This is the fundamental principle in the de sign of an elevation. Having then this start for the elevation, carry out the same principle in the windows, either grouping them and keeping them low, for the design B; or else use single windows with a pier or wall space between. Very often, if the ceilings are high enough, windows may have a transom bar and transom, thereby increasing the height. In the treatment around the windows, for B, we shall use merely a cap of some kind with no vertical lines; while for A we shall make use of an outside trim: with a cap.
In all our designs, it has been attempted to emphasize either the vertical lines or the hori zontal lines. This is but one—the most impor tant one, however—of the points to consider as to the general character of the elevation. The purpose of the elevation is to give an effect that will be pleasing to the eye, and at the same time fulfil the requirements of the plan as to the ar rangement of windows and story heights; and very often it will make the property more valu able. For, consider two residences offered for sale at the same price, with the same surround ings. One has been built with no idea as to design or relation to the surrounding buildings; the other has been treated to correspond with the existing conditions, has been made attractive by the arrangement and style of windows, and the cornice has been designed to give a certain ef fect to the other parts of the design. There is no question which would be the best investment. Work, then, with this end in view, as if it were your own builidng, and you wanted it to be the very best for the money.
In drawing the elevations, usually each side of the house is shown on the drawings. The front elevation is made the most complete. The owner wants to see how his building will look when completed; therefore show the materials. If the walls are shingled, indicate by lines that there are to be shingles—not by covering the entire front with perfectly regular, mechanical lines representing the shingles, but with patches here and there over the entire front. Indicate by ar rows and lines, similar to dimension lines, where the shingles are to be used. Indicate the brick of the foundation above grade the same way. Show the type of windows you expect to use; show the correct profile or outline of the cornice; the general design of the front door and the porch and steps; indicate the glass in the door, whether double strength, plate, or beveled-plate glass. In short, make this front elevation com
plete, so that an owner can see just the materials used, where used, and just how the building will look from the front. Very often the stairs are dotted on this elevation to show just how they go up to the next floor above; but this is not to be recommended, as it detracts from the general ap pearance of the elevation, and there are other and better methods of indicating stairs, as ex plained later.
Very often there will be a small section of the house on the same sheet with the front elevation.
This is used to give the heights of the floor-lines, the window lines, and the cornice lines, and not for showing of details. This is not objectionable, as the section is a separate drawing entirely from the elevation, and will give a means of showing the above data without marking them directly on the elevation.
Too much emphasis cannot be laid upon the method of finishing the front elevation. A little time and careful work spent on this drawing will very often confirm a favorable impression on the owner. The style of letter used and the arrange ment on the sheet should all tend to make the drawing attractive.
As a final touch, it will be found very desir able, after the elevation is complete, to outline the building with a heavy line, thus emphasizing the general outline of the building, while the other lines are all uniform but lighter (see Fig. 12).
The side and rear elevations should also be complete in that they should show the exact ma terials used and the exact size and spacing of the openings; but they need not be so carefully drawn nor so carefully lettered as the front ele vation, since they are more or less a secondary consideration.
The location of openings should be studied with the idea of the general effect on the eleva tion, as well as on the necessary arrangement for the rooms. In other words, do not locate all open ings on the plans definitely without studying the elevations also. Be sure that the openings are correctly located on the elevations so that the plans and elevations will agree, and not merely put on the elevations where they look the best without any reference to the plans.