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Encyclopedia Brittanica

Volume 5, Part 1: Cast-Iron to Cole

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Abelard
Abelard. See Lefevre: Op. Cit.; Hurtault: "theologie De G. De Champeaux" In Rev. De Sc. Eccl. Et Sc. Cath. 1908-09; E. Michaud: G. De Champeaux Et Les Ecoles De Paris An Xiie Siecle (2nd Ed. Paris, 1868), And Uberweg: Grundriss Der Gesch. Der Phil. Teil Ii. (berlin, 1928) . ...

Adelbert Von Chamisso
Chamisso, Adelbert Von (loves Charles Ad Elaide De) (1781-1838), German Poet And Botanist, Was Born At The Château Of Boncourt In Champagne, The Ancestral Seat Of His Family. Driven From France By The Revolution, His Parents Settled In Berlin, Where In 1796 Young Chamisso Obtained The Post Of Page-in-waiting To ...

Albert Chevalier
Chevalier, Albert (1861-1923), English Music-hall Artist, Began His Connection With The Variety Stage While Still A Child. In 1869 He Appeared At A "penny-reading" At Cornwall Hall, Notting Hill. After A Brief Experience As A Clerk In A Newspaper Office, And As A Pupil Teacher, He Appeared For A Short ...

Alchemists And Iatrochemists
Alchemists And Iatrochemists When The Arabs Conquered Egypt In The 7th Century And Over Ran Syria And Persia, They Brought A New Spirit Of Enquiry To Bear On The Old 'civilizations They Subdued. The Great Name That Stands Out In The Alchemic Period Is That Of Jabir—probably The Same Geber ...

Alexander Chalmers
Chalmers, Alexander (1759-1834), Scottish Writer, Was Born In Aberdeen On March 29, 1759, And Died In London On Dec. 19, 1834. He Was Educated As A Doctor, But Gave Up This Profession For Journalism, And He Was For Some Time Editor Of The Morning Herald. Besides Editions Of The Works ...

Alexis Emmanuel Chabrier
Chabrier, Alexis Emmanuel French Composer, Was Born At Ambert, Puy De Dome, On Jan. 18, 1841, And First Attracted General Attention In 1883 By His Brilliant Orchestral Rhapsody Entitled Espana, The Themes Of Which He Had Jotted Down When Travelling In Spain. His Opera Gwendoline, Pro Duced At Brussels On ...

Alfred Cellier
Cellier, Alfred (1844-1891), English Composer Of Light Operas Of Which One, "dorothy," Enjoyed Prodigious Popu Larity, Running From Sept. 25, 1886, Till April 1889. "the Mounte Banks," To A Libretto By W. S. Gilbert, Was Also Very Successful. ...

Aliphatic Division
Aliphatic Division In This Section Are Outlined The Classification, General Methods Of Preparation, And Characteristics Of The Very Large Number Of Sub Stances Concerned. There Are Special Articles On Most Of The Technically Valuable Members Of This Subdivision And On Important Theoretical Considerations Such As Valency, Isomerism And Stereo Chemistry. ...

Amain Chartier
Chartier, Amain (c. 1392—c. 1430), French Poet And Political Writer, Was Born At Bayeux About 1392. His Eldest Brother, Guillaume, Became Bishop Of Paris ; And Thomas Became Notary To The King. Jean Chartier, A Monk Of St. Denis, Whose History Of Charles Vii. Is Printed In Vol. Iii. Of ...

American Brass Chan Chandelier
American Brass Chan- Chandelier, A Frame Of Metal, Delier, 18th Century Wood, Crystal, Glass Or China, Suspended From The Roof Or Ceiling For The Purpose Of Holding Lights. The Word Is French, But The Appliance Has Lost Its Original Significance Of A Candle-holder, The Chandelier Being Now Chiefly Used For ...

American Games
American Games Games Played By American Children Fall Into Two Classes, The Formal And The Informal Game. The Formal Game Is Given To The Children "ready-made," And They Play It As Someone Else Has Planned It With Certain Definite Form, Rules, Regulations Or Words And Music. The Traditional Games Discussed ...

Analytical Chemistry
Analytical Chemistry The Specific Purpose Of Analytical Chemistry Is The Resolution Of A Compound Or Mixture Into Its Constituent Parts Or Elements By Methods Which Are Qualitative When The Nature Only Of These Con Stituents Is Determined, Or Quantitative When Their Actual Quantity Or Proportion Is Ascertained. The Methods Of ...

Anders Celsius
Celsius, Anders 0701-1744), Swedish Astronomer, Was Born, On Nov. 27, 170 1, In Uppsala, Where He Was Professor Of Astronomy (i 730-44). At Nuremberg He Published In 1733 A Col Lection Of 316 Observations Of The Aurora Borealis Made By Himself And Others 1716-32. In Paris He Advocated The Measurement ...

Andre De Chenier
Chenier, Andre De (1762-1794), French Poet, Was Horn At Constantinople Of A French Father And A Greek Mother. His Parents Returned To France In 1765, And Though The Father Afterwards Served As Consul General In Morocco, The Children (marie-joseph Is Noticed Below) Remained In France. Andre Was Educated At The ...

Angelica Catalani
Catalani, Angelica (178o-1849), Italian Opera Singer, Was Born At Sinigaglia, And Was The Lucky Possessor Of One Of The Most Remarkable Soprano Voices, Of Extraordinary Compass And Purity, Ever Known. For Nearly Thirty Years She Sang At All The Great Opera Houses, Receiving Very Large Fees ; Her First Appear ...

Anne Claude Caylus
Caylus, Anne Claude, Comte De, Marquis D'ester Nay, Baron De Bransac (1692-1765), French Archaeologist And Man Of Letters, Was Born In Paris. His Mother, The Comtesse De Caylus (1673-1729), Was A Cousin Of Mme. De Maintenon, Who Brought Her Up Like Her Own Daughter. She Wrote Valuable Memoirs Of The ...

Antiphlogistic Experiments
Antiphlogistic Experiments Black And Cavendish.—the First Blow To The Phlogistic Theory Was Dealt By Black, Himself An Adherent. It Had Long Been Known That Limestone Was Turned Into Quicklime By Heating, And That Quicklime Brought Into Contact With The Mild Alkalis Rendered Them Caustic, Returning Itself To Chalk. This Was ...

Antoine Eugene Alfred Chanzy
Chanzy, Antoine Eugene Alfred (1823 1883), French General, Was Born At Nouart (ardennes) On March 18, 1823. The Son Of A Cavalry Officer, He Was Educated At The Naval School At Brest, But Enlisted In The Artillery, And Was Commis Sioned In The Zouaves In 1843. Although He Acquired An ...

Antoine Leonard De Chezy
Chezy, Antoine Leonard De ) French Orientalist, Was Born At Neuilly On Jan. 15, 1773. He Was The First Occupant Of The Chair Of Sanskrit In The College De France (1815), At That Time The Only Chair Of Sanskrit In Europe. Among His Works Were Medjouin Et Leila (1807), From ...

Anton Pavlovich Chekhov
Chekhov, Anton Pavlovich Rus Sian Dramatist And Story-writer, Born On Jan. 17, 186o, In Tagan Rog On The Sea Of Azov. This Name Is Also Spelled Tchekhov, Tchehov And Chehov. His Father Was A Tradesman And The Son Of A Serf. The Writer Was Educated At The Gymnasium Of His ...

Antonio Jose Cavanilles
Cavanilles, Antonio Jose Spanish Botanist, Was Born In Valencia On Jan. 16, 1745. In 1801 He Be Came Director Of The Botanic Gardens At Madrid, Where He Died On May 4, 1804. In 1785-86 He Published Monadelphiae Classis Dissertationes X., And In 1791 He Began To Issue Icones Et Descrip ...

Applied Chemistry
Chemistry, Applied. Applied Chemistry Refers To The Use Made In Other Sciences And Arts Of Data Which Have Been Established Through Chemical Research. An Absolutely Sharp Distinction Between Pure And Applied Chemistry, So-called, Is Well Nigh Impossible. The Difficulties Encountered In Each Class Of Work Are Comparable, And The Ability ...

Armand Augustin Louis Caulaincourt
Caulaincourt, Armand Augustin Louis, Marquis De (1772-1827), French General And Diplomatist, Was Born At Caulaincourt On Dec. 9, 1772, Of A Noble Family. He Early Entered The Army, Did Not Emigrate In The Revolution, But Was De Prived Of His Grade As Captain In 1793, And Served In The Ranks. ...

Arthur Cayley
Cayley, Arthur (1821-1895), English Mathematician, Was Born At Richmond, Surrey, On Aug. 16, 1821. He Entered Trinity College, Cambridge, As A Pensioner, Became A Scholar In May 184o, Senior Wrangler, First Smith's Prizeman And Fellow Of Trinity In 1842, And A Major Fellow In 1845. In 1846, He Entered At ...

Arthur Chich Ester Chichester
Chichester Of Belfast, Arthur Chich Ester, Baron (1563-1625), Lord-deputy Of Ireland, Sec Ond Son Of Sir John Chichester Of Raleigh, Devonshire, Was Edu Cated At Exeter College, Oxford. He Commanded A Ship Against The Spanish Armada In 1588, And Is Said To Have Served Under Drake In His Expedition Of ...

Arthur Neville Chamberlain
Chamberlain, Arthur Neville (1869— ), British Politician, Was Born March 18, 1869, The Son Of Joseph Chamberlain By His Second Wife. Educated At Rugby And Mason College, Birmingham, His Father Sent Him Out At An Early Age To Manage An Estate In The Bahamas, But Returning To His Native City ...

Atomic Numbers
Atomic Numbers It Was From The Study Of The X-ray Spectra Of Various Elements, All Exhibiting Bright Lines Similar In Type, That H. G. J. Moseley Was Led To His Atomic Numbers. The Vibration-frequency Of These Lines Varied As The Squares Of Whole Numbers Which Advanced By One Unit As ...

Augustin Louis Cauchy
Cauchy, Augustin Louis, Baron French Mathematician, Was Born In Paris, On Aug. 21, 1789, And Died At Sceaux (seine) On May 23, 1857. He Studied At The Ecole Polytechnique And The Ecole Des Ponts Et Chaussees, And Practised For Some Time As An Engineer. His Health Failed In 1813, And ...

Bankim Chandra Chatterji
Chatterji, Bankim Chandra (pt A:vximachan Dra Chattopadhyaya) (1838-1894), Indian Novelist, Was Born In The District Of The Twenty-four Parganas In Bengal On June 27, 1838, And Was By Caste A Brahman. He Was Educated At The Hugli College, At The Presidency College In Calcutta, And At Cal Cutta University, Where ...

Barbara Land
Land, Barbara, Duchess Of), English Diplomatist And Author. He Was An Ardent Roman Catholic, Who Defended His Co-religion Ists In Several Publications. He Wrote An Account In French Of The War Against Holland (1665-67) In Which He Had Served; An English Version Of His Book Was Published In 1671. Denounced ...

Barons And Dukes Of
Chandos, Barons And Dukes Of. The English Title Of Chandos Began As A Barony In 1554, And Was Continued In The Family Of Brydges (becoming A Dukedom In 1719) Till 1789. In 1822 The Dukedom Was Revived In Connection With That Of Buckingham. ...

Battle Of Chaeroneia
Chaeroneia, Battle Of, 338 B.c. This Is Of Great Historical Importance As The Victory By Which Philip (q.v.) Defi Nitely Established The Macedonian Supremacy In Greece. In Mili Tary History, However, Too Little Is Known Of Its Details To Give It Marked Significance. Philip's Path Into Boeotia Was Barred By ...

Battles In Champagne
Champagne, Battles In. This Was The Name Com Monly If Vaguely Given To A Number Of Long Drawn-out Offensives On The Western Front In The World War. Among The Principal Ones The First Was The French Attack East Of Reims On Sept. 25, 1915, An Outline Of Which Will Be ...

Belgium
Belgium. Brussels, Soc. China. De Belg.; Bulgaria. Sofia, Chem. Gesell. Italy. Milan, Soc. Di Chim. Indust. (1919), Giornale D. Chim. Indus. Ed. Applic. (monthly) ; Bollet. Assoc. Ital. Chim. Tessili E Col. (1925, Monthly) . Rome, Assoc. I Tal. Di Chim. Gen. Ed. Applic. (1919) , Gaz. Claim. Ital, Giornale ...

Benvenuto Cellini
Cellini, Benvenuto (150o-1571), Italian Artist, Metal Worker And Sculptor, Born In Florence On Nov. 1, 15oo. His Father Was A Musician And Artificer Of Musical Instruments, Who Married Maria Lisabetta Granacci, And 18 Years Elapsed Before They Had Any Children. Benvenuto (meaning "welcome") Was The Third Child. The Father Destined ...

Birth Of Modern Chemistry
Birth Of Modern Chemistry Boyle.—a New Era Began With Robert Boyle. In Early Life, A Member Of The "invisible College" (the Germ From Which The Royal Society Sprang), He Was Drawn In 1654 To Oxford Where Several Of The Members Were In Residence. Here He Spent His Most Active Years ...

Bonaventura Cavalieri
Cavalieri, Bonaventura Italian Mathematician, Was Born At Milan; His Name Also Occurs In The Forms Cavallieri, Cavaglieri, Cavalerius, And De Cavalerris. He Became A Jesuit At An Early Age And Later Was Inspired To Study Mathematics By Reading A Copy Of Euclid. On The Recommenda Tion Of His Order He ...

Burlington And Quincy Rail
Chicago, Burlington And Quincy Rail Road Company, Incorporated On Feb. 12, 1849, Under The Laws Of Illinois As The Aurora Branch Railroad, Changed Its Title In 1852 To Chicago And Aurora Railroad, And Adopted Its Present Cor Porate Name On Feb. 14, 1855. The Company, Since Then, Has Ac Quired ...

Camillo Benso Cavour
Cavour, Camillo Benso, Count (1810-1861), Ital Ian Statesman, Was Born At Turin On Aug. 1, 181o. Being A Younger Son (his Brother Gustavo Was The Eldest) Cavour Was Destined For The Army, And Became An Engineer Officer. He Soon Developed Strongly Marked Liberal Tendencies And An Uncom Promising Dislike For ...

Campaign In The Caucasus
Caucasus, Campaign In The. Though Both Rus Sian And Turk Spoke Of A "caucasus Front" And Gave To Their Armies Engaged On This Front The Designation "caucasian," In The World War, The Operations Actually Took Place At A Considerable Distance From The Caucasus. ...

Carlo Cattaneo
Cattaneo, Carlo (1801-1869), Italian Philosopher And Republican, Was The Founder Of The Review Il Politecnico. He Was The Heart And Soul Of The Five Days Of Milan (march 18-22, 1848), And Bitterly Opposed The Hegemony Of Piedmont In Italy. On The Return Of The Austrians He Fled To Lugano, And ...

Carrie Chapman Gatt
Gatt, Carrie Chapman ), American Suffragist Leader, Was Born At Ripon, Wis., On Jan. 9, 1859. She Was Educated At The State College Of Iowa And Took A Special Course In Law. She Then Became The High School And General Super Intendent Of Schools At Mason City, Iowa. In 1890 ...

Castle Donington
Castle Donington, A Town Of North Leicestershire. England, 11 M. S.w. Of Nottingham On The L.m.s.r. Pop. Rural Dist. (1931) 6,491. It Lies On The Flank Of The Hills Overlooking The Trent And Soar Valleys. There Are Slight Remains Of The Castle. The Church Of St. Luke Is A Fine ...

Castle Douglas
Castle Douglas, Burgh Of Barony, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland. Pop. (1931) 3,008. It Is Situated On Carlingwark Loch, 19j M. S.w. Of Dumfries By The L.m.s.r. Its Auction Marts For Sheep And Cattle Sales Are The Largest In The South-west Of Scotland. The Leading Industries Include The Making Of Agri Cultural Implements ...

Castle Guard
Castle-guard, An Arrangement Under The Feudal Sys Tem, By Which The Duty Of Finding Knights To Guard Royal Castles Was Imposed On Certain Baronies, And Divided Among Their Knights' Fees. The Greater Barons Provided For The Guard Of Their Castles By Exacting A Similar Duty From Their Knights. In Both ...

Castle Pinckney National Monument
Castle Pinckney National Monument, A Tract Of 31 Ac. In South Carolina, U.s.a., Set Apart In 1924 As A Government Reservation. It Is The Site Of A Fort Which Was Erected In 1810 And Had Previously Been Occupied By A Revolutionary Fort. Castle Pinkney Is Administered By The War Department. ...

Castle Rising
Castle Rising, A Village Of Norfolk, England, 4 M. N.e. Of King's Lynn. Pop. Of Parish (1921) 236. The Norman Castle For Which It Is Famous Stands On Slightly Elevated Ground Over Looking, To The West, The Low Marshy Coast Of The Wash. Its Site Is Enclosed By Artificial Ramparts ...

Castle
Castle, A Small Self-contained Fortress, Usually Of The Middle Ages, Though The Term Is Sometimes Used Of Prehistoric Earth Works (e.g., Hollingbury Castle, Maiden Castle), And Sometimes Of Citadels (e.g., The Castles Of Badajoz And Burgos) And Small De Tached Forts D'arret In Modern Times. It Is Also Often Applied ...

Castlebar
Castlebar, Urban District And County Town Of Co. Mayo, Ireland, On The River And Near The Lough Of Same Name. Pop. (1926) 4,256. The Castle Belonged To The De Burgh Family But The Town Was Founded In The Reign Of James I. And Received A Charter In 1613. In 1641 ...

Castleconnell
Castleconnell, A Village Of Co. Limerick, Ireland, On The Left Bank Of The Shannon, 18 M. S.e. Of Limerick On The Great Southern Railway. There Are Remains Of A Castle From Which The Town Took Its Name, Which Was The Seat Of The Kings Of Thomond. It Was Destroyed In ...

Castleford
Castleford, An Urban District In The West Riding Of Yorkshire, England, On The River Aire Near Its Junction With The Calder, 9 M. S.e. Of Leeds, On The L.n.e. And L.m.s. Railways. Pop (1931) 21,781. Large Glass-bottle And Earthenware-jar Works, Chemical Works, And Neighbouring Collieries Employ The Inhabitants. ...

Castlegate
Castlegate, A Town In Carbon County, Utah ; Elevation 6,12of T. Above Sea-level; Population (1930) 923. The Name "castlegate" Was Taken From That Of The Peculiar Gate-like Passage In The Canyon Of Price River 2m. Above The Town. Here Project Ing Pinnacles Of Grey Sandstone, 450 To 5oof T. High, ...

Castlemaine
Castlemaine, A Town Of Talbot County, Victoria, Aus Tralia. Pop. C. 6,5oo. Castlemaine's Gold-mines Were Among The First Discovered In The Colony. Slate And Flagstone Are Quarried In The District, Which Is Also An Important Wine And Fruit-pro Ducing Area. ...

Castleton
Castleton, A Village Of North Derbyshire, England, Dom. N.e. Of Buxton. Pop. Of Parish (1921) 646. Lying At An Elevation Of About 600ft., It Is Surrounded On The North, West And South By Steep Hills Rising To A Height Of From 1,400 To D,7ooft. Above Sea-level. The District Is Celebrated ...

Castletown
Castletown, A Town Of The Isle Of Man (manx. Bully Cashtel), '0 M. S.w. Of Douglas, By The Isle Of Man Railway. Pop. (1921) 1,898. It Lies On Both Sides Of A Small Harbour Formed By The Outflow Of The Silver Burn Into Castletown Bay. It Was The Legal Capital ...

Castor And Pollux
Castor And Pollux, In Greek And Roman Mythology The Twin Sons Of Leda, And Brothers Of Helen And Clytaemnestra. They Were Also Known As Dioscuri (gr. "lads Of Zeus"), For, According To Later Tradition, They Were The Children Of Zeus And Leda, Whose Love The God Had Won Under The ...

Castor Oil
Castor Oil, The Fixed Oil Obtained From The Seeds Of The Castor Oil Plant Or Palma Christi, Ricinus Communis, Family Euphorbiaceae. The Plant Is A Native Of Tropical Africa, But Is Cultivated In Most Tropical And Warmer Temperate Countries. Be Sides Oil The Seeds Contain A Powerful Toxic Substance (ricin) ...

Castoreum
Castoreum, An Oily Viscid Gland Secretion Contained In Two Pairs Of Membranous Sacs Between The Anus And External Genitals Of Both The Male And The Female Russian And American Beaver ; Known Also As Beaver Musk. After Drying, It Comes Into Commerce As More Or Less Solid Masses, Of Brown ...

Castrato
Castrato, An Adult Male Soprano Who Has Been Operated On In His Youth To Prevent His Voice From Changing In The Ordinary Way To The Normal Masculine Pitch. In Former Days Such Singers Were Very Numerous And Included Some Of The Most Famous In The Whole History Of The Art, ...

Castres
Castres, A Town Of South-western France, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Tarn, 29 M. S.s.e. Of Albi. Pop. (1931) 21,862. The Busiest Town Of Its Department, It Has Been A Cloth-working Centre Since The 14th Century. It Lies On Both Banks Of The Agout, Which Is Fringed ...

Castro Urdiales
Castro Urdiales, A Port Of Northern Spain, Province Of Santander, On The Bay Of Biscay And Terminus Of A Branch Rail Way Connected With The Bilbao-santander Line. Pop. (193o) 12,418. Castro Urdiales Is A Modern Town, Although Its Castle And Parish Church, On The Rocky Peninsula Which Protects The Tiny ...

Castrogiovanni
Castrogiovanni, A Town And Episcopal See (arab., Kasr-yani, Corruption Of Castrum Ennae), In The Province Of Cal Tanisetta, Sicily, 95m. By Rail S.e. Of Palermo, And 56m. W. Of Catania. It Is Situated 2,6o5ft. Above Sea-level In A Strong Strategic Position, Almost In The Centre Of The Island, Commanding A ...

Castruccio Castracani Degli Antelmi
Castruccio Castracani Degli Antelmi Nelli (1281-1328), Duke Of Lucca, Born March 29, 1281, At Castruccio, Near Lucca, Was A Noted Condottiere And Ghibelline. He Served Under Philip Iv. Of France In Flanders, Then With The Visconti In Lombardy, And In 1313 With Uguccione Della Fag Giuola, Lord Of Pisa, In ...

Castrum Minervae
Castrum Minervae, An Ancient Town Of The Sallentini In Calabria, Dom. S. Of Hydruntum (mod. Otranto), With An Ancient Temple Of Minerva, Said To Have Been Founded By Idome Neus, Who Formed The Tribe Of The Sallentini From A Mixture Of Cretans, Illyrians And Italian Locrians. It Is Also Said ...

Casual Labour
Casual Labour, A Term Frequently Used To Describe The Discontinuous And Irregular Employment Which At Certain Times Of The Year Is Experienced In Trades Such As Building, And In This Somewhat Loose Sense Of The Term, Casual Labour Is To Be Found In Nearly Every Trade In Proportions Which Vary ...

Casual Ward
Casual Ward. The Casual Ward Is A Part Of The British Method Of Dealing With Vagrancy. Under The Poor Law As Re Formed In 1834 The Primary Duty Of Boards Of Guardians Was To Relieve Destitute Persons Within Their Districts. Gradually, How Ever, It Was Extended To The Administering Of ...

Casualties
Casualties, In Military Use, The Losses Of A Force In War By Death, Wounds, Sickness, Desertion Or Any Other Cause (from Lat. Casus, That Which Falls Out). The Duty Of Dealing With All Casualties From Wounds Or Sickness Falls To The Medical Services, The Person Nel Of Which Treats Each ...

Casuarina
Casuarina, A Genus Of Odd Trees Containing About 35 Species, Chiefly Australian, But A Few Indo-malayan. The Long Whip-like Green Branches Are Longitudinally Grooved, And Bear At The Nodes Whorls Of Small Scale-leaves, The Shoots Resembling Those Of Equisetum (horse-tail). The Flowers Are Unisexual. The Staminate Are Borne In Spikes, ...

Casuistry
Casuistry, The Art Of Bringing General Moral Principles To Bear On Particular Actions. It Is, In Short, Applied Morality; Anybody Is A Casuist Who Reflects About His Duties And Tries To Bring Them Into Line With Some Intelligible Moral Standard. But Morality At Different Times Has Worn Very Different Dresses. ...

Casus Belli
Casus Belli, An Act Or Omission Which, If Not Rectified, May Justly Be Remedied By War. Interference With The Full Ex Ercise Of A Nation's Rights Or Independence, An Affront To Its Dig Nity, An Unredressed Injury, Are Instances Of Cases Belli. (see Arbitration.) ...

Cat
Cat, The Name Of The Well-known Domesticated Animal Felis Domestica, But In A Wider Sense Employed To Denote All The More Typical Members Of The Family Felidae. The Word "cat" Is Also Applied To Other Objects, In All Cases An Application Of The Name Of The Animal. In Mediaeval Siegecraft ...

Catabolism
Catabolism, The Name Applied In Biology To The Process Of Breaking Down Organic Tissues, In Contradistinction To Anabolism (q.v.), The Process Of Building Them Up. Catabolism And An Abolism Are Collectively Called Metabolism (q.v.). (see Life.) ...

Cataclysm
Cataclysm, A Great Flood (gr. Ka A Deluge). In Geology An Overwhelming Catastrophe Producing Sudden Changes In The Earth's Surface; Figuratively, Any Violent Change That Sweeps Away The Existing Social Or Political Order. ...

Catacombs
Catacombs. Tombs Hewn In Solid Rock Were Used By The Etruscans As Independent Family Burial Places, Grouped Together. They Often Rise In The Hillside By Tiers Or Are On The Same Level Branching Off Into Streets And Alleys. Their Plan Is For The Most Part That Of A House And ...

Catafalque
Catafalque, A Word Of Unknown Origin, Occurring In Various Forms In Many European Languages, Meaning A Funeral Scaffold Or Temporary Stage; A Movable Structure Of Wood, Some Times Richly Decorated, Erected Temporarily At Funeral Ceremonies In A Church To Receive The Coffin Or Effigy Of The Deceased; Also An Open ...

Catalan
Catalan. It Is Generally Assumed That Catalan Was Im Ported From Roussillon Into Spain During Carolingian Times; The Contrary View Has, However, Been Put Forward, Namely That Cat Alan Originally Developed In Spain And Was Introduced Into Cer Dagne And Roussillon By Catalan Immigration. Whatever The Truth May Be, Philologically ...

Catalepsy
Catalepsy, A Term Applied To A Nervous Affection Char Acterized By Sudden Suspension Of Sensation And Volition, And Rigidity Of The Whole Or Of Certain Muscles Of The Body. The Subjects Are Mostly Females Of Highly Nervous Temperament. The Exciting Cause Of An Attack Is Usually Mental Emotion, Either Sudden, ...

Catalogue
Catalogue, A List Or Enumeration, Generally In Alphabeti Cal Order, Of Persons, Things, Etc., And Particularly Of The Contents Of A Museum Or Library. A Catalogue Raisonnee Is Such A List Classi Fied According To Subjects Or On Some Other Basis, With Short Explanations And Notes. (see Also Bibliography And ...

Catalogues And Price Lists
Catalogues And Price Lists. The Preparation And Distribution Of Catalogues And Price Lists Has Become An In Dustry Of Enormous Dimensions, The Cost Of Printing And Publish Ing Amounting To Millions Of Pounds Per Annum In Britain Alone, While The Expenditure Of This Sort In America Is Probably Not Less ...

Catalonia
Catalonia (cataluna), An Autonomous Region, And For Merly A Province Of Spain, Formerly Also A Principality Of Aragon; Bounded On The North By The Pyrenees, West By Aragon, South By Valencia, And East By The Mediterranean Sea. Pop. (1932) Esti Mated 3,000,000; Area, 12,000 Sq. Miles. The Triangular Territory Of ...

Catalpa
Catalpa, A Genus Of Trees Belonging To The Family Bignoni Aceae And Containing About 1 O Species In North America, The West Indies And China. The Best Known Is The Common Catalpa (c. Bignonioides), Native To The South-eastern United States, Which Is Often Cultivated In Parks And Gardens, Both In ...

Catalysis
Catalysis. The Term Catalytic Agent Was Introduced By J. J. Berzelius Into Chemistry To Include Those Substances Which By Their Presence Accelerate The Rate Of Reactions Proceed Ing With A Decrease In Free Energy Towards Equilibrium. In Gen Eral, The Catalyst Provides An Alternative Path For The Reaction; Thus The ...

Catamarca
Catamarca, An Andean Province Of The Argentine Re Public, Lying Between 26° And 3o° S. Lat. And 65° And 69° 3o' W. Longitude. It Is Bounded On The North By The Territory Los Andes And The Province Of Salta, East By The Provinces Of Tucuman And Santiago Del Estero, South ...

Catamarca_2
Catamarca (san Fernando De Catamarca), Capital Of Province Of Same Name On Rio Del Valle De Catamarca, Argentina, 230 M. (318 Ni. By Rail) N.n.w. Of Cordoba. Pop. (1914) 13,262, With A Large Percentage Of Mestizos. Catamarca Is Connected By Railways With Rioja And Patquia And With Cordoba. The City ...

Catania
Catania, A City And Episcopal See Of Sicily, The Chief Town Of The Province Of Catania, On The East Coast, S9 M. By Rail S. Of Messina, And 151 M. By Rail S.e. Of Palermo (102 M. Direct) . Pop. (1931), 222,503 (town), 227,765 (commune). The Cathedral Of S. Agatha, ...

Catanzaro
Catanzaro, A Town And Episcopal See Of Calabria, Italy, Capital Of The Province Of Catanzaro, 1,125ft. Above Sea-level. Pop. (1930 26,976 (town) ; 41,888 (commune). The Station For The Town (catanzaro Sala) Is On A Branch Connecting The Two Main Lines Along The East And West Coasts Of Calabria, 6m. ...

Cataphyll
Cataphyll, A Botanical Term For The Early Leaf-forms Pro Duced In The Lower Part Of A Shoot, Such As Bud-scales, Or Scales On Underground Stems. ...

Catapult
Catapult, A Generic Name For Warlike Engines Of The Cross Bow Type Used By The Ancients (lat. Catapulta, Gr. Kara/tarns). (see Engines Of War.) They Are Usually Classed As (a) Catapults And (b) Ballistae (xtoof36xoe) . The Former Were Smaller And Were Used With Arrows For What Is Now Called ...

Cataract
Cataract, A Waterfall (gr. Karappakrfls, A Floodgate, Or Waterfall, Something Which Rushes Down). The Earliest Use In Eng Lish Is Of A Floodgate Or Portcullis, And This Survives In The Name Of A Disease Of The Eye (see Eye, Diseases Of ; Ophthalmology) . The Term Is Also Used Of ...

Catargiu
Catargiu (or Catargi), Lascar (1823-1899), Ru Manian Statesman, Belonged To An Ancient Walachian Family, One Of Whose Members Had Been Banished In The 17th Century By Prince Matthew Bassaraba And Had Settled In Moldavia. Under Prince Gregory Ghica (1849-56) Catargiu Rose To Be Prefect Of Police At Jassy. In 18s7 ...

Catarrh
Catarrh, A Term Chiefly Signifying Mild Inflammation Of The Mucous Membrance Of The Respiratory Passages, In Popular Language A "cold." It Is The Result Of Infection By A Micro Organism Esp. M. Catarrlialis, And Begins With Sneezing And Pro Fuse Watery Discharge From The Nostrils And Eyes While Smell And ...

Catarrhine Ape
Catarrhine Ape, The Term Used (in Contradistinction To Platyrrhine, Q.v.) To Describe Those Apes Which Have The Nostrils Approximated; The Aperture Pointing Downward; And The Inter Vening Septum Narrow. These Are The Distinguishing Features Of All The Old World Primates. (see Primates.) ...

Catastrophe
Catastrophe. In Ancient Greek Drama The Change In The Plot Which Leads Up To The Conclusion (gr. Karavrp€/slv, To Overturn). Hence Any Sudden Change, Particularly Of A Dis Astrous Nature, And In Geology A Great Convulsion Of The Earth's Surface. ...

Catauxi
Catauxi, A Numerous Cannibal Tribe Of South American Indians Of The Purus River District, Brazil. They Cultivate Manioc And Make Pottery And Bark Canoes. ...

Catawba
Catawba, The Principal Tribe Of The Eastern Division Of The Siouan Stock Of American Indians; Habitat, South Carolina. They Were Friendly To British And Americans, Long At War With The Iroquois. The Population In The 17th Century Was About 5,000; In 1780 About 500; 1907, 6o. ...

Catawba_2
Catawba, An Amber Coloured, Richly Flavoured Wine Made From The Light-red Grape Of The Same Name. The Grape Is A Variety Of The Vitis Labrusca, A North American And Asiatic Species, And Takes Its Name From The Catawba River In North And South Carolina. In 1807 The Grape Was Grown ...

Catbalogan
Catbalogan, A Municipality (with Administration Centre And 15 Barrios Or Districts) And Capital Of The Province And Island Of Samar, Philippine Islands. Pop. (1918) 13,544, Of Whom Only 10 Were Whites. It Lies Midway Between The Ports Of Manila And Zamboanga And Is One Of The Most Important Commercial Centres ...

Catbird
Catbird (dametella Carolinensis), A North American Bird Of The Family Troglodytidae, About 9 In. Long, A Summer Visitor From The Gulf Of Mexico, North To New Brunswick And Hudson Bay. Its Plumage Is Slate-gray, With A Black Cap And Tail And Chestnut Under Tail-coverts. It Is Noted For Its Beautiful ...

Catboat
Catboat, A Small Sailing-boat Of The Pleasure Variety, Having The Mast Stepped Forward And Carrying A Single Fore-and-aft Main Sail Set On A Boom And Gaff, Known As A Cat Rig. These Boats Are Also Known As Una Boats, And Frequently Carry A Centre-board (q.v.). ...

Catch Crops
Catch-crops. The Natural Successor To The Wasteful Fallow Of The More Primitive Farmer Is The Catch-crop Of To-day. Its Only Alternative, If The Ground Is To Be Continuously Used, Is The System Of Continuous Cropping; And Though Here And There This Has Been Tried With Some Success, Even With Wheat, ...