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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 3 Baltimore - Braila

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Bob
Bob, A "call" Employed In Bell-ringing To Signify An Alteration Of The "coursing Order" Or Order In Which The Bells Are Being Rung. The Origin Of The Term Is Unknown, But It May Have Been Adopted As A Short, Sharp Word, Easily Uttered By The "conductor" And Easily Recognized By ...

Bobbili
Bobbili, A Town Of British India, In The Vizagapatam District Of Madras, Tom. North Of Vizagapatam Town, On A Branch Line Of The Bengal-nagpur Railway. Pop. (1931) It Is The Resi Dence Of A Raja Of Old Family. The Attack On The Fort At Bobbili Made By Gen. Bussy In ...

Bobbio
Bobbio, Episcopal See Of Lombardy, Italy, Province Of Pavia, 322m. S.w. Of Piacenza By Road. Pop. (1921) Town 2,26o, Com Mune 5,012. St. Columban Became First Abbot Of Bobbio In 612 And Died In 615. The Church Dedicated To Him Is Lombard (1 1 Th 12th Centuries), Restored In The ...

Bobcat
Bobcat, A Term Loosely Used To Describe Several Smaller Varieties Of Lynx (q.v.) Found In North America. The Name Re Fers To The Short, Stumpy Tail Characteristic Of These Animals. The Bobcat Shows Great Individual Variation As To Size, Softness Of Fur, Proportion Of Light And Dark Markings. The Usual ...

Bobo
Bobo, An Agricultural And Pastoral, Animistic People, Divided Into Several Tribes And Speaking Two Different Languages, Living In The Upper Volta And In The Valley Of The Upper Black Volta, In The French Sudan. There Is No Tribal Organization. Inheritance Passes First To The Brother And Then To The Son ...

Bobolink
Bobolink [a Name Derived From Its Call], Or Rice-bird, A North American Bird Of The Family Icteridae, Known Scientifically As Dolichonyx Oryzivorus. It Is A Migrant, Reaching New Bruns Wick In Summer And Wintering In South America, Which It Reaches By A Migration Route Through Jamaica. It Is Remarkable For ...

Bobruisk
Bobruisk, A Town And District In The White Russian Socialist Soviet Republic On The Right Bank Of The Berezina River And On The Railway Between Minsk And Gomel. Lat. 53° 1o' N., Long. 12' E. Pop. (1933) 64,800, Mainly White Russians And Jews. It Is A Centre For Corn And ...

Bobwhite
Bobwhite, The Best Known North American Game Bird, Colinus Virginianus, Of The New World Family Odontophoridae (q.v.), Is About Io In. Long, Mottled, Reddish-brown Above, With White On The Breast ; Resident East Of The Rocky Mountains, North To Minnesota And Ontario And South To The Gulf Of Mexico. It ...

Bocage
Bocage, A Term Applied To Several Regions Of France, The Characteristics Of Which Are A Granite Formation With Associated Heath Or Reclaimed Land Sparsely Timbered (from O.fr. Boscage,. Late Lat. Boscurn, A Wood) . The Most Important Are (1) The Bo Cage Of Normandy, Including Portions Of The Departments Of ...

Bocas Del Toro
Bocas Del Toro, A Town, Province, Island And Bay On The Northern Coast Of The Republic Of Panama. The Population Of The Town Is About 1 O,000, The Chief Industry Of The Region Being The Growing Of Bananas Which Are Raised Or Bought By A Large American Fruit Company For ...

Bocchus
Bocchus (c. Iio B.c.), King Of Mauretania, And Father In-law Of Jugurtha. In 108 He Joined Jugurtha On Condition Of Re Ceiving A Third Of Numidia. But When The Kings Had Been Twice Defeated, Bocchus Again Sought Roman Alliance. He Was Persuaded By Sulla (q.v.) To Seek Favour By Entrapping ...

Bocholt
Bocholt, Town In Westphalia, Germany, Near The Dutch Frontier, 12m. N. Of Wesel. Pop. It Is A Centre Of The Cotton Industry. ...

Bochum
Bochum, A Town Of Germany, In The Prussian Province Of Westphalia, 11m. W. Of Dortmund. Pop. It Is A Centre Of The Coal, Iron And Steel Industries, With Tin And Zinc Works. There Is A Chamber Of Commerce. ...

Bockland Or Bookland Bocland
Bocland, Bockland Or Bookland, In Anglo Saxon Law, A Grant Of Folkland (q.v.) By The King, With The Consent Of The Witan, At First Usually To The Church, Occasionally To Laymen For Religious Purposes. It Was A Grant Of Lordship And Revenues, And Perhaps Of Jurisdiction Also. The Grantee By ...

Bod
Bod, The Name By Which Tibet Is Known To The Tibetans. The Term Is Also Used Adjectivally For The People Of The Country And In Such Expressions As Bod-skad, The Tibetan Language. The Etymology Of The Term Is Doubtful And The Suggestion That It Is Connected With Bodh (wisdom) Or ...

Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya, A Village In British India, In The Gaya Dis Trict Of Behar And Orissa, Situated 6m. South Of The Town Of Gaya. It Is One Of The Holiest Places In The Buddhist World, For It Was Here That, Under A Pipa/ Tree (ficus Religiosa), Prince Gautama Or Sakya ...

Bodhivamsa Or Mahabodhivamsa
Bodhivamsa Or Mahabodhivamsa, A Prose Poem In Elaborate Sanskritized Pali, Composed By Upatissa In The First Half Of The Iith Century A.d. Based On A Sinhalese Original, After Outlining The Early History Of Buddha And Buddhism It Describes The Bringing Of A Branch Of The Celebrated Bo Or Bodhi Tree ...

Bodle Or Boddle
Bodle Or Boddle, A Scottish Copper Coin Worth About One-sixth Of An English Penny, First Issued Under Charles Ii. It Survives In The Phrase "not To Care A Bodle," And Is Said To Be Derived From Bothwell, The Name Of A Mint Master. ...

Bodmin
Bodmin, Municipal Borough And County Town Of Cornwall, England, 3om. W.n.w. Of Plymouth, With Stations On The G.w. And Southern Railways. Pop. (1931) 5,526. It Lies In A Short Valley Opening Westward Upon That Of The Camel, At The South End Of The High Open Bodmin Moor. The Site Is ...

Bodo Or Bara
Bodo Or Bara, A Race Of Tribes In Assam Divided Roughly Into Two Groups, The Western Consisting Of The Chutiya, Plains Kachari, Rabha, Garo, Mech, Koch, Dhimal And Haijong Tribes, The Eastern Of The Dimasa Or Hill Kachari, Hojai, Lalung, Tippera And Moran Tribes. The Bodo Race Were Formerly Dominant ...

Bodo
Bodo, A Seaport On The North-western Coast Of Norway, In Nordland Amt (county), 67° 17' N., On The North Side Of The Entry Into Salt Fjord. Pop. (193o), 5,208. The Rock-bound Harbour Admits Large Vessels, And There Is A Brisk Trade In Fish And Eider Down. The Neighbouring Country Has ...

Body And Mind
Body And Mind. In Seeking To'deal With The Perennial Problem Of "body And Mind" Our First Task Is To State In General Terms How Activities Of The Body Are Related To Activities Of The Mind, Accepting The Distinction Between Body And Mind At Its Face Value—as It Is Understood In ...

Body Snatching
Body-snatching, The Secret Disinterring Of Dead Bodies In Churchyards In Order To Sell Them For The Purpose Of Dissection. Those Who Practised Body-snatching Were Frequently Called Resur Rectionists Or Resurrection-men. Previous To The Passing Of The Anatomy Act, 1832 (see Anatomy : History), No Licence Was Re Quired In Great ...

Boeckh
Boeckh, (bocrol), Philipp August German Classical Scholar, Was Born In Karlsruhe On Nov. 24, 1785. He Studied Under Wolf At Halle. In 1807 He Estab Lished Himself As Privatdozent In The University Of Heidelberg And Was Shortly Afterwards Appointed A Professor Extraordinarius, Becoming Professor Two Years Later. In 18ii He ...

Boeotia
Boeotia, A District Of Central Greece, Bounded By Phocis And Locris On The West And North ; By Attica, Megaris And The Corinthian Gulf On The South; And By The Strait Of Euboea On The Northeast; Area, I,ioo Square Miles. In The North The Basin Of The Cephissus And Lake ...

Boer
Boer, The Dutch Form Of The Eng. "boor," In Its Original Signification Of Husbandman (ger. Bauer), A Name Given To The Dutch Farmers Of South Africa, And Especially To The Dutch Popu Lation Of The Transvaal And Orange River States. (see South ...

Boethus
Boethus, A Sculptor Of The Hellenistic Age, A Native Of Carthage (or Possibly Chalcedon), Who Lived Probably In The 2nd Century B.c. He Was Noted For His Representations Of Children, And Especially For A Group Representing A Boy Struggling With A Goose, Of Which Several Copies Survive In Museums. ...

Bog
Bog (from Ir. And Gael. Bogach, Bog, Soft), Soft, Spongy, Water-logged Ground, Composed Of Vegetation, Chiefly Mosses, In Various Stages Of Decomposition Forming "peat" (q.v.). With Very Heavy Rain There Is Danger Of A "bog-slide," Or "bog-burst," Which May Obliterate The Neighbouring Cultivated Land With A Deposit Of The Contents ...

Bogalusa
Bogalusa, A City Of Washington Parish, Louisiana, U.s.a. In The South-eastern Part Of The State, Near The Pearl River, On The New Orleans Great Northern Railroad, About 6om. N. By E. Of New Orleans. The Population In 1920 Was 8,245, And In 193o It Was 14,029. The Industries Include Hardwood ...

Boghaz Keui
Boghaz Keui, A Small Village In Asia Minor, North-west Of Yuzgat In The Angora Vilayet, Remarkable For The Ruins And Rock-sculptures In Its Vicinity. The Discovery Of A Rich Store Of Cuneiform Tablets During The Early Part Of The 2oth Century Has Shown Boghaz Keui To Have Been The Site ...

Bogie
Bogie, An Under-carriage Possessing Freedom To Move In Such A Way That Wheels Can Turn Or Follow A Track With The Least Effort And Friction. Familiar Examples Are Those Of Locomotives, And Long Carriages, Vans, Wagons, Tenders, And Tramcars. There May Be Two Wheels Only Thus Carried, If Conditions Of ...

Bognor Regis
Bognor Regis, Urban District And Seaside Resort, Sussex, England, 66m. S.s.w. From London By The Southern Railway. Pop. (1931) 13,510. Pop. (i 90i) 6,180. It Was Chosen For The Convalescence Of King George In 1929, Hence The Adjective "regis." The Town Possesses A Pier And Promenade, A Theatre, Assembly Rooms, ...

Bogodukhov
Bogodukhov, A Town In The Kharkov Province Of The Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic. Lat. 5o° 9' N., Long. 35° 33' E. Pop. (1926) 16,013. It Is On The Railway And Has A Radio Station. It Is The Centre Of A Market Gardening Area And Trades In Grain, Cattle And Fish ...

Bogomils
Bogomils, The Name Of An Ancient Religious Community Which Had Its Origin In Bulgaria. It Is A Complicated Task To Deter Mine The True Character And The Tenets Of Ancient Sects Of This Kind, Considering That Almost All The Information That Has Reached Us Has Come From Their Opponents. Concerning ...

Bogorodsk
Bogorodsk, The Name Of Several Russian Towns. The Chief Is A Town 38m. E.n.e. Of Moscow On The Klyazma River. Lat. 55° 52' N., Long. 38° 20' E. Pop. (1926) 34,905. It Supplies Electricity By Cable To Moscow From The Electric Power Station Nearby, Which Has A Workers' Settlement Of ...

Bogos
Bogos, A Pastoral Race Of Mixed Hamitic Descent, Occupy Ing The Highlands Immediately North Of Abyssinia, Now Part Of The Italian Colony Of Eritrea. The Community Is Divided Into Two Classes, The Shumaglieh Or "elders" And Tigre Or "clients." The Latter Are Serfs Of The Former, Who, However, Cannot Sell ...

Bogota Or Santa Fe
Bogota Or Santa Fe De Bogota, The Capital Of The Republic Of Colombia, And Of The Interior Department Of Cundinamarca. Pop. In 1933, 264,607. The City Is On The Eastern Margin Of A Large Elevated Plateau 8,563ft. Above Sea-level. The Plateau May Be Described As A Great Bench Or Shelf ...

Bohemia
Bohemia, An Ancient Kingdom In Central Europe. Its Early History Is Very Obscure. The Country Derives Its Name From A Tribe Of Uncertain Origin, The Boii, Conquered By The Teutonic Marcomanni About 12 B.c. It Is Probable That Slavic Peoples, Of Whom The Cechs Were Most Important, Had Entered The ...

Bohemund I
Bohemund I. (c. A.d. 1058-11i1), Prince Of Otranto And After Wards Of Antioch, Was The Eldest Son Of Robert Guiscard, By An Early Marriage Contracted Before 1059. He Served Under His Father In The Great Attack On The East Roman Empire (1080-85), And Commanded The Normans During Guiscard's Absence (1082-84), ...

Bohemund Ii
Bohemund Ii. (1 108-1 , Son Of The Great Bohemund By His Marriage With Constance Of France, Came In 1126 From Apulia To Antioch (which, Since The Fall Of Roger, The Successor Of Tancred, In 1119, Had Been Under The Regency Of Baldwin Ii.) ; And In 1127 He Married ...

Bohemund Iii
Bohemund Iii. (d. 1201), Was The Son Of Constance, Daughter Of Bohemund Ii., By Her First Husband, Raymund Of Antioch. He Succeeded His Mother In The Principality Of Antioch In 1163, And First Appears Prominently In 1164, As Regent Of The Kingdom Of Jerusalem During The Expedition Of Amalric I. ...

Bohemund Iv
Bohemund Iv. (d. 1233), Younger Son Of Bohemund Iii. By His Second Wife Orguilleuse, Became Count Of Tripoli In I187, And Succeeded His Father In The Principality Of Antioch, To The Exclu Sion Of Raymund Rhupen, In 1 201. After Raymund Rhupen's Death In 1221, Bohemund Reigned In Antioch And ...

Bohemund V
Bohemund V. (d. 1251), Son Of Bohemund Iv. By His Wife Plaisance (daughter Of Hugh Of Gibelet), Succeeded His Father In 1233, And Carried On The Struggle With Armenia Till 1251, When The Marriage Of The Future Bohemund Vi. To The Sister Of The Arme Nian King Finally Brought Peace. ...

Bohemund Vi
Bohemund Vi. (1237-1268), Was The Son Of Bohemund V. By Luciana, A Daughter Of The Count Of Segni, Nephew Of Innocent Iii., And Succeeded His Father In 1251. His Sister Plaisance Had Married In 1250 Henry I. Of Cyprus, The Son Of Hugh I. ; And The Cypriot Connection Of ...

Bohemund Vii
Bohemund Vii. (d. 1287), Son Of Bohemund Vi. By Sibylla, Sister Of Leo Iii. Of Armenia, Succeeded To The County Of Tripoli In 1275, With His Mother As Regent. He Had Trouble With The Tem Plars Who Were Established In Tripoli ; And In The Very Year Of His Death ...

Bohemund
Bohemund, The Name Of A Series Of Princes Of Antioch, Afterwards Counts Of Tripoli. Their Connection Is Shown In The Following Table :— ...

Bohun
Bohun, The Name Of A Family Which Plays An Important Part In English History During The 13th And 14th Centuries; It Was Taken From A Village Situated In The Cotentin Between Coutances And The Estuary Of The Vire. The Bohuns Came Into England At Or Shortly After, The Norman Conquest ...

Boieldieu
Boieldieu, Francois Adrien (1775-1834), French Composer Of Comic Opera, Was Born At Rouen, Dec. 16, He Began Composing Songs And Chamber Music At A Very Early Age—his First Opera, La Fille Coupable (the Libretto By His Father), And His Second Opera, Rosalie Et Myrza, Being Duced On The Stage Of ...

Boii
Boii, A Celtic People, Whose Original Home Was Gallia Trans Alpina. They Were Known To The Romans In The Time Of Plautus, As Is Shown By The Reference In The Captivi (888). At An Early Date They Split Up Into Two Groups, One Of Which Made Its Way Into Italy, ...

Boil
Boil, In Medicine, A Progressive Local Inflammation Of The Skin, Taking The Form Of A Hard Suppurating Mass With A Core Of Dead Tissue, Resulting From Infection By A Microbe, Staphy Lococcus Pyogenes, And Commonly Occurring In Young Persons, Or As A Complication In Certain Diseases. Usually An Infected Hair ...

Boiler Maker
Boiler Maker, An Operative Who Constructs New Boilers And Mends, Patches Or Rebuilds Old Ones. His Work Includes Shear Ing, Clipping, Riveting, Tube Setting, Calking, Bending Plates And General Repair Of Boilers. A Knowledge Of Applied Mathematics And Mechanical Drawing Is Helpful. The Boiler Maker Must Be Thoroughly Acquainted With ...

Boiler Making
Boiler-making. This Industry Is Remarkable For The Immense Amount Of Detail Work To Be Performed, Since Nothing Is Really Ready To Be Put Together. The Plates, Angles, Bars And Other Sections Arrive In A Fairly Straight Condition, And Must Be Variously Sheared, Sawn, Straightened, Bent, Flanged, Dished, Tapered Or Thinned, ...

Boilers
Boilers. The Origin Of Vessels For Generating Steam To Sup Ply The Motive Power Of An Engine Was Contemporaneous With The Evolution Of The Steam Engine Itself, And Even In The Earliest Days Of Steam It Was Recognized That They Should Be Fitted With Safety Valves And Have A Considerable ...

Boiling Point
Boiling-point, The Temperature, For Any Given Liquid, At Which The Application Of Heat Ceases To Raise The Temperature Of The Liquid And Instead Converts The Liquid Into Its Vapour. The Boiling-point Of Water Under Normal Pressure (barometric Height, Corrected For Temperature And Latitude, 76omm. Mercury) Is Ioo° C Or 2 ...

Boiling To Death
Boiling To Death, A Punishment Once Common Both In England And On The Continent. The Chronicles Of The Grey Friars (camden Society, 1852) Have An Account Of Boiling For Poisoning At Smithfield In The Year 1522, The Man Being Fastened To A Chain And Lowered Into Boiling Water Several Times ...

Boise
Boise, The Capital And Largest City Of Idaho, United States, And The County Seat Of Ada County; In The South-west Part Of The State, 2,7ooft. Above Sea-level And Surrounded By Peaks Of The Boise Range ; On The Boise River, The Lincoln Highway And The Oregon Short Line Of The ...

Boissy Danglas
Boissy D'anglas, Frangois Antoine De (1756-1826), French Statesman, Was Born At Saint Jean La Chambre (ardeche), Dec. 8, 1756, And Died In Paris, Oct. 2o, 1826. He Was Elected In 1789 By The Third Estate Of The Senechaussee Of Annonay As Deputy To The States-general. During The Legislative Assembly He ...

Boksburg
Boksburg, A Town In South Africa 15m. East Of Johannes Burg. The White Population In 1931 Was 13,977. It Is The Chief Centre Of The East Rand Gold And Coal Mining. The Collieries Extend 11m. Eastward From The Town. The Boksburg Park And Lake, Where Boating And Bathing Facilities Are ...

Bola
Bola, A Portuguese Guinea People Related To The Bagnun, Balante, Mandjak And Papel, Between The Cacheu And Geba Rivers And On The Island Of Bolama. ...

Bolan Pass
Bolan Pass, An Important Pass On The Baluch Frontier, Connecting Jacobabad And Sibi With Quetta, Important In The Recent History Of Afghanistan. By The Treaty Of Gandamak (1879), The Bolan Route Was Brought Directly Under British Con Trol, And It Was Selected For The First Alignment Of The Sind-pishin Railway ...

Bolas
Bolas (plural Of Span. Bola, Ball), A South American Indian Weapon Of War And The Chase, Consisting Of Balls Of Stone Attached To The Ends Of A Rope Of Twisted Or Braided Hide Or Hemp. Charles Darwin Thus Describes Them In His Voyage Of The Beagle : "the Bolas, Or ...

Bolbec
Bolbec, Town, France, Department Of Seine-inferieure, On The Bolbec, 19m. E.n.e. Of Havre By Rail, At The Junction Of Four Small Valleys. Pop. (1931) 9,788. The Town Was Enthusiastically Protestant In The 16th Century And Still Has A Number Of Protes Tants. It Was Burned Almost To The Ground In ...

Bole
Bole, An Aluminous Or Ferruginous Clay, Allied To Bauxite And Laterite (qq.v.). It Occurs As Partings Between Successive Ancient Lava Flows, As For Example In Antrim, Ireland, The West Of Scotland And In The Deccan, India, Probably Representing The Soils Formed By Weathering During Intervals Between Eruptions. In The Sense ...

Bolero
Bolero, A Lively Spanish Dance, In 3-4 Time With A Strongly Marked Rhythm Of Which, However, The Precise Nature Is Often Varied ; Also The Music To Which It Is Danced And Other Compo Sitions Cast In The Same Form. As Danced In Spain The Bolero Is Usually Accompanied By ...

Boleslav I
Boleslav I., Called "chrobry" (the Mighty), King Of Poland (reigned 992-1025), Was The Son Of Mieszko, First Christian Prince Of Poland, And The Bohemian Princess Dobrawa, Or Bona, Whose Chaplain, Jordan, Converted The Court From Paganism To Catholi Cism. He Succeeded His Father In 992. A Born Warrior, He Raised ...

Boleslav Ii
Boleslav Ii., Called "smially" (the Bold), King Of Poland (1039-1081) , Eldest Son Of Casimir I., Succeeded His Father In 1058. Poland Had Shrunk Territorially Since The Age Of His Grandfather Boleslav I., And Boleslav Ii. Sought To Restore Her Dignity And Importance. Boleslav's First Bohemian War Proved Unsuccessful, And ...

Boleslav Iii
Boleslav Iii., Called "the Wry-mouthed," King Of Poland (1086-1139), The Son Of Wladislav I. And Judith Of Bohemia, Succeeded His Father In 1102. His Earlier Years Were Troubled Continually By The Intrigues Of His Natural Half-brother Zbigniev, Who, Till He Was Imprisoned And Blinded, Involved Boleslav In Fre Quent Contests ...

Boletus
Boletus, A Well-marked Genus Of Fungi (order Polyporeae, Family Basidiomycetes) ; Characterized By The Central Stem, The Cap Or Pileus, The Soft, Fleshy Tissue, And The Vertical, Closely Packed Tubes Or Pores Which Cover The Under Surface Of The Pileus And Are Easily Detachable. The Species All Grow On The ...

Boleyn
Boleyn (or Bullen), Anne (c. Queen Of Henry Viii. Of England, Daughter Of Sir Thomas Boleyn, After Wards Earl Of Wiltshire And Ormonde, And Of Elizabeth, Daughter Of Thomas Howard, Earl Of Surrey, Afterwards Duke Of Norfolk, Was Born, According To Camden, In 15o7, But An Earlier Date (15o2 Or ...

Bolgari Or Bolgary
Bolgari Or Bolgary, An Area In The Autonomous Tatar S.s.r. South Of Kazan, 4m. From The Left Bank Of The Volga, 3' N., 48° 5' E. It Consists Of The Ruins Of The Supposed Ancient Capital Of The Bulgarians From The 5th To The 15th Cen Turies, With Walls, Towers ...

Boli
Boli, The Chief Town Of A Vilayet Of The Same Name In Asia Minor, Altitude 2,5ooft., Situated In A Rich Plain Watered By The Boli Su, A Tributary Of The Filiyas Chai (billaeus). Pop. (1927) 56,133. Cotton And Leather Are Manufactured; The Country Around Is Fertile, And In The Neighbourhood ...

Bolivar
Bolivar, A Department Of Colombia, On The Caribbean Sea. It Has An Area Of 23,515 Sq.m., Composed In Great Part Of Low, Alluvial Plains, Densely Wooded, Slightly Cultivated And Unsuited For North European Labour. The Population, Estimated In 1933 At 740,918, Is Composed Largely Of Mixed Races (white And Negro) ...

Bolivar_2
Bolivar, An Inland State Of Venezuela, Lying South Of The Orinoco, With The Delta-amacuro Territory And British Guiana On The East, The Coroni River Forming The Boundary, And The Amazonas Territory And Brazil On The South. Frequent Political Changes In Venezuela Have Led To Various Modifications In The Size And ...

Bolivar_3
Bolivar, The Monetary Unit Of Venezuela. It Is Equiva Lent At Par To A Franc, So That One Bolivar Equals 19.295 Cents, And 2 5.2 2 Bolivars Equal One Pound. It Is Divided Into 1 Oo Centimes, While Commercial Accounts Are Kept As A Rule In "pesos Sencillos," An Imaginary ...

Bolivia
Bolivia, An Inland Republic Of South America, Once A Part Of The Inca Empire And Later Of The Spanish Viceroyalty Of Peru And Known As The Province Of Charcas Or Upper Peru. It Is The Fourth Largest Political Division Of The Continent, And Extends, Approximately, From 9° 44' To 23° ...

Bolkhov
Bolkhov, A Town In The Orlov Province Of The Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic. Lat. 53° 25' N., Long. 36° E. Pop. (1926) 17,s32. It Is A Trading Centre For Hemp Products And Cattle, Situated In An Orchard District. It Has A Cathedral And Near It Are The Ruins Of ...

Boll
Boll, A Botanical Term For A Fruit-pod, Particularly Of The Cotton Plant. The Word Is In O.e. Bolla, Which Is Also Represented In "bowl," A Round Vessel For Liquids, A Variant Due To "bowl," Ball, Which Is From The Fr. Bottle. "boll" Is Also Used, Chiefly In Scotland And The ...

Bollandists
Bollandists, The Belgian Jesuits Who Publish The Acta Sanctorum, The Great Collection Of Biographies And Legends Of The Saints, Arranged By Days, In The Order Of The Calendar. The Original Idea Was Conceived By A Jesuit Father, Heribert Rosweyde (see Hagiology) . His Intention Was To Publish In 18 Volumes ...

Bolo
Bolo, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 12 Barrios Or Districts), Of The Province And Island Of Cebu, Philip Pine Islands, On Bogo Bay, At The Mouth Of The Bulac River In The North-east Part Of The Island. Pop. (1918), 23,464, Of Whom 11,694 Were Males And Four Whites. The ...

Bologna
Bologna (ancient Bononia, Q.v.), Archiepiscopal See Of Emilia, Italy, Capital Of Province Of Bologna, Headquarters Of The Vi.. Army Corps. It Is At The Edge Of The Plain Of Emilia, I 8of T. Above Sea-level At The Base Of The Apennines, 82m. N. Of Florence By Rail, 63m. By Road ...

Bolometer
Bolometer, An Instrument For Measuring Radiation By Means Of The Rise In Temperature Of A Blackened Metal Strip In One Of The Arms Of A Resistance Bridge. In The First Bolometer, Invented By Langley, A Wheatstone Bridge (q.v.) Was Used In Conjunction With A Galvanometer Which Showed A Deflection Proportional ...

Bolsena
Bolsena (anc. V Olsinii)i, Province Of Viterbo, Italy, 1 2m. W.s.w. Of Orvieto By Road, On North-east Bank Of Lake Bolsena. Pop. Of The Commune (1931) 3,825. The Town Is Dominated By A Picturesque Mediaeval Castle. The Th Century Church Of S. Christina (martyred In 278 By Drowning In The ...

Bolshevism
Bolshevism, The Doctrine Professed By The Extreme Left Wing Of The Russian Social Democratic Party. The Name Is Derived From The Fact That At A Conference Of The Party Held In Brussels And London In 19o2-3, A Majority ("bolsheviki") Se Cured The Acceptance Of Views Urged By Their Leader Nikolai ...

Bolsover
Bolsover, Urban District, Derbyshire, England, 51 M. E. Of Chesterfield, On Branch Lines Of The L.m.s. And L.n.e. Rail Ways. Pop. (1931) 11,811. It Lies At A Considerable Height On A Sharp Slope Above A Stream Tributary To The River Rother. The Castle Round Which The Town Grew Up Was ...

Bolsward
Bolsward, Town, Province Of Friesland, Holland, 6m. W.n.w. Of Sneek. Pop. (1930) 6,866. The Town Is Mentioned In 725, When It Was Situated On The Middle Sea. When This Receded, A Canal Was Cut To The Zuider Zee And In 1422 It Was Made A Hansa Town. The Mediaeval Constitution ...

Bolt
Bolt, An O.eng. Word (cf. Ger. Bolz, An Arrow) , For A "quarrel" Or Cross-bow Shaft, Or The Pin Which Fastened A Door. ' From The Swift Flight Of An Arrow Comes The Verb "to Bolt," As Applied To A Horse, To Bolting Food, Etc., And Such Expressions As "bolt ...

Bolton Abbey
Bolton Abbey, Village West Riding Of Yorkshire, Eng Land, 2 2m. N.w. Of Leeds And 51m. From Ilkley By The L.m.s. Railway. Pop. Of Parish (1931) 193. It Takes Its Name, Inac Curately, From The Great Foundation Of Bolton Priory, The Ruins Of Which Stand Near The Right Bank Of ...

Bolton
Bolton (bolton-le-moors), Municipal, County And Par Liamentary Borough, Lancashire, England, M. N.w. Of Man Chester. Pop. (i8gi) '46,487; (1931) 177,253. It Is Served By The L.m.s. Railway, And Divided By The Croal, A Small Tributary Of The Irwell, Into Great And Little Bolton; While, As The Full Name Implies, It ...

Bolzano
Bolzano (formerly Botzen), Provincial Capital Of Venezia Tridentina, Italy, At The Confluence Of Talavera And Isarco, Above The Junction Of The Latter With The Adige. It Lies At A Height Of 869ft., On The Brenner Railway, 58m. S. Of That Pass And 35m. N. Of Trento. Pop. (1931) 22,298 (town), ...

Boma
Boma (properly Mboma), Port On The North Bank Of The Congo About 6om. From Its Mouth, The Administrative Capital Of Belgian Congo Up To 1927. Pop. About 40o Whites And 2, 50o Na Tives. It Was Founded As A Slave Mart And Entrepot For The Lower Congo In The 16th ...

Bomb
Bomb, A Term Formerly Used For An Explosive Shell (see Am Munition) Fired By Artillery. The Word Is Derived From The Gr. (36µ(3os, A Hammering, Buzzing Noise, Cf. ".bombard" (q.v.) . At The Present Day It Is Most Frequently Used Of A Shattering Or In Cendiary Grenade (q.v.), Or An ...

Bombard
Bombard, The Name In Various Forms, Of A Mediaeval Musical Instrument ("bombard," "bumhart," "pumhart," "pom Mer"), The Forerunner Of The Base Oboe Or Schalmey. A Small Primitive Oboe Called Bombarde, With Eight Holes But No Keys, Is Still Used Among The Breton Peasants. Also A Primitive Type Of Cannon Used ...

Bombardier
Bombardier, Originally An Artilleryman In Charge Of A Bombard, Now The Lowest Grade Of Non-commissioned Officer In The Artillery Of The British Army, Ranking Below A Corporal. ...

Bombardment
Bombardment, The Concentration Of Artillery Fire Against Fortifications, Troops In Position Or Towns And Buildings. In Its Strict Sense The Term Was Formerly Applied Only To The Bombard Ment Of Defenceless Or Undefended Objects, Houses, Public Build Ings, Etc., The Object Of The Assailant Being To Dishearten His Op Ponent, ...

Bombardon Or Bass Tuba
Bombardon Or Bass Tuba, The Name Given To The Bass And Contrabass Of The Brass Wind In Military Bands, Called In The Orchestra Bass Tuba. The Bombardon Was The Very First Bass Wind Instrument Fitted With Valves And Was The Outcome Of The Appli Cation Of Valves To The Bugle ...

Bombay Duck
Bombay Duck, A Small Fish (saurus Ophiodon), Inhab Iting The Bombay And Malabar Coasts. Dried And Salted, It Is Much Esteemed Both As Food And As A Relish. ...

Bombay Fitrniture
Bombay Fitrniture. "bomba.3.- Blackv.-ood Furniture" Is Manufactured In The City Of Bombay And In The Towns Of Surat And Ahmadabad In India. The Wood Used Is Shisham Or Black Wood (dalbergia), A Hard-grained Dark-coloured Timber Which With Proper Treatment Assumes A Beautiful Natural Polish. Some Of 1 The Articles, Such ...

Bombay Presedency
Bombay Presedency, A Province Or Presidency Of British India, Consisting Partly Of British Districts. And Partly Of Native States Under The Administration Of A Governor. This Terri Tory Extends From 13° 53' To 2sd 45' N., And From 66' 4o' To 763 3o' E., And Is Bounded On The North ...

Bombay
Bombay, Capital Of Bombay Presidency, Standing At The Southern End Of Bombay Island, 18° 55' N., 54' E. The Island, Running Roughly North And South Is 11m. Long By 3m. Broad. It Is Separated At The Northern End From Salsette Only By A Tidal Creek Crossed By Causeways. At The ...

Bombazine Or Bombazine
Bombazine Or Bombazine, A Stuff Originally Made Of Silk Or Silk And Wool, And Now Also Made Of Cotton And Wool Or Of Wool Alone. Good Bombazine Is Made With A Silk Warp And A Worsted Weft. It Is Twilled Or Corded And Used For Dress Ma Terial. Black Bombazine ...