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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 1

Anchor
Anchor, A Heavy Instrument Of Iron, In Tended To Be Dropped From A Ship To The Sea Bottom, To Hold Her In A Desired Position. It Usually Consists Of A Shank, Having At One End A Ring, To Which The Cable Is Fastened With A Cross-piece Or Stock, And At ...

Ancon
Ancon, In-lcae, A Peruvian Coast Town, Of Special Interest To Archaeologists As The Site Of An Ancient Necropolis. It Is Now A Seaside Resort 30 Miles By Rail Northwest Of Callao And Has Been The Scene Of Several Important His Torical Events. Its Anchorage Was Used By Lord Cochrane In ...

Ancona
Ancona, The. Italian Liner, Sunk In The Mediterranean On 7 Nov. 1915 By A Flying The Austrian Flag. Bound From Naples For New York, The Ancona Was One Day Out From Messina When She Was Torpedoed Off The Coast Of Tunis With Over 400 Passengers On Board And A Crew ...

And Distribution In The
And Distribution In The United States. The Vast Majority Of American Farmers Are Engaged In Growing The Great Staple Crops Such As Corn, Wheat, Cotton, Oats, Barley, Potatoes, Hay And Tobacco, Besides Such Products Of Animal Industry As Milk, Beef, Mut Ton And Wool. The Problem Of Distributing These Products ...

Andalusia
Andalusia, An'cli-186'zi-a, Spain (span Ish, Andalucia), A District In The Southern Part Of The Country, Celebrated For Its Fertility And Picturesque Beauty; Bounded North By Estre Madura And New Castile, Cast By Murcia, South By The Mediterranean Sea, And West By Portu Gal And The Atlantic. Length East And West ...

Andamans
Andamans, An'da-manz, A Chain Of Vol ;anic Islands In The Bay Of Bengal, 590 Miles :rom The Mouth Of The Hugli, 120 Miles From :ape Negrais In Burma, The Nearest Point On He Mainland. Five Large Islands Closely Together Are Called The Great Anda Nan, And To The South Is ...

Andenne
Andenne, Belgium, A Small Manufac Turing Town On The Southern Bank Of The Meuse, Eastward Of Namur And West Of Huy, With A Population Of Nearly 9,000 Inhabitants, Chiefly Engaged In Paper-making, Faience And Pottery Work. For Many Centuries, Down To 1785, A Female Religious Community Belonging To One Of ...

Andersen
Andersen, Hans Christian, A Danish Novelist, Poet And Writer Of Fairy Tales: B. In Odense, 2 April 1805; D. Copen Hagen, 4 Aug. 1875. He Learned To Read And Write In A Charity School, Whence He Was Taken When Only Nine Years Old, And Was Put To Work In A ...

Anderson
Anderson, Rasmus Bjorn, American Author, Editor And Diplomat: B. Albion, Wis., 12 Jan. 1846. His Parents Were Among The First Emigrants From Norway To America, Coming In 1836. Rasmus Bjorn Was Graduated With The First Class From Luther College, Decorah, Iowa, In 1866. From 1866 To 1869 He Was Professor ...

Anderson_2
Anderson, William Franklin, Ameri Can Eler An : B. W. Va. 22 April 1860. He Studied At West Virginia Tlni Ersity, Graduated From Ohio Wesleyan Uni Versity, 1884; Drew Theological Seminary, 1887; A.m. New York University 1898. He En Tered The Ministry Of The Methodist Episcopal Joining He New York ...

Andersonville
Andersonville, Ga., A Village Of Sumter County, 62 Miles Southwest Of Macon, Noted As The Seat, During The Civil War, Of A Military Prison Of The Confederate States. This Prison Was Established In November 1863, And Consisted Of An Unsheltered Enclosure Contain Ing At First 22 Acres, An Area Subsequently ...

Andes
Andes, Wei, The Great Mountain Mass, Or, As Humboldt Called It, ((the Largest Mountain Chain Of The Extending Along The Entire Western Coast Of South America And Turning Toward The East In The Regions Between The Equator And Lat. N. Prolongations Of The Chain Still Farther Eastward And, On The ...

Andorra
Andorra, In-doer-a, A Small Republic In The Eastern Pyrenees Between Ariege, A Depart Ment Of France, And Lerida, A Province Of Spain. It Is About 80 Miles West From The Mediterranean Coast And 100 Miles North Of Barcelona. Its Area Is 175 Square Miles And The Population 5,231. It Is ...

Andover Theological Semi Nary
Andover Theological Semi Nary, Cambridge, Mass., The Oldest Theolog Ical Institution In New England, Founded Ix 1807 And Opened For Instruction The Following Year, At Andover, Mass. The Original Founders Were Samuel Abbot, Mme. Phoebe Phillips And Her Son John P. Of Andover. The Asso Ciate Founders Were William Bartlet ...

Andrassy
Andrassy, Julius, Count, 2d Son Of The Preceding; Hungarian Statesman: B. 30 June 1860. As A Young Man He Was Attaché To The Austro-hungarian Embassies In Berlin And Constantinople, Became "resident Officer° In A Hussar Regiment And Elected To The Hun Garian Reichstag In 1884. He Was Nominated Under-secretary In ...

Andre
Andre, John, British Soldier: B. London, Of Swiss-french Parentage, 1751; Executed At Tappan, N. Y., 2 Oct. 1780. His Fate Is Peculiar; Failure Has Given Him A Monument In Westmins Ter Abbey From His Own Side, And Undying Ro Mantic Pity From The Other; Where Success Would Have Loaded Him ...

Andrea Chenier
Andrea Chenier, An Opera In Four Acts By Umberto Giordano; Libretto By Luigi Illica; First Performance, Milan, 28 March 18%; In New York, 13 Nov. 1896. The Scene Is Laid In Paris During The French Revolution, And The Story Is Woven Around A Real Person, A Poet And Patriot Named ...

Andrea Del Sarto
Andrea Del Sarto, One Of Brown Ing's Most Famous Drinatic Monologues, Is Founded Upon The Life Of The Italian Painter As Given In Vasari's 'lives,' And Is An Attempt To Explain The Meaning Of The Portrait That Del Sarto Painted Of Himself And His Wife, Lucrezia, Which Now Hangs In ...

Andrew
Andrew, John Albion, American States Man, The °war Governor° Of Massachusetts: B. Windham Me., 31 May 1818; D. Boston, 30 Oct. 1867. He Was Graduated From Bowdoin College In 1837, And Practised Law In Boston 1840-61. He Was An Earnest Anti-slavery Advo Cate And Defended The Fugitive Slaves Shadrach, Burns, ...

Andreyev
Andreyev, Leonid Nikolae Vich, Russian Writer: B. Orel 1871. After Studying Law At The Universities Of Moscow And St. Petersburg He Found Himself Temperament Ally Unsuited For The Task Of Making A Living, Which So Depressed Him That He Attempted Suicide When Only 23 Years Of Age. He Finally Found ...

Andronicus I
Andronicus I, An'dro-ni-cfis (com Nenus), Byzantine Emperor: B. 1110; D. 12 Sept. 1185. In His Youth He Served Against The Turks, In 1141 Was For Some Time A Prisoner And Was Afterward Appointed To A Military Com Mand In Cilicia, But Was Unsuccessful. Engag Ing In A Treascinable Correspondence With ...

Andropogon
Andropogon, An'dru-p&gon, A Genus Of About 200 Species Of Grasses Of Very Diverse Utility, Distributed Widely, Especially Over Dry Plains Throughout The Temperate And Tropical Zones. The Species Are Usually Characterized By Long, Narrow Leaves; Terminal And Axillary Spikes; Sessile Perfect Spikelets Paired With Ped Icelled Staminate, Empty Ones Or ...

Anemometer
Anemometer, An-e-mom'e-ter, An In Strument For Measuring The Velocity Of Moving Air Or Other Gaseous Substance. It Is Almost Always Combined With A Recording Device And Thus Becomes Strictly Speaking An Anemograph, Though It Is Popularly Known By The Former Name. The Instruments In Use As Anemometers Are Of Five ...

Aneurism
Aneurism, A Circumscribed Tumor Of An Artery Composed Of A Sac, The Cavity Of Which Communicates With The Artery And Contains Liquid Or Coagulated Blood. So-called Itrue" Aneurisms Are Everywhere Composed Of All Of The Coats Of The Artery, And Are Rare And Always Small. Aneurisms Are Usually Of The ...

Angelico
Angelico, Fra, On-ja! Le-co, Florentine Painter: B. Vicchio, In The Province Of Mugello, 1387; D. Rome 1455. Il Beato Fra Giovanni Angelico Da Fiesole Is The Name Given To This Celebrated Painter-friar. In English It Runs— The Beatified Friar John The Angelic Of Fiesole. His Real Name Was Guido, But ...

Angle
Angle, Strictly, The Degree Of Inclination To One Another Of Two Lines Which Meet, Or Of Two Or More Surfaces Which Meet. The Same Term Is Incorrectly Used For The Point In Which Lines Meet, And For The Line In Which Two Sur Faces Meet, But Such Point Or Such ...

Anglin
Anglin, Margaret Mary, American Actress: B. Ottawa, Ont., 3 April 1876. Her Father, The Hon. T. W. Anglin, Was Speaker Of The Canadian House Of Commons. She Was Educated At Loretto Abbey, Toronto, And At The Sacred Heart Convent, Montreal. In May 1911 She Married Howard Hull Of New York. ...

Angling
Angling, The Sport Of Fishing With Hook And Line. Some Authorities Have Insisted That A Rod Is An Essential Concomitant. There Is, However, On Record Of A Court Proceeding The Decision That A Rod Is Not Necessary To The Prac Tice Of Angling, But That The Personal Manipula Tion Of ...

Anglo Saxon
Anglo-saxon, The Name Given Kr Modern Historians To The Angles, Jutes Aat Saxons Who Migrated To Britain From In The 5th And 6th Centuries A.d. They Emi Grated From The Districts About The Mouths A The Elbe And Weser, And The First Body Of Then. Who Gained A Footing In ...

Angola Portuguese West Africa
Angola (portuguese West Africa), West Africa, A Portuguese Dependency On The Atlantic Coast. It Has A Coast-line Of Over 1,000 Miles, Is Bounded On The North And Northeast By The Belgian Kongo, On The East By British South Africa And On The South By German Southwest Africa. It Has An ...

Aniline
Aniline Is An Oily Organic Liquid Classi Fied As A Base. Its Formula Is C4i-15nh.. It Is Commonly Known As A Derivative Of Coal-tar, But That Substance Contains Only From I/.3 To Of 1 Per Cent Of Aniline, And The Difficulties Of Separating It Are So Formidable That It Is ...

Aniline Poisoning
Aniline Poisoning. The Use Of The Anilines, And Particularly Of The New Synthetic Drugs Derived From This Product, Has Become So Universal That Many Instances Of Poisoning, Both Acute And Chronic, Are Observed. In Acute Ani Line Poisoning The Chief Effects Are On The Blood. It Prevents The Oxidation Of ...

Animal
Animal. The Word "animal° Being De Rived From Anima, Breath, Soul, Suggests The Dis Tinction Popularly Accorded To Animals As Con Trasted With Plants. Linne Said That Plants Grow And Live, But That Animals Grow, Live, And Feel. As Will Be Seen Below, However, Animals Do Not Fundamentally And In ...

Animal Chemistry
Animal Chemistry, The Department Of Organic Chemistry Which Investigates The Composition Of The Fluids And The Solids Of Ani Mals, And The Chemical Action That Takes Place In Animal Bodies. There Are Four Elements, Sometimes Distinctively Named Organic Elements, Which Are Invariably Found In Living Bodies, Namely, Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen ...

Animal Experimentation
Animal Experimentation. A Method Of Studying Disease By The Use Of Lower Animals In Order To Alleviate Human Suffering. The Ancient Greeks Practised It, Even Primitive Tribes Learned Somewhat About Human Disease By Observing Lower Animals And Many Human Superstitions Had Their Origin From Such Obser Vations. Harvey's Celebrated Discoveries ...

Animal Heat
Animal Heat, Nearly All Animals Pos Sess A Heat-regulating Mechanism By Which They Maintain A Temperature Necessary For The Con Tinuance Of Life Processes. In Many Cold Blooded Animals This Sustains A Temperature Only Slightly Above That Of The Surrounding Media, And Thus In Winter They Relapse Into A Torpid ...

Animal Psychology
Animal Psychology. Definition. — That Portion Of The General Science Of Psy Chology Which Concerns Itself Especially With A Study Of Mind In Animals Other Than Man Is Generally Designated Either As Animal Psychol Ogy Or As Comparative Psychology. Obviously, It Would Be More Logical As Well As Scientifically More ...

Animal Worship
Animal Worship, A Practice Found To Prevail Or To Have Prevailed In The Most Widely Distant Parts Of The World: In India, Where It Is A Consequence Of The Belief In The Transmigra Tion Of Souls, According To Which The Soul Of A God May Pass Into The Body Of ...

Animals
Animals, Chemical Sense In. Almost All Animals Exhibit Specific Responses To Chemi Cal Stimulation. In Amoeba Proteus Food Particles Are Ingested By The Formation Of A Sort Of Invagination That Surrounds Them, Whereas This Is Not True Of Bits Of Inedible Material. I I Many Species Of Coelenterate We Find ...

Animals
Animals, Classification Of. Classifi Cation Is Simply Sorting Out — Arranging Differ Ent Things According To Their Likeness, Putting Them Into Groups. To These Groups Names Are Given For Convenience In Referring To Them, And Thus Arises The Terminology Of This Department Of Knowledge, Which Is The Technical Language Of ...

Ann Arbor
Ann Arbor, Mich., City And County-seat Of Washtenaw County, On The Huron Rivet And The Michigan Central, The Ann Arbor And Toledo Railroads And The Detroit United Rail Way. It Is Situated Among The Picturesque Hills Of Southern Michigan, 38 Miles From Detroi, And Is Regarded As One Of The ...

Anna Karenina
Anna Karenina. The World Has Come To Regard Tolstoi's Novel,
Annapolis
Annapolis, Md., The Capital And Port Of Entry Of Maryland And County-seat Of Anne Arundel County; On The Severn River, Two Miles From Chesapeake Bay, On The Maryland And The Annapolis, Baltimore And Washington Electric Railroads. It Is 26 Miles Southeast Of Baltimore And 30 Miles Northeast Of Washing Ton, ...

Annates
Annates, An(natz, A Certain Portion Of The Year's Fruits Or Revenues Paid To The Pope And His Court. The Term Properly Denotes The Sum Of Half A Year's Revenue Of A Vacant Bene Fice (q.v.) Payable By The New Incumbent To The Pope. It Was Also Used To Indicate The ...

Annealing
Annealing, A Process To Which Metals And Glass Are Subjected In Order To Increase Their Ductility, Or Lessen Their Liability To Frac Ture Under Sudden Stress. It Is Usually Effected By Heating The Substance To Be Annealed Until It Approaches Softness, And Then Allowing It To Cool Very Slowly. Copper, ...

Annenski
Annenski, Nikolai Feodarovich, I-nen'ske, Russian Publicist And Social Worker: B. 1843. He Spent His Childhood In Siberia, Where His Father Was Engaged In Military Serv Ice. He Took The Degree Of Bachelor Of Law At The University Of Saint Petersburg In 1867 And The Bachelor's Degree In History And Philology ...

Annexation
Annexation, Politically, The Formal In Corporation By A State With Itself Of Previously Under Another Government; Usual' Territory Contiguous To Itself Or Its Colonial Pee Sessions, Or An Insular Neighbor, But Only Be Cause Other Annexations Are Rarely Desired, Net From Any Principle Of International Law. Annexation May Be By ...

B C Powers
B. C. Powers," A Convenient And Popular Designation Applied To Argentina, Bra Zil, And Chile, The Three Strong Nations Of South America United To A Certain Extent By Treaty In 1915, After Having Been, In 1914, Associated Very Conspicuously And Honorably As Mediators Actively Concerned In Efforts To Arrange A ...

Coh I 0 Ceilcooh
Ch,.co.h -i- 0= Ceilcooh. Acetic Aldehyde Acetic Acid. Acetic Aldehyde Or Acetaldehyde.— When Not Qualified In Any Way The Term Aldehyde Is Understood To Mean Acetic Aldehyde, The Sub Stance Whose Formation From Ethyl Alcohol Has Just Been Described. It Is Found Among The Products Of The Dry Distillation Of ...

College Dramatics
College Dramatics). In Many Elementary Schools In Europe And The United States, His Tory, Geography And Language Are Being Taught Through The Dramatic Method; And In Nearly All Schools It Is Becoming The Custom To Early In Stil A Feeling For Literature And The Higher Morality By The Aid Of ...

Commission
Commission, A Joint International Commission Appointed In 1898 By The United States And Great Britain For The Negotiation Of A Plan For The Settlement Of All Controversial Matters Between The United States And Canada. The Subjects Submitted For The Consideration Of The Commission Were Offi Cially Determined As Follows: °the ...

Count Of Boll S
Albertus Magnus, Count Of Boll S Tadt, German Scholastic Philosopher: B. Lan Ingen, Suabia, 1206; D. Paris, 25 Nov. 1280. He Was Educated Principally At Padua, Where He Was Instructed In The Writings Of Aristotle. In 1223 He Joined The Dominican Order And Stud Ied Theology In The Houses Of ...

Dack Park
Dack Park. The Adirondacks Are One Of The Favorite Hunting-grounds Of America. Owing To The Stringent Legal Restrictions Limiting The Season For Killing Game, There Is An Abundance Of Deer, Rabbits, Partridge (grouse) And Water Fowl. Deer Are Hunted Chiefly By Stalking, The Use Of Dogs Being Prohibited. Black Bear ...

Esthetics
Esthetics (from Greek Akreaveceat, Ato Perceive°), Is The Science Of Beauty And Art.' It Can Be Treated From The Scientific Standpoint, In Which The Actual Qualities Of The Different Va Rieties Of Beauty And Art Are Investigated Em Pirically, Or From The Historical Standpoint, By The Exposition Of The Views ...

Gawis Theory Of Equations
Equations, Gawis' Theory Of.) It Was Shown To Be Impossible To Solve By Radicals Any General Equation Of Degree Above 4. Subse Quently Hermite Proved That The Roots Of The General Quintic Are Expressible In Terms Of Elliptic Functions. The Quadratic, Cubic And Quartic Are Solvable By Other Methods Than ...

Gina
&gina, A Greek Island About 15 Miles Southwest Of Athens, In The Gulf Of Legina (old Sinus Saronicus) ; Area, 32 Square Miles; Pop. About 7,000. It Is The Triangular Top Of A Partly Submerged Rocky Hill, With Deep Gorges And Ravines, And The Eastern Half Rocky And Unproductive; But ...

Grand Duke Alexis Nicolaievitch
Alexis Nicolaievitch, Grand Duke, Ex-heir Apparent (tsarevitch) To The Russian Throne: B. 30 July (n.s. 12 Aug.) 1904. The Birth Of A Son To The Tsar Caused Great Rejoicing In Russia; The Imperial Couple Had Four Daughters, And There Seemed Reason To Apprehend That The Throne Would Not Descend In ...

Ieolians
Ieolians Mixed Race), An Ancient Greek People, Perhaps The Very Earliest Greek Stock —a Mixture Of Hellenes And Pelasgi — Before The Special Races Like Ionians And Dorians Had Differentiated From It; As Their Language Was Not A Distinct Dialect Like Those, But Is A Mixture Of Elements From All ...