The Marquess Of Argyll In Stirling Castle In 1640. ...

Ibn Paquda Bahya
Bahya, Ibn Paquda, A Jewish Ethical Writer (i Ith Cen Tury) Of Saragossa. In 1040 He Wrote, In Arabic, A Treatise, Duties Of The Heart, Which Was One Of The Most Significant And Influential Jewish Works Of The Middle Ages. The Law, In The Rabbinical Sense, Was Reverenced By Bahya, ...

Indian And Sinhalese Painting
Painting, Indian And Sinhalese Painting, Japanese Painting And Prints, Etc. Artists Have Full Biographies: Apelles, Botticelli, Con Stable, Etc. Aspects Of Art Are Treated Under Bronze And Brass, Iron, Silversmiths' And Goldsmiths' Work, Etc. ; Costume, Design, Dress, Etc. ; Enamels, Jewellery, Seals, Etc. ; Glass; Interior Decoration ; Landscape ...

Industrial Application Of Bacterial
Industrial Application Of Bacterial Activities Baking.—the Proper Regulation Of The Fermentation Which Takes Place During The Raising Of The Dough Is One Of The Most Im Portant Problems Of Bread Making. To-day This Fermentation Is Artificially Induced, In The Making Of The Wheaten Loaf, By The Addition Of Suitable Types ...

Industrial Architecture
Industrial Architecture Under This Classification Are Included All Buildings In Which Manufacture, Purchase, Sale, Exchange And Transport Of Commodi Ties Are Carried On, And In Which The Financing Of Business Enter Prises Is Negotiated. Industrial Architecture Has Now Peculiar Sig Nificance, Because The Present Period Of Civilization Is Normally Neither ...

Industrial Associations
Associations, Industrial. Associations Whose Membership Consists Of Firms Engaged In A Particular Branch Of Industry Or Trade Are Of Three Kinds : (i) Those Which Exist For Purposes Of Collective Bargaining With Their Workpeople Or Their Representatives; (2) Those Which Are Concerned With The Regulation Of Prices, Output, Sales, Etc. ...

Inorganic Compounds
Inorganic Compounds Arsenic Hydrides.—the Dihydride Is A Brown Velvety Unstable Powder Formed When Sodium Or Potassium Arsenide Is Decomposed By Water. Arsenic Trihydride (arsine Or Arseniuretted Hydrogen) Is Formed By Decomposing Zinc Arsenide With Dilute Sulphuric Acid, By The Action Of Nascent Hydrogen On Ar Senious Compounds, And By The ...

International Arbitration
Arbitration, International. International Arbitration Is A Proceeding In Which Two Nations Refer Their Differ Ences To One Or More Selected Persons, Who, Of Ter Affording To Each Party An Opportunity Of Being Heard, Pronounce Judgment On The Matters At Issue. It Is Understood, Unless Otherwise Ex Pressed, That The Judgment ...

Invasion Of Bibliography M
Invasion Of.) Bibliography.-m. Schwarte, Der Grosse Krieg 1914-18 (1921-24) ; Bibliography.-m. Schwarte, Der Grosse Krieg 1914-18 (1921-24) ; J. E. Edmonds, History Of The Great War (1921, Etc.) ; D. Jerrold, The Royal Naval Division (1923) ; Normand, Defense De Liege, Namur, Anvers En 1914 (1923) ; Tasnier Et Overstraeten, ...

Iron Age
Iron Age Definition.—care Must Be Taken, In Discussing The Period Known As The Early Iron Age Of Europe, To Distinguish Between The First Appearance Of Wrought Iron In Any Locality And The Be Ginning Of The Local Iron Age. The Period In Question Belongs To The History Or Prehistory Of ...

Irving Addison Bacheller
Bacheller, Irving Addison ), Ameri Can Novelist, Was Born In Pierpont, N.y., On Sept. 26, 1859. He Graduated At St. Lawrence University, Canton, N.y., In 1882 And Entered Journalism, Serving From 1898 To 1 Goo As An Editor Of The New York World. He Became Known As A Writer Of ...

Irving Babbitt
Babbitt, Irving , American Scholar, Was Born In Dayton, O., On Aug. 2, 1865. After Graduating At Harvard In 1889 He Continued His Studies In Paris And In 1893-94 Was Instructor In Romance Languages At Williams College. In 1894 He Went To Harvard In The Same Capacity And Was Made ...

Isaac Babbitt
Babbitt, Isaac (1799-1862), American Inventor, Was Born In Taunton, Mass., On July 26, 1 7 99. He Was Trained To Be A Goldsmith And Thus Had Some Opportunity To Experiment With Metals, In Which Work He Succeeded In Making The First Britannia Ware Produced In The United States (1824). Ten ...

Isle Of Axholme
Axholme, Isle Of, A Flat And Formerly Marshy Tract In North-west Lincolnshire, About R 8m. By 5m., Com Prising The Parishes Of Althorpe, Belton, Epworth, Haxey, Luddington, Owston And Crowle. The "island" Is Almost En Tirely Under T Oof T. In Elevation And Has An Area Of About 47,00o Acres. ...

Jacob Arcadelt Or Archadelt
Arcadelt Or Archadelt, Jacob (c. 1514 C. 1575), Celebrated Netherlands Composer, Who Lived And Worked Chiefly In Italy. Among His Numerous Compositions Five Books Of Madrigals, Published At Venice, Probably Gave A Great Stimulus To The Beginnings Of The Venetian School Of Composition. After He Published Three Volumes Of Masses, ...

Jacob Astley Astley
Astley, Jacob Astley, Baron (1579-1652), Royalist Commander In The English Civil War, Came Of A Norfolk Family. In 1598 He Joined Counts Maurice And Henry Of Orange In The Netherlands, And Afterwards Fought Under The Elector Palatine Frederick V. And Gustavus Adolphus In The Thirty Years' War. Returning To England ...

Jacob Van Artevelde
Artevelde, Jacob Van (c. Flemish Statesman, Born At Ghent About 129o, Sprang From One Of The Wealthy Commercial Families Of The City. His Brother John, A Rich Cloth Merchant, Took A Leading Part In Public Affairs During The First Decades Of The 14th Century. Jacob, Who According To Tra Dition ...

Jacobus Arminius
Arminius, Jacobus (156o-16o9), Dutch Theologian, Author Of The Modified Reformed Theology That Receives Its Name Of Arminianism From Him, Was Born At Oudewater, South Hol Land, Oct. I O 156o. Arminius Is A Latinized Form Of His Patro Nymic Hermanns Or Hermansen. His Father, Hermann Jakobs, A Cutler, Died While ...

Jacobus Balduinus
Balduinus, Jacobus, Italian Jurist Of The 13th Cen Tury, A Bolognese And Reputed To Be Of A Noble Family, Was A Pupil Of Azo, And The Master Of Odofredus, Hostiensis And Jacobus De Ravanis (who First Applied Dialectical Forms To Legal Science). His Great Fame As A Professor Of Civil ...

Jacques Bainville
Bainville, Jacques (1879-1936), French Historian And Journalist, Was Born At Vincennes, Near Paris, Feb. 9 1879. His First Literary Work Was A Life Of Louis Ii. Of Bavaria (1900) Written While Travelling In Germany. He Came Under The Influence Of Maurras, Joined The Royalist Party, And, At The Time Of ...

Jaime Balmes
Balmes, Jaime Luciano(1810-1848), Spanish Eccle Siastic, Political Writer And Philosopher, Was Born At Vich In Cata Lonia, On Aug. 28, 181o, And Died There On July 9, 1848. Having Attacked The Regent Espartero He Was Exiled. On His Return He Founded And Edited. The El Pensamiento De La Nacion, A ...

Jakob Ayrer
Ayrer, Jakob (?-16o5) , German Dramatist, Of Whose Life Little Is Known. He Seems To Have Come To Nuremberg As A Boy And Worked His Way Up To The Position Of Imperial Notary. He Died At Nuremberg On March 26, 1605. Ayrer Left Some 6o Or 7o Plays Which Were ...

Jakob Balde
Balde, Jakob (1604-1668), German Latinist, Was Born At Ensisheim, In Alsace. In 1624 He Entered The Society Of Jesus, And In 1633 Was Ordained Priest. His Lectures And Poems Had Now Made Him Famous; In 1638 He Became Court Chaplain To The Elector, Maximilian I. At Munich, Where He Remained ...

James Baird
Baird, James (1802-1876), Scottish Iron-master, Was Born At Kirkwood, Lanarkshire, On Dec. 5, 1802, The Son Of A Coal Master. In 1826 His Father, Two Brothers And Himself Leased Coal Fields At Gartsherrie And In The Vicinity, And In 1828 Iron Mines Near By, And In 1830 Built Blast Furnaces. ...

James Elphinstone Balmerino
Balmerino, James Elphinstone, 1st Baron (c. Scottish Politician, Was The Third Son Of Robert, 3rd Lord Elphinstone (d. 1602). Rising To Power Under James Vi. He Became A Judge And A Royal Secretary; He Accompanied The King To London In 1603 And Was Made Lord Balmerino, Or Balmerinoch, In 1604. ...

James Hamilton
James Hamilton, 1st Earl (1475?-1529), Son Of James, 1st Lord Hamilton, And Of Mary, Daughter Of James Ii. Of Scotland, Succeeded To His Father's Titles And Estates In In He Negotiated The Marriage Of James Iv. With Mary Tudor, And Was Created Earl Of Arran. Arran Was Intercepted In England ...

James Hamilton_2
James Hamilton, 2nd Earl Of Arran And Duke Of Chatelherault (1515?-75), Became Heir Presumptive To The Throne On The Death Of James V. And The Accession Of Mary, And Was Appointed Pro Tector Of The Realm. Af Ter Arranging For A Marriage Between Mary And Prince Edward (afterwards Edward Vi. ...

James Hamilton_3
James Hamilton, 3rd Earl (1537-1609), Was Intended By His Father To Marry Mary, Queen Of Scots. Later On Henry Viii. Promised The Hand Of His Daughter Elizabeth As The Price Of The Adherence Of Hamilton's Father To The English Interest. He Was Immersed In The Political Factions Of The Time ...

James Mark Baldwin
Baldwin, James Mark (1861-1934), American Phi Losopher, Was Born At Columbia (s.c.), Jan. 12, 1861, And Edu Cated At Princeton And Several German Universities. He Was Pro Fessor Of Philosophy In The University Of Toronto , Of Psychology At Princeton (1893-1903), Of Philosophy And Psy Chology In Johns Hopkins University ...

Jane Austen
Austen, Jane (1 7 ), English Novelist, Was Born On Dec. 16, 1775, At The Parsonage Of Steventon, In Hampshire, A Village Of Which Her Father, The Rev. George Austen, Was Rector. She Was The Youngest Of Seven Children. Her Mother Was Cas Sandra Leigh, Niece Of Theophilus Leigh, A ...

Janos Arany
Arany, Janos (1817-1882), Hungarian Poet, Was Born At Nagy-szalonta On March 2, 1817. His Family Were Small Cal Vinist Yeomen Of Noble Origin, Whose Property Consisted Of A Rush Thatched Cottage And A Tiny Plot Of Land. An Only Son, Late Born, Seeing No Companions Of His Own Age, Hearing ...

Janos Bacsanyi
Bacsanyi, Janos Hungarian Poet, Founded A Patriotic Paper, The Magyar Museum, At Kaschau In 1788 With The Assistance Of Baroti And Kazinczy. The Paper Was Suppressed In 1792, And In .1794 Bacsanyi Was Imprisoned For A Share In The Conspiracy Of Bishop Martinovich. He Spent Two Years In The Spielberg. ...

Jean Antoine De Baif
Baif, Jean Antoine De (1532-1589), French Poet And Member Of The Pleiade, Was Born At Venice, The Natural Son Of The Scholar Lazare De Baif, At That Time French Ambassador There. He Was Taught Latin By Charles Estienne, And Greek By Ange Vergece, The Cretan Scholar And Calligraphist Who Designed ...

Jean Astruc
Astruc, Jean (1684-1 766), French Physician And Biblical Critic, Was Born March Ig 1684, At Sauve, In Languedoc, And Died In Paris, Where He Was Regius Professor Of Medicine, May 5 1766. He Published Anonymously Conjectures Sur Les Memoires Originaux Dont It Parait Que Moyse S'est Servi Pour Composer Le ...

Jean Audran
Jean Audran, Nephew Of Gerard, Was Born At Lyons In 1667. He Was 8o Years Of Age Before He Quitted The Graver, And Nearly 90 When He Died. The Best Prints Of This Artist Are Those In Which The Etching Constitutes A Great Part ; And He Has Finished Them ...

Jean Baptiste Bourguignon D
Anville, Jean Baptiste Bourguignon D' (1697-1782), Perhaps The Greatest Geographical Author Of The 18th Century, Was Born At Paris On July Ii 1697. One Of D'anville's Main Objects Was To Reform Geography By Putting An End To The Blind Copying Of Older Maps, By Testing The Com Monly Accepted Positions ...

Jean Baptiste De Boyer
Argens, Jean Baptiste De Boyer, Marquis D' (1704-1771), Was Born At Aix In Provence On June 24, 1704 And Died At Toulon On Jan. 11, 1771. After A Dissipated And Adventurous Youth, He Settled For A Time At Amsterdam, Where He Began His Lettres Juives (the Hague, 1738-42), Lettres Chinoises ...

Jean Henri Merle D
Aubigne, Jean Henri Merle D' (1794-1872), Swiss Protestant Divine And Historian Of The Reformation, Was Born On Aug. 6, 1794, At Eaux Vives, Geneva. The Ancestors Of His Father, Aime Robert Merle D'aubigne (1755-1799), Were French Protestant Refugees. Educated In Germany, He Was Pastor Of The French Protestant Church In ...

Jean Sylvain Bailly
Bailly, Jean Sylvain French Astron Omer And Orator, Was Born At Paris On Sept. 15, 1736. He Cal Culated An Orbit For The Comet Of 1759 (halley's), Reduced Lacaille's Observations Of 515 Zodiacal Stars, And Was, In 1763, Elected A Member Of The Academy Of Sciences. His Essai Sur La ...

Jeanne Sylvanie Arnould Plessy
Arnould-plessy, Jeanne Sylvanie 1897), French Actress, Was Born In Metz, The Daughter Of A Local Actor Named Plessy. She Made Her Debut At The Comedie Fran Caise In 1834 In Alexandre Duval's La Fille D'honneur, And For The Next I I Years Filled Leading Roles There. Suddenly She Broke Her ...

Jens Immanuel Baggesen
Baggesen, Jens Immanuel Danish Poet, Was Born At Korsor. His Parents Were Very Poor, And Before He Was 12 He Was Sent To Copy Documents At The Office Of The Clerk Of The District. He Was A Melancholy, Feeble Child, And Before This He Had Attempted Suicide More Than Once. ...

Joanna Baillie
Baillie, Joanna (1762-1851), Scottish Poet And Dramatist, Was Born At The Manse Of Bothwell, On The Clyde. She Belonged To An Old Scottish Family, Which Claimed Among Its An Cestors Sir William Wallace. At An Early Period She Moved With Her Sister Agnes To London, The Two Sisters Settling At ...

Jodocus Or Josse Badius
Badius, Jodocus Or Josse (1462-1535), Sometimes Called Badius Ascensius From The Village Of Asche, Near Brussels, Where He Was Born, An Eminent Printer At Paris, Whose Establish Ment Was Celebrated Under The Name Of Prelum Ascensianum. He Was Himself A Scholar Of Considerable Repute, Had Studied At Brus Sels And ...

Johann Arndt
Arndt, Johann German Lutheran The Ologian, Was Born At Ballenstadt, In Anhalt, And • Studied In Several Universities. He Was At Helmstadt In 1576; At Wittenberg In 1577. At Wittenberg The Crypto-calvinist Controversy Was Then At Its Height, And He Took The Side Of Melanchthon And The Crypto-cal Vinists. He ...

Johann Christian Bach
Johann Christian Bach (1735-1782), The Eleventh Son, Was Born At Leipzig, And On The Death Of His Father In 175o Became The Pupil Of His Brother Emanuel At Berlin. In 1754 He Went To Italy, Where He Studied Under Padre Martini, And From 176o To 1762 Held The Post Of ...

Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach
Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach (1732-1795), The Ninth Son, Was Born At Leipzig, Studied At The Thomasschule And The University, And In 175o Was Appointed Kapellmeister At Buckeburg. He Was An Industrious Composer, Especially Of Church Music And Opera, Whose Work Reflects No Discredit On The Family Name. ...